Skip to main content

Full text of "The Craven and North-west Yorkshire Highlands"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for general ions on library shelves before il was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

Il has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often diflicult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parlies, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the plus We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a b<x>k is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 

countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means il can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's hooks while helping authors ami publishers reach new audiences. You can search through I lie lull text of this book on I lie web 
at |http : //books . qooqle . com/| 





/. 



... V 



Thf Kiliuburgh. i'ir o^i.-.<[. rural LuihtuH* 




THE 

RAVE N 

AND 

NOETH-WEST TOBKSHIBE 

HIGHLANDS. 



BEING A COMPLETE ACCOUNT 
OP THE 

HISTOBY, SCENEEY, AND ANTIQUITIES 

OP THAT ROMANTIC DISTRICT. 



BY 

H. SPEIGHT, 

(JOHNNIE GRAY), 
Author of "Through Aibbdale from Goolk to Malham," ktc. 



ILLUSTRATED. 



LONDON : 
ELLIOT STOCK, 62, PATERN08TER ROW, E.C. 

1892. 

All Rights Reserved. 



V 



HARVARD C0LLE8E LIBRARY 

MAR 281917 

SUBSCRIPTION OF 1916 



Printed by 
g. f. sswell, 65, sunbbidge road, bradford, yorks. 







PBEFACE. 



|N Cox's Magna Britannia, published in 1731, the material for 
which, says the title page, was " collected and composed by 
an impartial Hand, 1 ' there is the following rather astonishing 
notice of our district. "A small part of this Hundred 
so-called [Craven] from the Cragginess of it, in the midst of which 
stands Skipton, a Market-Town, from thence called Skipton-in-Craven. 
The exact extent of it we nowhere find, though we meet with several 
Towns in it ; but since we observe that the Rise of the River Are is in 
Craven, and that the Earl of Albemarle's Lands in Craven were in 
length Five Miles, we conclude that this part of the County extended 
from the Bounds of the Wapentake of Claro to the village of Manlam, 
not far from Settle, and had a proportionable Breadth." Such was the 
curiously indefinite manner in which this " impartial hand " was 
constrained to improve the public mind on the topography of Craven 
little more than a century and a half ago ! A description of the least 
known parts of Africa or Siberia could hardly have been more vague. 

Still, if we except a few discursive references by some other early 
writers, this was practically the sum and extent of public knowledge on 
this romantic corner of Yorkshire until the Rev. Thomas Dunham 
Whitaker, LL.D., F.S.A., minister of the chapel of Holme, near Whalley, 
set about the preparation of a History of Craven at the close of the same 
(last) century. His investigations, which were purely genealogical and 
historical, resulted in a large and costly volume, which was completed 
and published in 1805, and is now in the 3rd edition. 

Meanwhile no separate and less expensive treatise upon this highly 
interesting area has appeared, beyond two or three small local guide 
books. That some such intermediate work, dealing not only with 
historical subjects, but with every aspect of the country, would be useful 



and acceptable has long seemed likely to the present writer. A long and 
close familiarity with the district, — the home of his ancestors for many 
centuries,— has therefore tempted him to produce a book, which will be 
found in great measure to supplement the writings of Whitaker, while 
at the same time an effort has been made to furnish in a chatty and 
entertaining manner, an account of everything of interest relating to the 
scenery, physical history, and antiquities of the area comprised. With 
respect to prehistoric remains, although much has been written about the 
cairns, barrows, earthworks, and cave-explorations in the district, yet 
the author is only too conscious how much remains to be done in this 
branch, and what investigations have yet to be made in order to arrive 
at the full historic value, as well as the consequent influences 
of the occupation of the country by Celt, Roman, Saxon, and 
Dane. 

So far as the scenic and physical aspects of the area are concerned, 
the author believes this to be the first time in any topographical work 
that an attempt has been made to deal with these and the civil and 
ecclesiastical history simultaneously, by tracing upwards the origin of a 
place, scientifically and historically, and recording as much as can be 
gathered about it, within reasonable limits. The natural phenomena of 
every important scene are explained as simply and concisely as possible, 
while a very complete notice of the numerous caverns and pot-holes, or 
ground-chasms, is given, as may be ascertained on turning to the index 
(under " Caves ") at the end of the volume. A more or less extended 
account has been given of the Craven and bordering parishes, while 
the histories of such places as Bentham, Ingleton, Horton-in-Ribblesdale, 
and Dent, which are but slightly touched on by Whitaker, have been 
dealt with at length. 

A reference to the Summary of Chapters, in conjunction with the 
Map, will show the topographical direction and method of the two 
divisions of the work. Commencing with Giggleswick and Settle, the 
first part includes all the country extending westwards by Clapham, 
Bentham, and Ingleton, to Kirkby Lonsdale ; the second part begins 
with Skipton, and traces the country northwards to Langstrothdale and 
Yore Head, and westwards to Dent and Sedbergh, concluding with the 
environs of Sedbergh southwards to Kirkby Lonsdale, where the first part 
terminates. The lower, and less romantic division of Craven, lying 
chiefly to the south of the Craven Fault, has not been taken up. 



It may be noted that the term Highlands, (which the writer is not 
aware has ever previously been used to describe the mountainous parts 
of Yorkshire), has been adopted in the title of the work, as it appears 
both suitably and briefly descriptive of the character of the country 
embraced, in contradistinction to the lower and less prominent parts of 
the Deanery of Craven, south of the great Fault, above mentioned. 

Almost every nook and corner of the district, it may again be observed, 
has been familiar to the author from his earliest years, yet in spite of this 
— a mere geographical acquaintance after all — very considerable research 
and enquiry have been involved in portraying and supplementing the 
historical associations of the places. So much so, indeed, that the author 
regrets exceedingly the impossibility of making here more than a general 
and grateful recognition of the valuable assistance which he has received 
from numerous residents in the dales, both rendered to him personally 
on the spot, and by material and facts furnished to him afterwards. 
During the actual writing of the book many hundreds of letters have 
been received, and there is scarcely a village or a hamlet in the area 
dealt with where he is not indebted to one or other of its inhabitants for 
information courteously supplied. On such occasions in the work where 
the opportunity has offered acknowledgment of this help has been made. 

For photographs and other views from which the engravings have 
been taken, as well as for the loan of several blocks, the author begs to 
express his indebtedness as follows : To Mr. A. Horner, Settle, for 
photographs of Gigglesvvick (p. 67), Catterick Force (p. 95), Settle from 
the West (p. 97), Entrance to the Victoria Cave (p. 120),Clapham(p. 145), 
Gaping Gill Hole (p. 159), Norber Boulder (p. 170), Otterburn (p. 308), 
Long Preston Church (p. 369), Penyghent froin Horton Station, (p. 391), 
and Ling Gill (p. 405) ; to Thomas Brayshaw, Esq., Settle^ for blocks 
of Settle in 1822 (p. 82), and Celtic Wall, near Smearside (p. 109) ; to 
Mr. E. Handby, Settle, for photograph of Giggleswick Scais (p. 101) ; 
to Robert D. Barnish, Esq., Blackburn, for photograph of Stainforth 
Force (p. 135) ; to the Rev. F. W. Joy, M.A., F.S.A., Bentham Rectory, 
for photographs of Bentham (p. 186) and Bentham Church Font (p. 193) ; 
to Bryan Charles Waller, Esq., Masongill, for photograph of Over Hall 
(p. 269) ; to Mr. R. L. Simpson, Kirkby Lonsdale, for photographs of 
Devil's Bridge (p. 274), the Lune in Flood at Devil's Bridge (p. 275), 
and Underley Hall (p. 289) ; to Mr. Lister, Malham, for photographs 
of Malham Tarn (p. 293), Skirethorns Cave (p. 319), and Bordley 



Hall (p. 322) ; to the Rev. C. J. Marsden, M.A., Gargrave Vicarage, 
for block of Gargrave Church ; to Mr. J. B. Smithson, Leyburn, for 
photographs of Kilnsey Crag (p. 330), Kettlewell (p. 833), and 
Hubberholme Church (p. 340) ; to the Rev. A. Cross, M.A., 
Giggleswick School, for drawing of plan of Rathmell Barrows (p. 379) ; 
to George Swift, Esq., B.A., Dent, for photographs of Dent (p. 424), 
and Ibby Peril (p. 428). The views of Hardraw Scar (p. 414), 
Garsdale (p. 419), and On the Rawthey, Sedbergh (p. 438), are from 
photographs by Messrs. Frith. Many of these views represent out-of- 
the-way places, and scenes but little known or not previously taken, and 
the author is particularly indebted to those gentlemen who have been 
at the trouble of obtaining the views specially for the work. 

The superior and very beautiful full-page Frontispiece to the Large 
Paper edition has been engraved by Messrs. Annan and Swan, London, 
from an original photograph supplied by Mr. A. Horner, of Settle. 

The author, in conclusion, may refer to the fact that as the work has 
been published by subscription, he has pleasure in acknowledging 
the liberal and influential support received from upwards of five 
hundred subscribers, who have thus aided him in its publication. The 
names of the subscribers have been printed at the end of the volume. 



CONTENTS. 



Jr RJSFACE ••• ... ••• ••• ••• ••> o 

V/ONTENx» • • • ••• • • • •■• • • • • • • i 

Summary op Chapters ... ... ... ... ... 8 

List op Illustrations ... ... ... ... ... 18 

Population Table ... ... ... ... ... 20 

Population and Inn Licenses in Craven ... ... 21 

Heights op Mountains... ... ... ... ... 22 

Heights of Roads and Passes ... .... ... ... 23 

Heights op Towns, Villages and Hamlets ... ... 24 

Rainfall in North-west Yorkshire, &c. ... ... 25 

Craven Militia during the French Wars ... ... 26 

Landholders in a.d. 1086 ... ... ... ... 27 

A List op the Inhabitants op Craven, and Bordering 

Districts, Five Centuries Ago ... ... ... 29 

A List of Craven Men, who fought at Flodden Field, 

A. JJ. lulu ... ••• ... ... ... ... vl 

Subscription List ... ... ... ... ... 451 

Index op Surnames ... ... ... .. ... 462 

General Index ... ... ... ... ... 465 



8 



SUMMARY OF CHAPTERS. 



Part I. — Western Division. 
CHAPTER I., Giggleswick 67 

Introduction — Character of Craven and the North- Western Dales — Land of 
mountain and cataract — A paradise of wild flowers and ferns — History and 
Antiquities — Hotel and house accommodation — Craven diet — Longevity — 
Unrivalled Air-Cures— Comparison with the Black Forest and Switzerland 
— Giggleswick — An old British town — Domesday — Author's correspondence 
with Continental authorities — A reference to German charters of the 8th 
century, shewing the origin and meaning of Giggleswick — The lost Tarn 
Ebbing and Flowing Well— Other English "tidal" wells— The British canoe 
— First mention of the church — Some early charters — Old families — 
Archdeacon Paley — AmuBing Anecdotes — Recent discoveries in the church 
— " Strainge Parsons '' — Account of the Market Cross — The Grammar School 
— The Museum and its contents. 



CHAPTER II., Settle 81 

Old Settle — The post-town of the parish — Unique sun-dial— Castleberg and its 
watch-tower— Charter of market — Visits of old topographers — Coiners and 
filers— Craven Bank— Mediaeval aspects of Settle — Saxon medal found within 
the market-cross — The church — Old inns — Trade-tokens — Settle during the 
Civil Wars -Letter from General Lambertr— The " Folly "—Proctor, the 
sculptor — Some men of note — Longevity at Settle — Quality of the land— 
Rainfall — Snow Castle — Modern institutions — Farms and gardens — Statistics 
of trade. 



CHAPTER III., Giggleswick, Stackhouse, Locks 95 

Giggleswick— The Mid Craven Faults-Plague Stone— Bell Hill and Pagan Fires- 
Settle Bridge and Penyghent— Stackhouse — Lovely Residence — Brayshaw 
and Carr Families — Locks— Return Walk. 



CHAPTER IV., Giggleswick Scars 100 

Giggleswick Scars — The Tarn — Ancient Canoe — Staircase and Dangerous Caves — 
Ebbing and Flowing Well — Its construction and action explained — A 
laughable incident — An old custom — A legend of the Well — Miraculous 
appearance of a lake — Feizor — Its curious name — Clapham family — Splendid 
echoes — Scar top — The Schoolboys' Tower. 



i 

v 



I 



9 
CHAPTER V., Around Smearside 107 

An archaeological ramble — Ancient barrow with skeleton — Dead Man's Cave- 
Remains of Celtic Walls— Smearside— Splendid prospect— Roman Watch-tower 
— Roman Camp— Ice-travelled stones. 

CHAPTER VI., Langcliffe. Catterick Glen 113 

A trip to Catterick— Lan gel iff e Hall — The Dawsons — Memorials of Sir Isaac 
Newton — Langclifl'e Village — Its former site — The Naked Woman Inn — 
Winskill — "Lang Tom," the poet — The open Moor — Catterick Force and 
Glen— Lovely Scenery. 

CHAPTER VII., All about the Victoria Cave ... .... 118 

Up in the hills again — " Samson's Toe " — The Scars and their primitive inhabitants 
All about the Victoria Cave — Its treasures and what they tell — Its curious 
discovery and history of the exploration — Night incident — A hyaena den — 
Pre-glacial remains — Sketch of mammoth by p re-glacial man — Age of deposits 
— Other local caves and discoveries — Attermire, not the outer water — Its 
meaning explained — Historic deductions — Old lake — Rare plants— The cave 
and its remains — Occupation of caves during recent war-panics — Roman Camp 
at High Hill — Scaleber Force. 

CHAPTER VIIL, Up Ribblesdale from Settle 128 

Up the Ribble — The Settle and Carlisle railway — Some interesting features of its 
construction — Particulars of viaducts and tunnels — Enormous difficulties — 
Longest tunnels in England — Winskill Rock — Tremendous blast— Stainforth 
— Its former importance— The old Knights of Stainforth — A horse's skull 
found buried in Giggleswick church — Early property transactions — Stainforth 
Force — A wild walk — The oldest rocks in Yorkshire — Scientific aspects of the 
scenery — Glacial drift and boulders— Some remarkable examples. 

CHAPTER IX., Lawkland and the Scar Caves 138 

A lovely walk — Lanes of wild flowers — Lawkland — The Old Hall of the Inglebys 
— The smallest church in Yorkshire — Cross Streets and the Roman highway — 
Buckhaw Brow — Kelcowe Cave — Buckhaw Brow Cave — Cave Ha', an old bear 
den — Interesting discoveries — Austwick Beck — A story of the coaching days. 

CHAPTER X., Clapham 145 

Charming Clapham — Former aspects— Flying Horse Shoe Hotel —Its meaning 
explained — Ancient state of the manor — Old families — The Church and 
Market Cross — Old Manor House— Sir Michael Faraday, son of a Clapham 
blacksmith — Ingleborough Hall — Romantic cascades — Old coaching days. 



10 
CHAPTER XL, Ingleborough Cave and Gaping Gill ... 153 

Clapdale Castle — The Ingleborough Cave — Its discovery and history — Description 
of the interior — Age of the stalactites — Floods in the cave — Extent of the 
Excavations — Measurements — Clapdale Pass and Cave — Trow Gill — An extinct 
waterfall — Gaping Gill — Flood scene — Descent of the Gill — A wild prospect — 
Ascent of Ingleborough. 

CHAPTER XII., Austwick. The Nobber Boulders ... 161 

Walk to Austwick — Peculiar examples of u glaciation " — Former importance cf 
Austwick — Old landed families — Austwick Hall — The Church, Cross, kc. — 
Some strange tales — Wild flowers — The Holly Fern here yet — Seventy kinds 
of ferns collected — The famous Norber boulders — Their history and wonderful 
aspects described — Nature's oldest cathedral — Effects of the Ice Age — 
Ancient dried-up lakes — Robin Procter's Scar— Lovely view. 



CHAPTER XIIL, Cave Hunting on Ingleborough ... 178 

A land of caves, gulfs, and swallow-holes — Their origin and aspects scientifically 
explained — Cave hunting on Ingleborough — A wild tram}) — Long Kin holes 
and cave — Marble Pot — Juniper Gulf — Simon Fell Caves — Alum Pot — Ascent 
of Simon Fell — The Druids — An ancient forest — Local place names. 

CHAPTER XIV., Clapham to Ingleton 178 

The old road from Clapham to Ingleton — Newby and Furness Abbey— Local 
properties of the Abbey— Deer park at Ribblehead— Newby Cote— Ascent of 
the Scars — Caves and pot-holes — A tremendous abyss— The Craven Fault — 
Rontry Hole- Cold Cotes— The Tow Scar Fault— High Leys and Holly Plat 
House— Glorious prospect— Yarlsber and the Danish Camp — Ease Gill Glen 
and Waterfall — Beautiful scenery, geologically explained. 

CHAPTER XV., Over the Moors to Bentham ... ... 18a 

Walks between Clapham and Bentham — Newb} T Moor — Holland Moor — Mewith 
Head— Clapham Wood Hall and the Faradays— The Glasites — Eeasden — Lumb 
Falls — Queen of Fairies Chair — A tramp over Burn Moor — Four Stones, kc. 

CHAPTER XVI., Bentham 185 

Bentham — Roman and Saxon remains — The church in Domesday — Ancient 
families — History of the manor - Gibson's Green and Dr. John Gibson — 
Curious will — Stones fired by the Scots — A model church — Some rare relics — 
Fine old bell — A watch-tower in the Wars of the Roses — Bentham Registers — 
Burial in woollen — List of Rectors — Public institutions — Old Grammar 
School — Fox, the Quaker, at Bentham — Trade tokens— Ancient market-cross — 
The Black Hole — ** Tweed Dobbie " an I Barguest — Beautiful scenery — Four 
Stones — Waterscale Wood and Cave. 



11 

CHAPTER XVIL, Walks about Bentham 201 

Bentham Plague Stone — Mortality from the Plague — Interesting Justice's Warrant 
to keep " watche and warde " on the roads — Cessation of the Parish Registers 
in 1665 — Bentham Bridge — Three days in the Wenning — Wonderful instance 
of re-animation — A walk into the next county — Robert Hall and Catherine 
Parr — Lovely scenery — Wennington — Waterscale. 

CHAPTER XVIIL, Ingleton 205 

History of Ingleton — Another Tngleton — Both held by the house of Neville — 
What does Ingleton mean ? — Celt and Roman— The Danish Conquest— The 
Scandinavian Inglingians — Camp at Tarlsber — Ancient local fire customs — 
Ingleton in Domesday — " White " towns — Ingleton in A.D. 1290 — Story of the 
Manor — Mediaeval tenant rights— Customs in Elizabethan times — Ingleton 
Hall and the Lowthers — Residence of a Lord High Chancellor — The poet 
Gray at Ingleton — Twisleton and Ellerbeck disputes — The church — Old houses 
— Local worthies. 

CHAPTER XIX., Scientific Aspects op the Ingleton 

Ov Hi SS -U* III ... • . . ... ... ... ... ... 21 v 

Causes of the scenery about Ingleton — The various rock formations — The Ingleton 
Coalfield — The great Craven Fault — Sub-divisions of the Fault — Their several 
directions explained — Immensity of the downthrow— Analysis of the Ingleton 
Faults— The age of the Craven Fault — Igneous Dykes — Effects of the Ice Age 
at Ingleton— Glacial drift and boulders — An extraordinary fragment— Ancient 
lake — Examples of ice-borne boulders. 

CHAPTER XX., The Ingleton Glens and Waterfalls ... 22S 

Gray, Southey, •' Barry Cornwall," and Adelaide Anne Procter at Ingleton — Turner, 
the painter, at Weathercote Cave, &c. — Recent " discovery " of the Tngleton 
glens — Formation of an Improvement Committee — Confusion in local 
nomenclature — Place-names explained — The glens and scenery described — 
Rare plants— Beautiful views— Scientific peculiarities of Thornton Force- 
Raven Ray — An ancient lake— K eld Head- Beasley Glen— Geological aspects 
—Back stone Gill Gorge— Glorious prospect — Silurian Slate quarries— Return 
to Ingleton. 

CHAPTER XXL, Ingleborough : Its Origin, History, and 

oCfiNfillx ... ... ... ... ••• ••• ••• juQ& 

Up Ingleborough — Its extent and character — The oldest mountain in Yorkshire — 
Comparison with Snowdon— Physical structure explained— Sectional details 
— Botanical aspects — List of native flowers and ferns— The creeping things — 
Advent of Man — Ancient beacon — Celtic huts on the summit — Roman 
occupation of Ingleborough — Analysis of the prospect—" Jubilee " fires. 



12 
CHAPTER XXIL, In Chapel-le-Dale 243 

A remarkable dale — A Yorkshire Wonderland — Storra Caves — Erratic Boulders — 
Ingleton " granite " — God's Bridge— The capital of Ingleton Fells- Interesting 
little chapel — Hurtle and Gingle Pots— Weathercote Cave — Turner and Westell 
— Douk Caves— Barefoot Wives' Hole— Mere Gill— Tatham Wife Hole— Up 
Whernside — Extraordinary caverns — Gatekirk. Bruntscar, Homeshaw, and 
Ivescar Caves — Scar Fall— Irruptions of the Scots— Discovery of coins — Rare 
plants— The Ice Age in Yorkshire — Stone circle— Sepulchral cairns. 

CHAPTER XXIII., Through Kingsdale to Dent 257 

■Character of Kingsdale — Danish occupation — Keld Head — Braida Garth— 
Greygarth Boulders — Various Pot-Holes — Rowten Cave ; a tremendous chasm 
— Other" Pots" — Yordas Cave— Braida Garth " Pots "— Pre-historic cairn — 
Kingsdale Head — Grand view — The Dent Fault, and glacial evidence. 



CHAPTER XXIV., Between Ingleton and Kirkby 

LiONSD ALE • • • ••• ••• ••• ■■• • • • ••• ^ O 4 

Thorn ton-in-Lonsdale— Site of the village — The church — Ancient burial custom — 
Masongill and the Wallers — Edmund Waller, the Court poet — " Barry 
Cornwall " and Adelaide Anne Procter — Doyle family — Ireby — Over Hall, and 
the Tathams — Leek Hall and its pleasant surroundings — Cowan Bridge and 
the Brontes — Coaching days — Among the Leek Fell caves — Ease Gill — Roman 
road— The Devil's Bridge — When was it built ?— Recent flood — Legend of 
the Bridge. 



CHAPTER XXV., In the Vale of Lune 278 

From Ingleton to Burton — Hal steads— Lund Holme Spa- well — Burton-in-Lonsdale 
— A Saxon fortress —Castle of the Mowbrays — The manor— Past and present 
aspects of Burton —Low Field — Cants fie Id — Thurland Castle — Tunstall Church, 
and Charlotte Bronte — Pretty village of Burrow — A pre-historic station — 
Roman camp — Rauthmel's account— Roman military roads — Ancient bridge 
— Remarkable discoveries — Description of camp — Recovery of a Roman 
altar, &c. — Lunefield — Kirkby Lonsdale. 



CHAPTER XXVI., Kirkby Lonsdale and Neighbourhood. 287 

Earthworks and tumulus — Kirkby Lonsdale a Danish town — Past and present 
aspects — Old inns — Origin of market — The parish church — Underley Hall — 
The celebrated view from the churchyard — Lovely scenery — Caster ton Woods 
— Old corn-mill — Casterton village and church — Roman highway. 



13 

Part II. — Eastern Division. 
CHAPTER XXVII., Around Skipton 29a 

Up Dales — Thorpe-sub-Montem — Threapland— Old houses— Threapl and GiJl and 
Cave — Elbolton — Curious knoll-reefs — Knave Knoll Hole — Discovery of 
human skeletons— Beautiful view— Walk to Barden— Simon Seat — Who was 
Simon ? — Other Simon Hills and their pre-historic remains — The School of 
Simon Druid — Ascent of Simon Seat — Marked stones - Beltane feasts — A 
Sunset on Midsummer Day. 

CHAPTER XXVIIL, Gargravb ... 300 

Walk to Gargrave— Flasby Fell— Sharp Haw, a beacon during the Spanish Armada 
— Red deer— A wonderful fox-hunt— Robert Story — His life at Gargrave — 
Poetry and Politics — Removal to London— Gargrave Church — Description of 
the village — The Meets of the Craven Hunt — Some private mansions. 

CHAPTER XXIX., Relic Hunting in Malhamdale ... 305 

Otterburn — Gomersall family— A local poet — Otterburn Hall — Monastic cell at 
Otterburn— Drift hills— Post-glacial lake -Opening of pre-historic barrow — 
Description of contents — Remains of ancient ring-dwellings — Traces of Open 
Field cultivation — Ancient name of Ryeloaf Hill — Danish Camp — Roman 
villa at Gargrave — Effect of anticlinals on landscape — Kirk by Malham — 
Stocks and Ducking Stool — Last use of Ducking Stool in Craven — Calton, 
and General Lambert — Calton in old times — Hanlith Hall — Hanlith Moor — 
Ancient barrow — Unique glacial boulder — Malham. 

CHAPTER XXX., Malham and the Moors 317 

Physical and medical aspects of Malham — Family of Malham — Ancient homestead 
— Inns — Unexplored caves — Skirethorns bone cave — Plants — Additions to- 
British lichens — Birds of Malham Moor — Bordley— An old grange of the 
Fountains monks — Bordley Hall and the Procters — Ancient chapel and burial 
ground — Confiscation of estates for murder — Ancient stone circle — Walk to 
Grassington — Pre-historic camp and tumuli. 

CHAPTER XXXI., Round about Kilnsey 325 

Malham to Kilnsey — Arncliffe Clowder — Dowkabottbm Cave — Its exploration and 
interesting discoveries — A Celtic habitation — A baby's tomb-^-Roman coins — 
Sleets cavern — Kilnsey Hall — Wade family — Manor of Kilnsey after the 
Dissolution— Sheep- washings of the monks— Kilnsey Crag — Supposed ancient 
coast line — Glacial aspects — What does Kilnsey mean?— Dr. Whitaker's 
opinion— The Spurn Head KilnRea — Comparative deductions— Discovery of 
coins — Coniston Church, the oldest in Craven — Tcnnant's Arms, Kilnsey — 
Sulphur Spring — Glacial mounds— Great Scar Limestone round Kettlewell — 
Lead mines. 



14 
CHAPTER XXXII., Kettlewell and Arncliffe 338 

The farthest place in England from a railway — Aspects of Kettlewell — Memorable 
flood — Ancient church — Curious font — Extinct wild animals in Craven — 
Remains of early occupation by Man — Douk Cave — Ascent of Great Whern side 
— By the " Slit " to Arncliffe — Arncliffe, supposed eagle's cliff — Another 
meaning — The old church at Arncliffe. 

CHAPTER XXXIII., At the Head of the Wharfe ... 338 

Starbottom — Walk to Buckden — Romantic prospects — Beautiful wood scenery — 
Situation of Buckden — The meaning of Buckden — Wild deer — Buckden Hall 
— The Heber family — A memorable journey— The Stake Pass, a Roman road 
— Hubberholme and its ancient church — Pleasing custom — Great snow-drifts 
— Why does snow remain longer in Upper Wharf edale than elsewhere ? — Over 
Birks Fell — Ascent of Buckden Pike — Walden — Aysgarth — Cray Gill — 
Semer water — Langstrothdale and Chaucer — Population of the dale in A.D. 
1379 and A.D. 1499 — Oughtershaw — Ray sg ill — Over the Horse Head into 
Littondale— Wonderful prospect. 

CHAPTER XXXIV., Littondale. A Wild Walk 346 

Lonely Littondale — Grant of the valley to the Monks of Fountains — Halton Gill 
— Chapel — Names of tenants at the Dissolution — Wild Plants — A walk between 
Penyghent and Fountains Fell — Hesleden in A.D. 1540 — A Monks' courier — 
Giants' Graves— Are they Danish ? — Tree-burials in Denmark and in Craven — 
Scottish raids after Bannockburn — Rain scar, the summit of the English 
watershed — Fountains Fell — Highest cart road in Yorkshire — A wild pass — 
Winter experiences. 

CHAPTER XXXV., Malham Moors and Fountains Pell... 352 

Grant of Malham Water in A.D. 1150 — Some old houses on the moors — Capon 
Hall, anciently Copmanhowe — Middle House and Oliver Cromwell — Other 
ancient tenements — Local possessions of Fountains Abbey — Particulars of 
them at the Dissolution — Malham Tarn — A vast prospect — Tarn House — 
Experiences of planting — Malham Moors in the Ice Age — Tennant Gill — Up \ 

Fountains Fell — The View, &c. — Descent into Ribblesdale. 

CHAPTER XXXVI., About Hellifield 360 

Malham to Hellifield— Domesday record — Meaning of Hellifield — The Ings — 

Anciently an arm of the sea — Discovery of whale bones — History of the manqr \ 

— Haraerton family — Hellifield Peel — Swinden — Disused coach-road — Old 
corn -mill — Walk to Gargrave. 



15 
CHAPTER XXXVII., Long Preston 365 

Old coach-road — Well-to-do aspects of Long Preston — The late Mr. John Thompson 
— Saxon Church — Domesday record— The manor — History of the Parish 
Church — Ancient rectory house — Description of interior of church — Interesting 
memorials — Early font — Marks of fire — Cromwell House — The parish registers 
— Plague at Long Preston — Local tradition — Churchwardens' accounts — 
Ancient sun-dial — Beacon Coppy — Charity Hospital — School — Old mills — 
Local possessions of the monks — Citation of charters— Lambert family — 
Curious discovery of gold— Long Preston Peggy — The story of her adventures' 
— Fragments of old ballad. 

* 

CHAPTER XXXVIII., Wigglesworth and Rathmell ... 375 

Wigglesworth — Old Hall — Soke mill — Wigglesworth Tarn — Clark's Free School — 
Spa Well — Longevity — Some local characters — Walk to Rathmell — Capelside 
— Discovery of bronze celt, &c. — More ring-dwellings — Rathmell, a Celtic 
station — The name explained — Recent use of Celtic numerals — Pre-historic 
barrows — Rathmell church — The manor — Ancient mills— Tithe-barns— The 
oldest Nonconformist College in England at Rathmell — Rev. Richard 
Frank land — Remarkable flood scenes — Cleatops — Stone circle— Anley — 
The late Mr. John Birkbeck. 

CHAPTER XXXIX., Horton-in-Ribblesdale 383 

Extent and situation of Horton parish — Meaning of Horton— Domesday notice — 
Grants of lands to the monasteries — Dispute in 1224 between the Abbot of 
Fountains and Jervaux — History of the manor— The church — Bone-house — 
Curious discovery— Interior of church — Ancient glass— Supposed dedication 
of church to Thomas a Beckett — Another version — Kent families manor-lords 
of Horton — Dr. Holden— Ancient bells — Plague at Horton— The parish 
registers— Interesting Terrier — Old Free School — Football Field. 

CHAPTER XL., All about Penyghent 390 

Flood -rakes on Penyghent — A k< smoking" beck — Douk Gill— Geological aspects 
— A lovely nook — Thirl Pot — Mineral deposits — Thund Pot — An unexplored 
rift— Ascent of Penyghent — Enormous snow-drifts — Sixty sheep perished — 
Sequence of strata on Penyghent — Wild flowers and ferns — Prof. J. G. Baker, 
F.R.S., and Yorkshire botany — Observations on some Penyghent plants — From 
Penyghent to the moon — Ancient deer forest — Curious indictment — The 
Penyghent Beagles — The prospect from Penyghent — Horton trout-hatchery. 

CHAPTER XLL, On the Scars of the Upper Ribble ... 399 

Horton Moor edge — Sell Gill chasm — Jackdaw Hole— Horton Tarn and its origin 
— Turn Dub and the water from Alumn Pot— Birkwith farms — A lodge of the 
monks— Park Fell — Birkwith Cave —Nanny Carr Hole. 



16 
CHAPTER XLIL, Moughton Fell and Alumn Pot ... 401 

Beecroft Hall and the Wilsons— Moughton Fell -Erratic boulders— Interesting 
geological sight— Moughton Fell Cave — Selside— Alumn or Helln Pot — A 
stupendous chasm— What means Alumn or Allan? — The Celtic river Allan, 
and local family Aleman. a suggested explanation— Immense size of the rift — 
First descent of the Pot— Subsequent descents and explorations — Professor 
Daw kin's description. 



CHAPTER XLIIL, Among the Gills and Caves at 

IklBBLEIIEAD • • • •«• •>« ••• ... ••• ... 4Ut) 



Aspects at Ribblehead — Blea Moor an ancient snow-field — Glacial relics — Ling 
Gill — Inns— Gearstones, old market — Source of the Kibble — Thorns Gill — 
Eatnot Cave — Ling Gill, its geological character — A former powerful stream — 
Linn or Ling Gill ? — The gill a cover for wolves, &c. — Citation of 13th century- 
fine — Ancient bridge — Picturesque aspects of Ling Gill — Its vegetable interest 
— List of species — The Arenaria gothica, a new British plant — Other 
interesting botanical discoveries— Brow Gill Cave — Calf Hole — Ingman Lodge 
— Batty Wife Hole — Ranscar Caves. 



CHAPTER XLIV., Hawes, Yore Head, and Garsdale ... 412 



Cam End — Boundary of the Mowbray Chase — Hawes — Meaning of Hawes — Upper 
Yoredale, a forest of red deer — Hawes Chapel — Charter for market — Romantic 
scenery — Hardraw and Simonstone — The scar waterfall — Geological peculiarities 
— Meaning of Hardraw — Buttertubs Pass — Mossdale Gill — Disastrous flood — 
Plant life — Hawes Junction — Around the Moorcock — Old pack-horse road — 
Hellbeck Lunds — A seat of Danish pirates — Wild animals — The last wild boar 
— Grizedale — Gift of the valley to Jervaux Abbey — A walk through Garsdale 
— An old coach-road — Scientific character of the dale — Bow Fell Tarn— 
Garsdale celebrities — No inn in Garsdale — Grand approach to Sedbergh. 



CHAPTER XL V., Down Dentdale 420 



lovely valley — Dent Head — Alpine railway — Monkey Beck — Floods and 
avalanches — Lee Gate and the Quaker Chapel — Marble works? — Blake Gill — 
Cowgill Chapel — Historical sketch — Danish occupation of Dentdale — El am 
family — Mary Howitt and Dee-side- mill — Geology of Dentdale — Ibby Peril 
and its ghost — Gibshall, and Hope on, hope ever — Gib shall tannery and the 
Sedgwicks — Hell's Cauldron — Hackergill Cave — Deepdale. 



17 
CHAPTER XLVI., Dent 425 

* 

Disputed nomenclature of Dent — Meaning explained — An old Danish settlement 
— Anciently Deneth — The Dentone of Domesday — Review of the manor — 
Danish proprietors before the Conquest — The Fitz Hughs — Origin of clan of 
Metcalfe— Dent "statesmen "—Old local industry—" Terrible knitters i' Dent" 
— Aspects of old Dent — Singular incident — Old customs — Parish church — 
Description of interior — Local longevity — Grammar School — The Sedgwick s 
— Late Aid. Wm. Batty — Prof. Adam Sedgwick, LL.D. — Early history of the 
Sedgwicks — Some local institutions — Accommodation at Dent. 

CHAPTER XLVIL, Flood Scenes in Dentdale 433 

Gill scenery near Dent — The raven in Dentdale — Recent remarkable flood — 
Author's experiences — Lake scene from Dent churchyard — View of Colm Scar 
and Hackergill — The Scene in Flintergill and High Gill — No market at Dent 
— Adventure to Sedbergh — Renewal of storm — Aspects at Gate HouBe — A 
break-down — Peculiar odour — View of Brackengill — A " cloud " cataract — 
Sublime water-scene — Other floods — Fatal waterspout on Whernside. 

CHAPTER XLVIIL, Sedbergh 437 

Extent of Yorkshire — Physical characteristics at Sedbergh — Beautiful scenery — 
Cautley 8pout and the Howgill Fells — Glorious view — Situation of the town 
— Whitaker's interpretation of Sedbergh — Author's view — Sedbergh a Roman 
outpost — Castle How — Saxon and Dane — Meaning of Sedbergh explained — 
Local pronunciation— Position at the Conquest — Grant of manor to the 
Staveleys — The Claphams — History of the manor — Assessment in 1584 — 
Monastic possessions at Sedbergh — Appropriation of the church by Coverham 
Abbey — Description of the church — Local charities — Grammar School — Some 
men of note educated at the school — Brimhaw — Market cross — Stocks and 
ducking-stool — Inns. 

CHAPTER XLIX., On the Yorkshire Borderland ... 444 

Ingmire Hall — Brigg Flatts Meeting House — The oldest but one Quaker 
establishment in England — Historical sketch — Old coaching inn — Beckgide 
Hall and Sir John Otway— Otway family — Middleton Hall and the Hiddletons 
— Description of the building — Ancient chapel — Grimes Hill — Middleton 
church — Hawkin Hall, and the poet Milton — Roman mile-stone, a rare relic — 
Scenery of Lune — Barbon and the Shuttleworths — Aspects of the village — 
The church — Up Barkindale to Dent — The Dent Fault. 



B 



18 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Part I. 
FULL PAGE VIEWS. 



Giggleswick Church from Tehs Street 

<f Giggles wick 
/Catterick Force... 

■4 OLAPHAM • • • • • • ... 

* Ingleton 



{ 



Frontispiece to 
Large Paper edition. 

Face page 67 

95 

145 

205 



» 



» 



>? 



OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS. 







PAGE 


Settle in 1822 


 • • • • 


... 82 


Market Place, Settle 


• • • • • 


... 85 


Settle prom the West ... 


• • •■  


... 97 


Giggleswick Scars 


• • • • • 


... 101 


Section of Ebbing and Flowing Well . 


• • • •  


... 108 


Celtic Wall, near Smearside ... 


• • • • • 


... 109 


Entrance to the Victoria Cave 


• •  • • 


... 120 


Stainforth Force 


• • •  • 


... 135 


Inglebborough from the Railway, neae 


\ Lawkland 


... 139 


Gaping Gill Hole 


• • • • « 


.. 159 


Norber Boulder 


• • • • % 


.. 170 


Bentham 


* m • • • i 


.. 186 


Bentham Church Font 


 • •  • i 


.. 193 


Pecca Falls ... 


• • • • « 


.. 228 


Backstone Gill 


• * 


.. 231 


Weathercote Cave 


m  • •  


.. 248 


Over Hall, Ireby 


• • • • • 


.. 269 


Devil's Bbidge, Kirkby Lonsdale 


• • • • a 


.. 274 


The Lune in Flood at Devil's Bridge. 


• • • • • i 


.. 275 


Underley Hall 


• •• • • • 


.. 289 



19 



Part II. 



PULL PAGE VIEWS. 



Malham Tarn 
Kettlewell 
Ling Gill 
Dent 



Face page 293 
333 
405 
424 



99 



>J 



» 



OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS. 







PAGE 


Gargrave Church 


••• ■•■ ••• 


... 303 


Ottekbuhn 


• • • «•• **■ 


... 308 


Skirethorns Cave 


• • • • • • ••• i 


... 319 


Bordley Hall 


• • • • • » ••• i 


... 322 


Kilnsey Crag 


*•• •«• • • * i 


... 330 


Hubberholme Church... 


• •■ •■• ••• i 


... 340 


Long Preston Church... 


• • • •■• ••• I 


... 369 


Plan op Bathmell Barrows 


• • • • • • ••• 


... 379 


Penyghent, prom Horton Station 


... 391 


Hardraw Scar 


• •• • • • • • • < 


.. 414 


Garsdale 


• • • •■• •*• 


... 419 


Ibby Peril, Dentdale... 


• •• « t 1 • • • 


... 423 


On the Rawthey, Sedbergh 


• • • * • • • • • 


... 438 



And Tail Pieces. 



20 



POPULATION TABLE. 

Arranged in Registration Sub-Districts. 



1881. 

Aysgarth : 

Askrigg 2,969 

Hawes 2,513 

Bedale : 

Bedale 5,550 

Mashara 2,721 

Keighley : 

Bingley 20,703 

Haworth 6.873 

Keighley 33,545 

Leyburn : 

Middleham 3,484 

Leyburn 4.839 

Pateley Bridge : 

Ramsgill 936 

Pateley Bridge 3,750 

Thornthwaite 1,625 

Dacre Banks 2,633 

Reeth : 

Muker 2,002 

Reeth 2,715 

Richmond : 

Richmond 7,387 

Catterick 2,946 

Newsham 1,183 

Aldbrough 1,242 

Sedbergh : 

Sedbergh 2,268 

Garsdale 602 

Dent 1,209 

Settle : 

Bentham 5,458 

Settle 5,598 

Long Preston 1,620 

Kirkby Malham 762 

Arncliffe 362 

Skipton : 

Kettlewell 854 

Gargrave 2,117 

Barnoldswick 7,290 

Kildwick 8,923 

Skipton 12,772 

Addingham 3,262 

Grassington 1.902 

Wharfedale : 

Horsforth 11,799 

Fewston 2,927 

Otley 15,616 

Yeadon 16,363 



1891. 

2,576 
1,170 

5.504 
2,624 

21,418 

8.023 

39,789 

3,085 
4,550 

796 
8,225 
1,350 
2,390 

1,215 
2,002 

6.755 
3,034 
1.036 
1,810 

3,874 

535 

1,131 

5,437 
5,763 

1,798 
753 
320 

672 
2,238 
7.979 
9.859 
13.601 
3.139 
1,461 

11,904 
2,692 

18,828 
17,832 



Increase. Decrease. 

... oyjj 

343 



715 
1,150 
6,244 



88 



106 



165 

178 



121 

688 
936 

829 



105 

2,212 
1,469 



The number of inhabited houses in the three Ridings is shown as follows : 

Area. 1881. 1891. 

East Riding 741,543 76,009 84,677 

North Riding 1,261,793 68,966 73,366 

West Riding 1,776,884 450,366 614,711 

The total population of the three Ridings in 1881 and 1891 respectively was : 

1881. 1891. 

East Riding 365,011 399,412 

North Riding 346,317 368,237 

West Riding 2,175,293 2,441,164 



46 



399 
289 

140 
525 
275 
243 

787 
713 

632 

• • • 

147 
132 



67 
78 

21 



2 

42 

182 



123 
441 



235 



21 

POPULATION AND INN LICENSES IN CRAVEN. 

The following table shews the number of inn and other licenses now 

in force, to sell by retail, in the townships of the East Staincliffe Petty 
Sessional Division, together with the population of each place and the 
proportion of inhabitants to each license : 

Ratio of 
Population to 

Increase or Licenses. 

Township. Population. Decrease No. of Full. All kinds. 

1891. from 1871 License*. One License to 

to 1891. Full. All kinds. every 

Addingham 2225 8861 5 6 445 370*8 

Appletreewick 229 129d 3 3 76*8 76*8 

Barnoldswick 4181 944i 6 8 688*5 516*3 

Beamsley(2) 179 80d 1 1 179 179 

Bolton Abbey 169 47i 1 1 169 169 

Bradleys (Both) 542 55i 2 2 271 271 

Brogden 120 15i 2 2 60 60 

Broughton 165 38d 1 1 165 165 

Buckden 239 94d 3 3 79*6 79*6 

Burnsall 109 89d 1 1 109 109 

Carleton 1644 34d 2 3 822 548 

Conistone-with-Kilnsey ... 116 70d 2 2 58 58 

Cononley 881 131d 3 4 2936 220*2 

Cowling 1828 100d 2 2 914 914 

Cracoe 91 44d 2 2 455 45*5 

Draughton 204 26i 1 1 204 204 

Embsay-with-Eastby 940 165d 3 5 818*8 188 

Farnhill 655 165i 1 1 655 655 

Qargrave 1296 5i 4 4 324 324 

Glusburn 1942 373i 2 2 971 971 

Grassington 480 350d 4 4 120 120 

Hebden 209 153d 1 2 209 104-5 

Hetton 102 22d l I 102 102 

Kettlewell-with-Starbottom 317 191d 4 4 79*2 79*2 

Kiidwick 145 16d 1 1 145 145 

Linton 117 62d 2 2 585 58*5 

Martons (Both) 270 33i 1 1 270 270 

Salterforth 487 91 1 2 2 243*5 248*5 

Silsden 3866 1152i 4 7 966*5 552-2 

Skipton 10376 42981 32 50 324-2 207*3 

Stirton-with-Thorlby 163 17d 1 1 163 163 

Sutton ... ... 4 6 

Thoraton-with-Earby 2770 717i 5 6 554 428*8 

Threshfield 119 67d 1 1 119 119 



22 



HEIGHTS OF MOUNTAINS. 

Compiled chiefly from the Ordnance Survey. 

Abbrev.— Y., Yorkshire ; W., Westmoreland ; L., Lancashire. When not 
otherwise specified the summits are in Yorkshire. 



FEET 

Addleborough 1564 

Arant Haw (Sedbergh) ... 1989 

Arnoliffe Clowder 1637 

Attermire Scar 1600 

Barbon Fell (W.) 1794 

Barkin Pike (Y. and W.) ... 1718 

Baugh or Bow Fell 2200 

Beamsley Beacon 1341 

Black Hill (Mai ham) 1636 

Blea Moor ... ... ... 1753 

Bow or Baugh Fell 2200 

Bowland Enotts 1411 

Brownsley Ridge ( Pateley Moor) 1 095 

Buckden Gable (Ramsden Pike) 2302 

Burn Moor 1595 

Burnsall Fell 1661 

Calf (Howgill Fells) (Y. & W.) 2220 

Calvey (Swaledale) 1599 

Cam Fell 1890 

CaBterton Fell (W.) 1290 

Oastleberg (Settle) 709 

Cautley Crag 2150 

Colm Scar 1580 

Coniston Pie 1100 

County Stone (Y., L. and W.)... 2150 

Cracoe Fell 1650 

Crag Hill (L. and W.) 2259 

Croasdale Fell 1433 

Cush Knott 1959 

Deepdale Haw 1930 

Dodd Fell 2189 

Earl Seat 1474 

Elbolton 1140 

Embsay Crag 1200 

Flashy Fell (Sharp Haw) ... 1150 

Fountains Fell 2191 

Giggleswick Scars 1025 

Great Shunnor Fell 2351 

Great Wham 1888 

Great Whemside 2310 

Greenfield Knott li»59 

Greygarth 2250 

Hawks wick Clowder 1346 

Hawgill Pike (Dent) 1825 

Hebden Moor 1250 

Hellifield Haw 702 

Helm Knott (Dent) 975 

High Mark (Malham) 1746 

High Pike (Deepdale) 1762 

High Seat (Mallerstang) (W.) 2328 

Howgill Fells (Calf) (Y. & W.) 2220 

Hutton Roof (W.) 859 

Ingleborough 2373 



FEET 

Inglehow fRyeloaf) 1794 

Keasdon 1636 

Kirkby Fell 1788 

Knowe Fell 1700 

Lady's Pillar 2257 

Lamb Hill (Croasdale Fell) ... 1433 

Leek Fell (L.) 1756 

Little Fell (Hawes) 2186 

Little Fell (Langstrothdale) ... 1985 

Little Whemside 1984 

Lovely Seat (Buttertubs Pass) 2213 

Meugher 1887 

MickleFell 2591 

Middleton Fell (W.) 1999 

Moughton Fell 1402 

MukerEdge 2213 

Nine Standards (Y. and W.) ... 2153 

Norber 1330 

Oughterehaw Side 1950 

Park Fell (Ingleborough) ... 1836 

Parson's Pulpit (Malham) ... 1765 

Pendle Hill (L.) 1831 

Penhill 1675 

Penyghent 2273 

Pikedaw (Malham) 1400 

Pin Haw (Elslack Moor) ... 1200 

Rise Hill, or Rysell 1825 

Rogans Seat (Swaledale) ... 2204 

Ryeloaf ... ' 1794 

Rylstone Fell 1450 

Shunnor Fell 2351 

Simon Fell (Ingleborough) ... 2125 

Simon Seat (Wharfedale) ... 1592 

Simon Seat (Howgill s) (W.) ... 19l>5 

Smearside 1195 

Snaizeholme Fell 1779 

Stag's Fell 1822 

Standard of Burn Moor ... 1318 

Sugar Loaf (Settle) 1200 

Ten End (Hawes) 1919 

Thorpe Fell 1661 

Threshfield Moor 1150 

Uldale Head (Sedbergh) ... 1553 

Water Crag 2186 

Weets (Malham) 1350 

Wetherfell 2015 

Whelpstone Crag 1246 

Whemside 2414 

WiddaleFell 2203 

Wild Boar Fell (W.) 2323 

Wold Fell 1829 

Yarlside(W.) 2097 

Yockenthwaite Moor 2109 



28 



THE TEN HIGHEST MOUNTAINS IN YORKSHIRE. 



FBBT 



FEET 



Mickle Fell 


 • • 


... 2591 


Buckden Gable 


... 2302 


Whernside 


• •  


... 2414 


Penyghent 


... 2273 


Ingleborough ... 


•  • 


... 2373 


Grey garth 


... 2250 


Great Shunnor Fell 


• •• 


... 2851 


The Calf (Howgill Fells) 


... 2220 


Great Whernside 


• • • 


... 2810 


Lovely Seat 


... 2213 



The highest mountain in England, Scafell Pike, 3210 ft. ; in Wales, Snowdon, 
3571 ft. ; in Scotland, Ben Nevis, 4406 ft. ; in Ireland, Carrantuohill, 8414 ft. 



HEIGHTS OF ROADS AND PASSES. 

FEET 

Fountains Fell, from Silverdale Head, cart-road ... ... ... 2180 

Under the summit of Calf Fell, between Howgill and Bowderdale, cart-road 

and bridle-path ... ... ... ... ... ... 2150 

Mai ham to Horton over Fountains Fell, foot-path ... ... ... 2050 

Waldendale Head, between West Burton and Starbottom, foot-path ... ? 2000 



Horse Head, between Buckden and Halton Gill, cart-road 

Firth Fell, between Buckden and Litton, cart-road 

©odd Fell End, between Hawes and Ribblehead, cart-road 

The Stake, between Buckden and Bainbridge, cart-road ... 

Butter tubs, between Hawes and Muker, cart-road 

Between Keld (Swaledale) and Kirkby Stephen, cart-road 

Coverdale, between Middleham and Kettle well, cart-road 

Scar Slit, between Kettle well and Arncliffe, foot-path ... 

Between Keld and Barras by Tan Hill... 

Haws End, between Hawes and Semerwater 

Stockdale Pass, between Settle and Mai ham, bridle- path 

Helwith Bridge by Dale Head to Litton 

Kingsdale, between Ingleton and Dent 

Hawes to Ribblehead by Newby Head... 

Settle to Litton, or Halton Gill by Rainscar 

Bowland Knotts road between Clapham and Slaidburn ... 

Stainforth to Kilnsey by Mai ham Tarn 

Malham to Kilnsey by Lee Gate 

Horton -in- Ribblesdale to Beckermonds 

Settle to Kirkby Malham by High Side 

Hellbeck Lunds, between Kirkby Stephen and Hawes Junction 

Chapel-le-Dale, between Ingleton and Ribblehead 

Highway, between Sedbergh and Kirkby Stephen 

Barkindale, between Barbon and Dent 

Trough of Bolland ... 



1970 

1970 

1920 

1838 

1682 

1646 

1625 

1620 

1620 

1600 

1550 

1512 

1435 

1421 

1391 

1379 

1840 

1284 

1280 

1272 

1189 

1059 

1048 

1025 

1000 



24 



HEIGHTS OF TOWNS, VILLAGES, AND HAMLETS. 





FEET 




FEET 




FEET 


Airton 


... 563 


Feizor 


... 600 


Litton 


... 850 


Arncliffe ... 


... 700 


Flasby 


... 420 


Long Preston 


... 495 


Askrigg 


... 726 


Gargrave ... 


... 358 


Masongill ... 


... 540 


Austwick ... 


... 497 


Giggles wick 


... 487 


Malham 


... 637 


Barbon 


... 880 


Gisburn 


... 453 


Newton 


... 446 


Beggarunonds 


...1100 


GrasBington 


... 690 


Otterburn ... 


... 510 


Bell Busk ... 


... 500 


Halton Gill 


...1000 


Oughtershaw 


...1180 


Bentham ... 


... 842 


Halton West 


... 445 


Rathmell ... 


... 485 


Bordley 


...1260 


Hawes 


... 802 


Rylstone ... 


... 560 


Buckden ... 


... 788 


Hellifield ... 


... 468 


Sedbergh ... 


... 400 


Burrow 


... 150 


Horton - in -Ribbles- 


Selside 


... 942 


Burton-in-Lonsdale 298 


dale ... 


... 770 


Settle 


... 507 


Oalton 


... 625 


Hubberholme 


... 800 


Skipton 


... 362 


Casterton ... 


... 280 


Ingle ton ... 


... 437 


Slaidburn ... 


... 488 


Chapel -le- Dale 


... 800 


Kettle well ... 


... 780 


Stack house 


... 550 


Clapham ... 


... 610 


Kilnsey 


... 628 


Stainforth ... 


... 658 


Cowan Bridge 


... 284 


Kirkby Lonsdale 


... 200 


Starbottom 


... 748 


Coniston-Cold 


... 452 


Eirkby Malham 


... 612 


Thornton - in - ] 


Lons- 


Cray 


...1070 


Kirkby Stephen 


... 580 


dale ... 


... 480 


Dent 


... 472 


Langcliffe ... 


.. 623 


Threshfield 


.. 620 


Draughton... 


... 650 


Lawkland ... 


... 450 


Tunstall ... 


... 105 


Embsav 


... 630 


Linton 


... 620 


WiggleBworth 


... 500 



The following table shews the altitude of the highest inhabited 
houses, inns, villages, market-towns, and passenger-railway, in Yorkshire 
and in England, respectively : 

The highest inhabited house in England : FEET 

Rumney's House, south of Alston, in Cumberland, on the Durham 

DOivLoT ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• JlwOU 

The highest inhabited house in Yorkshire : 

Grouse House, near the source of the Cover, in the North Riding .. 1700 

The highest inn in England : 

The Cat and Fiddle, on Buxton Moors, in Cheshire... ... ... 1765 

The highest inn in Yorkshire : 

Tan Hill, between Barras and Keld, in the North Riding ... ... 1620 

The highest village in England : 

Coal Cleugh. West Allendale, Northumberland ... ... ... 1650 

The highest village in Yorkshire : 

Greenhow Hill, between Pate ley Bridge and Grassington ... ... 1441 

The highest market- town in England : 

Buxton, in Derbyshire ; — at the Palace Hotel ... ... ... 1044 

The highest market-town in Yorkshire : 

Hawes, in Wensleydale ; — at the Shambles... ... ... ... 850 

The highest passenger-railway in England : 

The South Durham and Lancastrian Union Railway, between Barras 

aod Bowes, on Stainmoor ... ... ... ... ... 1978" 

The foregoing summary of a discussion on the subject was furnished by the 
writer to the Leeds Mercury Supplement for April 7th, 1888. There is, however, 
an error in the original table with respect to the highest inn in Yorkshire, which 
should be as given above, a correction which is owing to Prof. J. G. Baker, F.R.S., 
author of North Yorkshire, who pointed out the fact to the writer by letter, some 
little time afterwards. 



25 



EAINFALL IN NORTH-WEST YORKSHIRE, &c. 

Reproduced, by permission, from Symowfs " British Rainfall. 



»» 



Height 

Stations. Authorities. above sea-level. Depth of rain in inches. 

Feet 1889. 1890. 1891. 

Arncliffe Ven. Archdeacon Boyd 734 4960 60 77 61*68 

Aysgarth Vicarage Rev. F. W. Stow 644 30-03 3221 4330 

Barden (Upper) Reser- 
voir J. Watson, C.E 1250 -34 54 3701 86*50 

Grange (Kents Bank 

House) EliMilnes 20 3809 4381 43*87 

Grimwith Reservoir... J. Watson, C.E 893 36*94 4517 4640 

H a wes{ Hard raw Vicar- 
age) Rev. R. Pinck 790 8608 39*77 47*32 

Hawes (Backside, 

Lunds) Rev. R. Pinck 1100 ... 6691 71*40 

Hawes Junction The Meteor. Council ... 1135 55*49 64*56 78*13 

Hornby Castle Col. Foster 100 3711 4242 41*10 

Kirkby Lonsdale W.Harrison 209 3980 4330 

Kirk by Lonsdale ( Cas- 
te rton) R. S.Clarke 305 ... ... 55*86 

Kirkby Stephen H. Paul Mason 574 29*25 37*77 50*75 

Leyburn G. W. Wray 660 30*48 32*75 38*68 

Levburn (Bolton Hall) E.Hall 420 2940 30*50 35*90 

Malham Tarn Mr. Coulthard 1296 53*02 6456 61*85 

Otterburn-in-Craven.. W. Gomersall 510 81*87 39*75 44*48 

Oughtershaw Hall ... C. H. L. Woodd 1175 65*31 68*20 70-45 

Pateley Bridget Trunla 

Hill) J. Watson, C.E 1201 28*83 3702 36 18 

Sedbergh(BriggFlatts) J. Handley 800 44 22 ... 61*23 

(Thorns Hall)... Miss Sedgwick 400 43*74 5402 62*90 

Settle (Ashfield Gar- 
dens) T.Green, jun 483 34*40 40 41 

Settle (The Terrace).. J. W. Shepherd 525 84*68 41*60 50*27 

Skipton (Thorpe Fell) J. Watson, C.E 1661 7 24*44 86*86 35*78 



ANNUAL RAINFALL AT OTHER STATIONS IN 1891. 

A Comparative Table. 



Inches. 

Patrington (Spurn Head) 18*28 

Goole 22*76 

York (Phil. Soc Gardens) 28*76 

Beverley (East Riding Asylum) 24*88 

Malton (Norton) 26*50 

Hull (Pearson Park) 26*55 

Leeds (Museum) 25*16 

Leeds (Wood house Moor) 27*26 

Horsforth (Oliver Hill) 29*14 

Bradford (The Exchange) 27*30 

Bradford (Heaton Reservoir) 34*57 

Queensbury 40*76 

Halifax (Gibbet) 3745 

Halifax (Thorpe)... 49*67 

Sheffield (Shrewsbury Hospital) 32*83 



Inches. 
Greenwich Royal Observatory. 2538 

London (Old Street, EC.) 25*90 

Manchester (Piccadilly) 3079 

Liverpool (Huskispon Station) 34*17 

Blackstone Edge (Lenches) ... 50-60 

Lancaster (Marton Street Yard) 44*61 

Ulverston (Colton) 59*84 

Hawkshead (Grizedale Hall)... 67*54 

Ambleside (Skelwith Fold) ... 86*81 

Elterwater, Westmoreland 98*48 

ScawfellPike 110*50 

Little Langdale (Fell Foot) ... 116*60 

Borrowdale Vicarage 123*82 

Seathwaite 14719 

The Stye. Cumberland 166*40 



Sheffield (Brincliffe Rise) 34*63 Ben Nevis Observatory 177*98 

For particulars of Rainfall taken during the great flood on August 24th and 
25th, 1891, § described on pp. 438 to 436, see Symons's British Rainfall for 1891, 
pp. 123 to 125. 




26 



CRAVEN MILITIA DURING THE FRENCH WARS. 

HEN the French War broke out in 1803, Lord Ribblesdale 
raised the regiment known as the " Craven Legion," — the 
Infantry numbering 1200 and the Cavalry 250, or together 
1450 horse and foot. 
In 1808 the Infantry were made Local Militia, and the Cavalry 
designated the " Craven Yeomanry Cavalry." His Lordship was Colonel 
Commandant of both regiments until the Local Militia was disbanded 
in 1816. In 1817 his Lordship resigned the Colonelcy of the Cavalry to 
his son, the late Lord Ribblesdale, who had held the rank of Lieutenant- 
Colonel in the Local Militia, and a Captain in the Cavalry. The latter 
nobleman continued commandant of the Cavalry until it was finally 
disbanded in 1828. 

In the Globe for Feb. 20th, 1809, the undermentioned appointments 
are gazetted, as follows : 

Military Promotions. — Commissions signed by the Lord-Lieutenants 
of the West Riding of the County of York, City and County of 
the City of York : 

Craven Regiment of Local Militia. 

Lord Ribblesdale to be Colonel. Dated Sept. 10th, 1809. 
Richard Heber, Esq., to be Lieutenant-Colonel. Dated as above. 
William Birtwhistle, Esq., to be Major. Dated as above. 
Charles Ingleby, Esq., to be ditto. Dated as above. 

The undermentioned to be Captain. Dated as above. 

Thomas Peel, Esq., Lister Ellis, Esq., Richard Carr, Esq., Thomas 
Cockshot, Esq., Robinson Chippendale, Esq., John Carr, Esq., William 
Ellis, Esq., Henry Owen Cunliffe, Esq., Abraham Chamberlaine, Esq., 
Josias Robinson, Esq., Robert Willis, Esq., John Armistead, Esq. 

The undermentioned to be Lieutenant. Dated as above. 

Samuel Westerman, Gent., Thomas Clayton, Gent., Charles Tindal, 
Gent., John Nightingale, Gent., William Moorhouse, Gent., Josiah 
Cooper, Gent., David Hewitt, Gent., John Spenser, Gent., Christopher 
Johnson, Gent., John Helston, Gent., Thomas Spenser, Gent., Thomas 
Binns, Gent., Christopher Lancaster, Gent., Henry Tristram, Gent., Jphn 
Howson, Gent. 

The undermentioned to be Ensign. Dated as above. 

William Leech, Gent., Henry Wittam, Gent., William Carlass, Gent., 
Christopher Simpson, Gent., Leonard Wilkinson, Gent. 

To be Quarter-Master : Thomas Dawson, Gent. Dated as above. 
To be Surgeon : Christopher Simpson. Dated as above. 



27 




LANDHOLDERS IN A.D. 1086. 

Explanation of Domesday Book. 

S throughout this work frequent reference is made to Domesday 

Book it will be useful to explain here the origin and nature 

of that celebrated Survey, which was made by command of 

the Conqueror, about twenty years after his accession to the 

English throne. The following particulars are abstracted from Modern 

Domesday, or, " A Return of Owners of Land in England and Wales,'* 

in 1873, published by order of the Government. 

In the year 1085 serious apprehensions appear to have been entertained of an 
invasion of the kingdom by the Danes, and the difficulty which the King then 
experienced in putting the country into a satisfactory state of defence led him to 
form the notion of having a general survey made of the whole kingdom, so, as Sir 
Martin Wright observes, " to discover the quantity of every man's fee, and to fix 
u his homage," or, in other words, to ascertain the quantity of land held by each 
person, and the quota of military aid which he was bound to furnish In proportion 
to the extent of his holding. . 

To secure accuracy of results, Commissioners or King's Justiciaries (Legati 
Regis) were appointed with ample powers to ascertain " upon the oath of the 
" several Sheriffs, Lords of Manors, Presbyters, Reeves, Bailiffs, or Villans, 
" according to the nature of the place, what was the name of the place, who held 
" it in the time of the Confessor, who was the present holder, how many hides of 
*' land there were in the manor, how many carrucates in demesne, how many 
" homagers, how many villans, how many cotarii, how many servi, what freemen, 
" how many tenants in socage, what quantity of wood, how much meadow and 
" pasture, what mills and fish-ponds, how much added or taken away, what was 
" the gross value in King Edward's time, what the present value, and how 
" much each free-man or soc-man had or has." All this was to be estimated — 1st, 
aa the estate was held in the time of the Confessor ; 2ndly, as it was bestowed by 
the King himself ; and, 3rdly, as its value stood at the time of the survey. 

All these particulars were ascertained for each county, the Commissioners 
sending in Returns (breviates) for each county separately, and from these Returns 
Domesday Book, or the General Register for the whole kingdom, was compiled. 

It will be seen, therefore, that the object of the Conqueror's survey was to 
ascertain the amount of military service and other assistance upon which he could 
depend ; and that for this purpose he Instituted an inquiry of a very searching and 
inquisitorial character into the nature and extent of the landed possessions of his 
subjects, sending special Commissioners into every locality, with power to summon 
the inhabitants and compel them to make a full disclosure of their property on 
oath. 

Notwithstanding, however, these stringent measures for insuring accuracy, there 
is no doubt that the Commissioners did not always obtain or furnish correct 
information, and that sometimes, as in the case of the present Return, the 



28 

statements of what we should now designate as the " Gross Estimated Rental/ 1 
and the " Estimated Extent," are not altogether reliable. Ingulph, the historian 
of Croylaud, in referring to the survey of the possessions of that abbey, expressly 
says, •' Isti " (taxatores) " penes nostrum monaBteriurii ben e vol i et amantes non ad 
" terum pretium nee ad verum spatium nostrum monasterium librabant, 
" misericorditer praecaventes in futurum exactionibus et aliis oneribus, piisima 
" nobis benevolentia providentes." — Oxford edition, p. 79. 

With respect to the result of this inquiry, so far as it discloses the number of 
landowners existing at that time, it must be observed that although the Domesday 
Book may be considered as a fair record of the number of persons having a direct 
interest in land, it is almost impossible, owing to the different designations under 
which they are classified, to distinguish those who may properly be considered as 
owners from those who were in the possession of land as mere occupiers only. 

The following estimate, which is extracted from the work of Sir H. Ellis, may 
perhaps be taken as showing proximately the number of persons who can properly 
be regarded as having claim to be considered as holders of land upon some legally 
recognized tenure : — 

Tenants in capite, or persons holding directly from the Crown 1,400 

Subfeudatarii, or under-tenants holding their estates from some mesne Lord 7,871 
Liberi homines, or freeholders under the Lord of a manor, usually by 

military service 12,400 

Sochemanni or Socmen, holding on some fixed and determined rent 

dCi VlUC ■•■ ••• ••• ■•■ ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• *iO|vi a 

Homines, or feudatory tenants holding on homage 1,800 

Cotarii and Coscets, or cottagers holding small parcels of land 7,000 

Preebyteri, or clergy 1,000 

Radmanni, a species of tenants in socage 870 

Milites, or persons holding under mesne Lords in respect of military service 140 

Aloarii, or absolute hereditary owners 12 

Other owners, viz., Angli and Anglici, Beures or Coliberti, Censarii or 

vyeiiBoreSj etc. •>. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... «io 



Total of recorded landholders 54,818 

The Burgenses, or Burgesses, who were returned as 7,968, are not included in 
the above list, as it is impossible to distinguish those who held lands in their 
individual from those who held in a corporate capacity, and many of them were 
evidently not owners in any sense of the term. 

Moreover the Villeins, of whom there were 108,407, are omitted, because it is 
quite certain that, when they occupied small portions of land, they did so on 
sufferance only. In fact they were regarded as mere chattels, which could be 
bought or sold, and they were not allowed by law to acquire any property, either 
in land or in goods. 

It should be added that the present counties of Northumberland, Cumberland, 
Westmoreland, and Durham were not included in the survey. 



29 




A LIST OF THE INHABITANTS 

OF CRAYEN AND BORDERING DISTRICTS, 

FIVE CENTURIES AGO ; 

Being the Poll Tax Returns of the Wapentakes of Staincliffe 
and ewecross, 2nd rlchard ii., (a.d. 1379.) 

{Reproduced, by permission, from the" Yorkshire Archaeological and Topographical 

Journal" transcribed from the original Rolls). 

HIS famous Tax, which was the cause of an ill-starred revolt, 
was framed and levied on the accession of King Richard II., 
as a means of raising funds to re-furnish the Treasury coffers, 
which had been emptied on French battlefields, and to maintain Calais 
and other maritime towns of Prance, then in the possession of England. 
It was in the form of a graduated poll-tax, ranging from 10 marks, at 
which the Duke of Lancaster was charged, down to 4d., on all lay persons 
above the age of 16 years, notorious mendicants excepted. The clergy 
were separately taxed. All married couples were charged at a single rate. 
These ancient Rolls are especially valuable, as they exhibit in great 
measure the state of society at the time ; who were the Knights and 
Esquires ; who the merchants, artificers, &c, and what the relative size 
and importance of the villages comprised. From these simple lists we 
gather the number and names of the married and unmarried inhabitants, 
what their degree and avocation, although these are not always stated. 
The same rank or trade is, moreover, not always charged alike, which 
must have been regulated by the income or standing of the individual. 
Thus, an Esquire was usually rated at 20s., but sometimes at 6s. 8d., and 
even 3s. 4d. Farmers of manors and granges were charged 2s. ; trades- 
men and artificers commonly 6d., but occasionally Is. ; innkeepers, 2s. 
and Is. ; while the great mass of the people, who were engaged in 
agriculture, paid a groat, or 4d. Entries of the same trade are often 
described under different names, e.g., a smith is sometimes a ?nareschal y 
ferour, or faber ; a tailor, cissor, tailliour, or taliar ; a butcher, bocher, 
flesher, carnifex, or fleshetver ; a grocer, spicer ; a joiner, sagher ; a 
shoemaker, sutor ; a mason, cimentor ; a builder or waller, donber or 
dauber ; a thatcher, theker ; a weaver, textor or webster ; a cloth-fuller, 



80 

fullo or walker ; a dyer, tinctor or lystar ; a merchant, mercator ; a peddler 
pedder. One avocation (under Arncliffe*) is Emptor lanarum. This 
means a stapler or dealer in wool, and the person so taxed must have 
been, from the amount levied, — 4s, 4d., — in a large way of business. He 
probably bought the wool from the monks of Fountains and Bolton 
Abbeys, whose extensive flocks grazed on Fountains Fell and the adjoining 
moors. Other occupations, such as hosteler, herbeiour, miller, diker, 
slater, nayler, glasier, &c, are obvious and self-explanatory. 

The places are arranged alphabetically, and according to the modem 

spelling of them. 

Ux is short for uxor, meaning wife. 



WAPENTACHIUM DE STAYNCLYFF. 

Ayrbton* (Aibton). 



Adyngham (Addingham). 



Robertas de Lede & vx . 
Thomas de Newland & vx 
Johannes Alius Roberti & vx 
Ricardus de Midilton & vx 
Johannes Dawson & vx . 
Thomas de Warlay & vx . 
Henricus de Caluerlay & vx 
Adam Alius Ricardi & vx. 
Johannes filiuB Willelmi & vx 
Willelmus Batemanson & vx 
Ricardus Bobertson («fc; but 

read " Robertson "?) & vx 
Willelmus films Robert! & vx 
Robertas Webstre & vx . 
WillelmuB Dykson Sc vx . 
Willelmus de Radclyff' & vx 
Willelmus de Elom & vx. 
Jacobus del Stede & vx . 
Thomas de Gyldesbergh' & vx 
Johannes Robertson & vx 
Johannes Herdwyk' & vx 
Thomas del Qrene & vx . 
Willelmus Manne, Jfttlfc, & vx 
Thomas Wode & vx 
Johannes filius Johannis de 

Hardwyk & vx . 
Robertas Yong & vx 
Willelmus Wodmanne & vx 
Ricardus Colynson & vx . 
Willelmus de Crosby & vx 
Robertas Daudson & vx . 

Suraina— ix.#. x.<2. 



• • • • 3 

inj.a. 
iiij.d. 

• •  • j 

mi .a. 

 • • » m 

nil. a. 

• • ft ft _T 

mi. a, 

• • • » * 

HI] .A. 

• • ft • -f 

iiij.a. 

mi .a. 
•• •» * 
ui] .a. 

• •  • V 

nij. a. 
uij .a. 

• • •   

ill] a. 

ft •   T 

mi .a. 

• • • ft 9 

mi. a. 

• • •  « 

nij .a. 

• • • • j 

inj.a. 

• «  • ■• 

in]. a. 
mi. a. 

 • •  3 

mi. a. 

• • • » 3 

in] .a. 

nij. d. 

vj.rf. 

• •  • 3 

ni] .a. 

«  • • 3 

inj.rf. 

• • • • « 

nij.//. 

 • • • « 

ui] .a. 

• • • • « 

nij. a. 
nij.a. 

• » ft • 3 

ui). a. 



Johannes de Preston senior 

& vx 
Johannes del Myre, Theker\ & 

Vi ..... 

Johannes de Preston junior & 

vx .... 
Johannes filius Roberti & vx 
Ricardus Porter & vx 
Johannes de Scothorp & vx 
Isabella vx Thome . 
Willelmus Gose & vx 
Adam filius Willelmi & vx 
Arnaldus de Ayreton & vx 
Robertas Hynt & vx 
Agnes vx Johannis Spenser 
Johannes de Ayreton & vx 
Johannes filius Willelmi & vx 
Johannes filius Thome & vx 
Johannes Smyth', Faber\ & vx 
Johannes Wyndill' & vx . 
SeruienV — Willelmus Porter 
Emma Fox 
Anabella Grafdog' . 
Cicilia de Thornton . 

Summa — vij.*. id. 



xij.rf. 

• • • • * 

mj.tf. 

• • • • 3 

nij. a. 
nij .a. 

• •• » * 

ni].rf. 
uij .a. 

• • • • « 

mi. d. 

 • • • 3 

111J.0. 
\i\j.d. 
mj.tf. 
liij.a. 

• ft ft* m 

un.d. 

• ft • ft 3 

Hij.rt. 

nn.rf. 

mj.fl. 

yj.d. 

• • • • * 

in] .a. 
.... •» 
mj.ff. 

• •• • 3 

ill] .a. 
.»• . * 

lllj.tf. 

• ft « • 3 

lllj.tf. 



Appiltrbwyk' (Applbtbebwick). 

Johannes Yong* senior, CUwr, 
& vx vj.d. 

Johannes Yong' junior, Smyth', 
& vx xj.d. 

Henricus filius Ricardi, Sutor, 

& VX yj.d. 

Henricus Jon son, Carpenter, 
& vx vj.d 



* See also Halton East. 



81 



Johannes Somerton, Mawer, 

& VX • • • 

Henricus de Gyrmowth', ffullo, 

& vx . 
Jolyson, CUsor, & vx 
Ricardus Wryght' & vx 
Thomas Kempe & vx 
Thomas Yowhyrd' & vx 
Robertas de Nusse & vx 
Johannes de Nussay & vx 
Johannes de Calton & vx 
Thomas de Crofton & vx 
Johannes Hyrd' & vx 
Adam Tom son & vx 
Willelmus Alius Willelmi & vx 
Robertas Hyrd' & vx 
Johannes de Gourlay and vx 
Johannes filius Ricardi & vx 
Johannes Emson & vx . 
Johannes Slenger' & vx . 
Adam ffellyng' & vx 
Henricus Smelter' & vx . 
Willelmus Talliourson & vx 
Robertas Wall' & vx 
HenricuB de Wall' & vx . 
Johannes Webstre, senior 

CiMor, & vx 
Johannes fflecher, fflecher\ A 

vx .... 
Robert us Wattson, Cissor, & vx 
Henricus Tele, Milner, & vx 
Alicia Webstre, Textryx, 
Agnes Toller', Textrix, . 
Alicia Slynger", Textrix, 
Sentient' — Johannes Adamson 

Toinson 
Robertas filius Henrici filii 

Ricardi 
Henricus Slenger' . 
Johannes de Bay lay 
Thomas de Wynterburn 
Cecilia vx Trystrem 
Agnes de Bank' 
Oliua Bayllie . 
Agnes filia Willelmi 
Agnes Schephyrd 
Cecilia Jondoghter' 
l3olda Trestrem 
Katerina filia Thome 

Summa — xviij.*. 



v].d. 
vj.rf. 

V].rf. 

mi.**. 

• • • • « 

mi .</. 
uij .a. 
mi .a. 

• • • • t 

mj.a. 

• • • • m 

mi .a. 
mi .a. 

• • • » * 

nil .d. 

• n » * n 

uij. a. 

• • • • ■• 

ill] .a. 

•  • • * 

ui] .a. 
nij.rf. 

• • • • « 

ni] .a. 

• • • • * 

uij.rf. 

• • • » « 

ui] .a. 

• • • » m 

liii.ff. 

•  •  t 

luj.a. 
Hi]. a. 

• • • » n 

in] .a. 
v).d. 

vj.rf. 

v].d. 
y].d. 

• • • • n 

V].rf. 

vj.rf. 

V].rf. 

• t • • T 

Hi] .a. 

inj.tf. 

liij. a. 
• . • » • 
ui].a. 

 • • » ■• 

iuj.a. 

• • • • « 

uij. a. 
• • » • j 
ill] .a. 

liii.a. 

•  • • « 

nij.a. 

• • § • j 

in] .a. 

• • • • ■» 

in] .a. 
ill], d, 

• • • • « 

ui] .a. 



ABNECLYFF' (ABNCLIFFE). 



Henricus Clerke & vx 
Thomas Arneclyff & vx . 
Rogerus Lene & vx 
Hugo de Pikall' & vx 
Adam ffilius Simonis & vx 
Willelinus de Parys & vx 



• • • • y 

mi. a. 

• * • • t 

ill]. a. 

« • • • i 

ui] .a. 

• • . • j 
in] .a. 

• • . • » 
Hi] .a. 

y).d. 



Bicardus Thomson & vx 
Willelmus filius Elie & vx 
Johannes Cyllson & vx . 
Willelmus Horner & vx . 
Thomas Daudson & vx . 
Johannes Milner & vx 
Johannes Daudson & vx 
Edmundus de Esmondrawe & 

vx .... 
Johannes Pome & vx 
Johannes Dene, Emptor lana- 



rum, & vx 



uij 



Robertus Dene <fc vx 
Willelmus de Wyghale & yx 
Serulent' — Johannes filius Ade 
Willelmus filius Ricardi . 
Thomas nil i us Elie . 
Isabella seruiens Bank son 
Isabella seruiens Johannis Mil 

ner 
Emma Hagase 
Amya Malsese 
Katerina de GasegyP 
Alicia Wylyn . 
Alicia filia Johannis 
Johannes de Colgyll' 
Alicia de Colgyll 
Tillot' Punte . 
Katerina de Wyghehale 
Nicholaus Hyrd' 
Johannes filius Hugonis 
Johannes Wynterburn 
Alina Horner' 

Summa — xv.i. \],d. 



• • • • i 

mj.rf. 
Hi]. 4. 
mj.d. 

• • •  m 

nij.a. 

• • •  t 

uij.d. 
Hi] .a. 
Hi] .a. 

mi .a. 
u\).d. 

iii].d. 
mi .a. 
mi .a. 

 s • • m 

Hi] .a. 

• • # • * 

nij.rf. 
iiij.rf. 
iiij.d. 

•• » • _» 

HI]. A. 

iiij.^. 
nij.a. 

mi d. 

• • • » « 

ni].a. 
nij.a. 

• • • • 3 

nij.d. 
mi .d. 

• • • • « 

uij .a. 
• • • • j 
mi .a. 

» •• • » 

HI]. A. 

 •  • _» 

Hi]. a. 
uij. a. 



Bolton (Bolton Abbey). 



Henricus de Pudsay, ad valen- 
ciam ..... 
Henricus de Pudsay senior, 
ff rank ley n . . iij.j 

Willelmus de Downom & vx 
Johannes del Howe & vx 
WalteruB ffyscher' & vx . 
Johannes Northwod & vx 
Rogerus de Halton' & vx 
Thomas de Wallay & vx 
Thomas del Wode & vx . 
Johannes filius Willelmi & vx 
Henricus Brewstre & vx 
Alanus Taylliour & vx . 
Willelmus Werell & vx . 
Willelmus Werell junior & vx 
Adam Redheued & vx 
Ricardus Schall' & vx 
Johannes Nodde & vx 
Adam Iueson k vx . 
Henricus de Kegleswyk & vx 
Willelmus Hykson & vx . 



.#. 



• • • • T 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • m 

in] .A 

• • • • m 

iiii.a. 

t • *  « 

ill] .a. 

mi. a. 
• • . . * 
Hi] .a. 

• • * • * 

uij.d. 

m • • » « 

111] .A. 

 • • B « 

lllj.rf. 

Hi] .tf. 

• • • • « 

111J./X. 

• • t • i 

nii.rt. 
nij.a. 
uij. a. 

• •  * t 

mj.a. 

• • B • 1 

111].«. 

• • • • m 

ni).d. 
uij.//. 
Hi].i2. 



82 



EdmunduB de Rylay k vx 
Ricardus Newconaen 5c vx 
Thomas de Ottelay k vx 
Willelmus Cotemane k vx 
Robertua Mikylbroke k vx 
Rogerus Rayheued k vx 
Thomas de Sal lay k vx . 
Johannes Ward' k vx 
Stephanas de M idle ton k vx 
Robertus de Parke k vx . 
Willelmus de ffeyghser' k vx 
RobertUB de Sal ford k vx 
Ricardus Rell' k vx 
Willelmus Kemp k vx . 
Johannes Alius Alane (sic) k vx 
Robertus de Bisham k vx 
Adam de Bisham k vx . 
Johannes filius Ricardi k vx 
Johannes Webstre & vx . 
Elias de Horshyll' k vx . 
Robertus Spenser k vx 
Johannes Tom son k vx . 
Johannes de Ranyngton k vx 
Thomas Mylner k vx 
Willelmus West k vx 
Thomas filius Johannis k vx 
Robertus de Horesford k vx 
Hugo de Sail ay k vx 
Ricardus de Thonton k vx 
Robertus Webstre & vx . 
Walterus Bell' k vx 
Ricardus de Austwyk k vx 
Johannes filius Ade k vx 
Willelmus de Lond' k vx 
Seruient' — Ricardus de Downou 
Alicia ffyscher' 
Johannes de Netherwod* 
Johannes de Netherwod' junior 
Seruiens Johannis de Nether- 
wod' .... 
Cecilia de Boglesmyre 
Edmundus filius Alane (tic) 
Matilda de Remyngton 
Katerina de Miklebroke . 
Emma de Clap ham 
Mar gar eta seruient Rectoris 
Alicia Johson . 
WillelmuB de Kendall* . 
Henricus Parsonman 
Isabella Panne ter . 
Alicia Par me ter' 
Johannes de Waterbank' 
Ellott' Persdoghter' 
Alicia de Salford 
Johannes Ward' 
Henricus Jonson 
Johannes Bell' 
Cecilia Salford' 

Summa — xlviij.*. iiij.rf 



 • • • « 

mi .a. 

• • •» 3 

nij.a. 

ft • ft • V 

mi. a. 

• • • » * 

nij.a. 

•  • • 3 

mi. a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 

• • • • 3 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • 3 

mj.a. 

• • t • 3 

iii].a. 
mj.a. 
ui] .a. 

• • • • f 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • * 

mi .a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • 3 

mi. a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • j 

mj.a. 

» ... j 

nij.a. 

ft •• • 3 

mj.a. 
••• • » 
ni].a. 

• • • • 3 

mj.a. 
mj. a. 
mj .a. 

• • * • 3 

in] .a. 
mj.a. 

 • » • 3 

ill]. a. 

» • •  _y 
lllj.ff. 

ft ft • • J 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 

•  • • * 

ui] .a. 

 ft » • 7 

ui]. a. 
• • • » » 
mj.a. 

• • • • 3 

mj.a. 

• • • • « 

in] .a. 

 • • • 3 

mj.a\ 
mj. a. 

• • » • 3 

mj. a. 

• • • • 3 

mj. a. 

• • m • f 

lll].ff. 

• • t • T 

ill] .a. 
nij.a. 
mj. a. 

• • • • « 

ui] .a. 

• • • • ■j 

nij.a. 
mj .a. 

• • ft • T 

lllj.ff. 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• • •  3 

ill] M. 

mj.a. 

• • • • » 

111].//, 
lllj.a. 

 • • • f 

lll].ff. 

• •  • 3 

lilj.a. 

mj .a. 



Bracewell'. 

Dominus Ricardus Tempest, 

Chiualer, k vx 
Perot Tempest. Armatus, k vx 
Johannes de Midhop k vx 
Robertus Tomson k vx . 
Johannes Will son k vx . 
Johannes Tomson k vx . 
Alanus Elcok k vx 
Johannes de Broghton k vx 
Ricardus del Hey k vx . 
Johannes Hardy k vx 
Thomas del Rawe k vx . 
Johannes filius Henrici k vx 
Johannes Nicolson k vx 
Thomas de Gysburn & vx 
Johannes Morys k vx 
Henricus de Lethom k vx 
Willelmus Smyth, Fabar, k vx 
Johannes Wattson k vx . 
Ricardus Lasyngbi k vx 
Willelmus de Lethom k vx 
Robertus Elcok k vx 
Johannes Mason k vx 
Johannes Colynson k vx 
Johannes Mauncell' k vx 
Thomas Webster', Textor^ & vx 
Elena teruiena Johannis de 

Midhop' .... 
Summa — xxxiij.*. viij.a*. 



xx.*. 
xl.a\ 

 • • * 3 

Ul]. a. 

ft • • • m 

ui] .a. 

.... m 

iu].d. 

ft • •> * 

iin.a\ 

ft • ft ft 3 

nij.a. 

ft ft  ft T 

nij.a. 

• • • • y 

n n.<7. 

• • • » 3 

mj.a. 

• • • • 3 

nij.a. 
m j. a. 

ft • ft • 3 

mj.a. 

ft • • * 3 

ui] .a. 

• • • • 3 

mj.a. 
vj.a*. 
nij.a. 
iiij .a*, 
in]. a. 

ft •  • 3 

Hi]. a. 

ft « ft • 3 

ui] .a. 
.... j 
mj.a. 

ft ft • • 3 

mj.a. 
vj.a*. 

iiij.a\ 



Bradford' (West Bradford). 



Ricardus Broune k vx 
Adam de Bradford' k vx 
Adam filius Johannis 
Johannes Diconson k vx 
Thomas filius Hugonis k vx 
Johannes Tailliourmoghe k vx 
Jo ha nn es Milner k vx 
Gregorius de Bolton k vx 
Willelmus filius Hugonis k vx 
Adam de Hardeyn k vx 
Thomas Broune k vx 
Willelmus de Eddlysston k vx 
Johannes Betonson k vx 
Dakyn de Idsford k vx 
Johannes Lowcoke k vx 
Ricardus de Hyll' k vx 
Ricardus Stronger' k vx 
Johannes Strenger' k vx 
Cicilia vx Roberti Snell 
Agnes Doghdale 
Emma filia Radulphi 
Katerina vx Roberti 
Agnes Hankokwyf . 
Isabella de Hardeyn 
Agnes filia Ricardi del Hyll' 



• • • • i 

iiij.o\ 

• •  • * 

nn. a. 

ft ft ft  y 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 

ft   • 3 

nn. a. 
iii].a\ 

 ft  » 3 

mj.a. 

« ft • • 3 

mj.a. 

• ••* 3 

nij.a. 

ft ft ft  m 

HI].//. 

• • • ft <f 

mj.a. 

• ft •* * 

lllj.rf. 

ft ft • • 3 

mj.a. 

• • • • i 

mj d. 
nij.a. 

ft ft • * 3 

ni].a. 
v].d. 
v].d. 

ft ft « • V 

mj.a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 

• • • • 3 

mj.a. 

• • ft • 3 

ni].a. 

•  ft • 3 

Hi] .a. 

• • • • « 

mj.a. 

 • ft  ■» 

mj.a. 



33 



Z 

f 

J 



Anabilla de Hodre . 


••• • j 
. ui]. a. 


Isabella de Hedre . 


9 • • • * 

. uij. a. 


Johannes de Hedre 


• • • • 3 

. in j. a. 


WillelmuB Strenger' 


•   • 3 

. uij. a. 


Willelmue de Hardeyn . 


. uij d. 


Mogota Locok 


 • • • « 

. uij. a. 


Matilda Lecok 


• t  • 3 

. ill]. a. 


Summa— xj.*. 





Braydlay (Bbadley). 



Adam filius Hugonis k vx 
Thomas filius Ade de Denton 
Thomas Fowler' k vx 
Thomas Styrke k vx 
Johannes Leper & vx 
Ricardus Styrk' k vx 
Johannes Helysson k vx . 
Willelmue de Coplay k vx 
Robertus Bakstre k vx . 
Johannes filius Matilde k vx 
Thomas Wreght' & vx . 
Johannes Wreght 1 , Carpenter 

k vx 

Robertus filius Johannis k vx 
Willelmus Pacok k vx 
Johannes filius Willelmi k vx 
RobertuB filius Willelmi k vx 
Johannes Pacok k vx 
Elena vx Johannis . 

Summa - viij.#. v\\j.d. 



\j.d. 

vj.d. 

mj.d. 

vj.d. 

• • • • m 

ill] .d. 
vj.d. 
vj.d. 
vj.d. 
vj.d. 
vj.d. 
vj.d. 

vj.d. 
vj.d. 
vj.d. 
vj.d. 
vj.d. 
vj.d. 

V].rf. 



Beoghton' (Bbouohton). 

Willelmus Geliot', ffrankleyn, 

k vx . . .. xl d. 

Thomas de Marton Ci'mot, k vx vj.d. 

Matilda ff ray ell' . . xl d. 

Thomas Lofthowhes k vx . iiij.d. 

Robertus Lofthowhes, (rlasier, 

& vx vj.d. 

Willelmus de Merkedeyu, Ar- 

matus, & vx . . xl d. 

Johannes Reuell' & vx . . iiij.rf. 

Johannes Lofthowhes k vx iiij d. 

Ricardus de ffamel thorp & vx . iuj.d. 

Johannes Hyrd' & vx . iiij.d. 

Johannes Smyth' & vx . . Iuj.d. 

Willelmus Hodrot & vx . iiij.d. 

Johannes Brygge k vx . . mj.d. 

Thomas Geliot & vx . . mj.d. 

Johannes Maymond k vx . iiij d. 

Thomas filius Ade k vx . . iiij d. 

Willelmus de Adyngham k vx \\\j.d. 

Agnes Sclater' & vx 'mj.d. 

Willelmus Jonkyson k vx . nij.d. 



Adam de Gressynton k vx 
Johannes Piper' k vx 
Henricus de ffamel thorp' k vx 
Johannes de Slowth' & vx 
Johannes de Kyrkby k vx 
Willelmus Dryffeld k vx 
Ricardus de Aldefeld' k vx 
Thomas Byschop' k vx . 
Thomas MarynBon k vx . 
Willelmus Somerhyrst k vx 
Alicia de Loftehoweses . 
Seruientes — Willelmus Jakson 
Janyn Merkyldeman 
Margareta servient Rectoris 
Willelmus de Lofthowses 
Isabella seruiens Matilde ffray 

ueir .... 
Alicia Henridoghter 

Summa — xxj «. mj.d. 



BUKDETN (BUCKDEN). 



Ricardus Benson k vx 
Willelmus Tenaunt k vx . 
Rogerus Tenaunt k vx 
Johannes Tenant & vx . 
Johannes filius Petri k vx 
Ricardus Tenaunt k vx 
Ricardus Grenfell' k vx . 
Thomas Colynson k vx . 
Johannes de Pott k vx 
Thomas de Curie & vx . 
Johannes Nableson k vx . 
Thomas de Loege k vx . 
Johannes Austynson k vx 
Willelmus Benson k vx . 
Rogerus Jakson k vx 
Johannes Ellson k vx 
Willelmus Todd' k vx 
Johannes Graueson k vx 
Robertus Turner k vx 
Robertus Hebdeyn & vx. 
Thomas Austynson k vx 
Willelmus Bellard' & vx . 
Johannes de Wenselaw & vx 
Willelmus filius Isollde & vx 
Willelmus Hyrd' k vx 
Johannes Lyttster k vx . 
Johannes de Staynford' k vx 
Thomas Wyllson k vx 
Johannes Lei e son k vx . 
Adam Brawnt k vx 
Willelmus de Stanehow k vx 
Johannes Wattson k vx . 
Adam filius Agnetis k vx 
Johannes Webstre k vx . 
Robertus filius Thome de 

Staynford' k vx . 
Henricus de Stanehow k vx 



• • • • « 

mj.d. 

 • •  _3 

nij.a. 

inj.a. 

. . • • j 
ni). a. 

•  • • 3 

wild. 
inj.rt. 

 • • • m 

nij d. 

w • • • 3 

mi .d. 
mi. a. 
n li. a. 

• • • » 3 

nij. a. 
mj.d. 

• t • • 3 

inj.a. 
\ih.d. 

• • • • 3 

mj.d. 

inj.a. 

mj.d. 



im.d- 
liij.rt- 

• • • • 3 

lin.rt' 

• • • • m 

im.d- 
inj.a* 
inj.tf- 

• • • t 3 

ii n. a- 
inj.a- 
mj.d- 

• • • • 3 

m\. a- 
inj.a- 
mj.d- 

• m m • m 

lllj.rf- 

•  t • 3 

inj.a* 

• • • » 3 

1111. rt- 

• • • * « 

nij. a* 

• • • • 3 

mj.d. 

• • •  m 

1111. tf. 
in]. a. 

• • «  3 

nii.rf. 

• • •* 3 

nij d. 

m m m • 3 

mi ,d. 

• • • » 3 

111). <I. 
111). rf. 

• • m • 3 

inj.a. 
uij.a. 

 • • » « 

in j. a. 

• • •  3 

uij. a. 

• •  • m 

ni].d. 
in] d. 
mi. a. 

• • • » 3 

nij. a. 

• • •  3 

mj.d. 

• • • • 3 

nij. a. 

• • • • 3 

mi. a. 

• • • • 3 

in]. a. 



C 



34 



Robert Studhyrd' & vx . 
Seruient' — Adam Leleson 
Hugo Ward*. Cissor, & vx 
Thomas Tailliour & vx . 
Agnes written* Willelmi filii 

Isolde .... 
Johannes Beruiens ejusdemWil 

lelmi .... 
Amary sentiem Johannis Gra 

ueson .... 
Johannes Alius Johannis Gra 

ueson .... 
Johannes Alius Willelmi Todd 
Willelmus filius Willelmi Ben 

son .... 
Willelmus Jakson . 
Johannes filius Willelmi Ten 

aunt .... 
Johannes Alius Johannis fili 

Petri .... 
Matilda seruiens Ricardi Ten 

aunt .... 
Henricus filius Hugonis . 
Alicia de Hebdeyn . 

Summa— xvij.*\ vj.//. 



uij .a. 

• • • » * 

111 j .rf. 

m • •  * 

mj./f. 

• • •  m 

ill] .a. 

• • • • 3 

mj. a. 
uij .a. 

• • • • 9 

in] .a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • « 

mi a. 

t • • • * 

in] .a. 
uij. a. 
mj.a. 

• • •  n 

in]. a. 

lll].rf. 

• • • • m 

uij. a. 



BBYNSALE (BURN8ALL). 



Willelmus Prynce & vx . 
Willelmus de Thorp' & vx 
Thomas K ok son & vx 
Thomas Wylkynson & vx 
Johannes Hunter' & vx . 
Johannes Clerke & vx 
Thomas Clerkson & vx . 
Henricus Grundelf & vx 
Johannes Bretener' & vx 
Willelmus de Brutesall' & vx 
Johannes de Scard burgh Ac vx 
Willelmus de Gayregraue k vx 
Thomaft Milnerson & vx . 
Hugo Tailliour & vx 
Johannes Gay thy rd' & vx 
Nicholaus de Thorp' & vx 
Johannes Swarthowe, C-arjien 

ter, & vx 
Willelmus Hunter, Textor, & 

V JL • * • • 

Johannes Tailliour, Ci*sor^ & 

Alicia Bene 

Isabella vxor Johannis 
Alicia de Setle . 
Matilda Jogesdoghter' 
■Cecilia Maugurnays 
Agnes Bryghowse 
Willelmus filius Thome . 
Seruient' -Henricus Prynce 
Isolda filia Willelmi Prynce 



xij.rf. 
vj.//. 
vj.//. 
vj.//. 

lllj.fl. 

• • •  9 

uij. a. 
mi .a. 
uij. a. 

 * ft • m 

uij .a. 

 ft • • m 

mi. d. 

• • • * m 

lllj.fl. 

uij a. 
uij .d. 

•   ft f 

in] .d. 

• • •  * 

nij. a. 

• • • • v 

iiij.d. 

vj //. 

vj.//. 

vj.//. 
u\].d. 
inj.//. 
ni].//. 
lllj.ff. 

• • •  « 

111].//. 

• • • • * 

111]. a. 

• • • • 1 

111].//. 

• • • • f 

inj.//. 

• • • • * 

uij //. 



Johannes Nowcouene 
Robertus Hunter' 
Matilda Cadi . 
Robertus Cadison 

Summa— xij.*\ iiij.//. 



• • • • * 

in j .rf. 

mi .a. 

lllj.//. 

uij .a. 



Calton'. 

Johannes de ffrekylyngton, 

Marehanty & xv 
Johannes de Malghom, ffrank- 

eleyn, & vx . . vj.*. 

Ricardus Wilkokson & vx 
Thomas Haughenlyt & vx 
Johannes Hulwath' & vx 
Robertus Molyff & vx 
Willelmus de Buneby & vx 
Rogerus de Calton A: vx . 
Ricardus Chese & vx 
Henricus de Preston, Spicer, 

& vx 

Robertus Kyng' & vx 
Johannes Paytfyn & vx . 
Johannes Kyng' Hosteler. & vx 
Johannes Kyngson & vx 
Thomas filius Ricardi Wykok 

& vx 

Henricus Tylnay & vx 
Willelmus se miens Willelmi 

de Boneby & vx . 
Alicia Jolyff .... 
Cecilia Hulwath' 
Thomas Kyngson 

Summa — xv.*. 



xij.//. 
viij.//. 

 • • • i 

mj.rf. 

• • • • _t 

lllj.//. 

• • • • -f 

lllj.//. 

 • • • J 

ill] .a. 
uij. a. 
mi .a. 
uij./r. 

xij.//. 

• • • • m 

ui] .a. 

• • • • * 

ill] .a. 
xij.//. 

uij. a. 

uij .a. 

• • • • * 

uij .a. 

 • • • m 

mj.a. 
lllj.//. 
uij .a. 
uij. a. 



Carlbton'. 

Johannes Dautre. Serigant 

Ville .... vj.*. viii.//. 
Emma IXuitre, vidua . iij.*. iii].d. 

Henricus Dautre, Smyth\k vx vj./Z. 

Radulphus de le Wod' & vx . iiij d. 

Johannes fferant & vx . . iiij.i2. 

Thomas ffrauell' & vx iiij.//. 

Johannes de Vttelay& vx . iiij.//. 

Robertus Cetter' & vx iiij.<£. 

Robertus filius Ade & vx. . iiij.//. 

Willelmus de le Scale & vx \\\).d. 

Willelmus Bene & vx . . iiij.//. 

Thomas Clarke & vx . . iiij.//. 

Adam del Wod' & vx . . iiij.//. 

Willemus Tayllyour & vx . iiij.//. 

Johannes Kandsan & vx . . iii].//. 

Johannes Henrison & vx . . iiij.//. 

Robertus Dykson «fc vx . iiij.//. 

Henricus Stubbes k. vx . . iiij.//. 



1 



35 



Johannes de la Marche & vz 
WillelmuB Dykson & vx . 
Johannes del West k vx . 
Adam Nethyrwod' k vx . 
Henricus Blakbrowk k yx 
Adam Scale k vx 
Johannes de Ewod' k vx 
Johannes Schephyrd* k vx 
WillelmuB de Vttelay k vx 
Rogerus Cowper' k vx . 
Ricardus Webster* Textor, k vx 
Thomas Lekenfeld', Textor, k 



Seruientes — Johannes fferaunt 
Radulphus de la Wode 
Adam Newortham 
Matilda Baron 
Agnes Parcowr* 
Johannes Manne 
Willelmus Manne 
Will elm us Benne 
Willelmus fflechehaui 

Summa — xxij.*. x.o\ 



111].//. 
iiij.rt\ 

lllj.rt. 

• • • • m 

lllj.rt. 

• • • • * 

in]. a. 

 • • • * 

lllj.rt. 

lllj.rt. 

• • •  « 

in). a. 

• • • *  

nij.ff. 

•  •  m 

lllj.rt. 

vj.rt\ 

• • • • m 

lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 

• • • • t 

lllj.rt. 

• • m • y 

1111.0. 

mj. rt. 

• • • • * 

liii.rf. 

  • » m 

uij.rt. 
iiij.rt. 



Caldconyngston' (Coniston Cold) 

Willelmus Grundolff, Cissw,k 

vx vi.d. 

Jordan de Rode & vx . . iiij.rf. 

Johannes Turpyn & vx . . m).d. 
Johannes de Mytton, Sutor, k 

vx vj.rf*. 

Willelmus Hardy & vx . . iiij.rf. 

Mater Willelmi Hardi . . iiij.«\ 

Robertus Turpyn & vx . . iiii.a\ 

Ricardus Doeggson,/tt llo, k vx vj .d. 
Johannes Maymond, Mcrcator 

&vx xij.//. 

Johannes Clerkson & vx . . iiij.rt\ 

Thomas Clerkson & vx . . \\\\.d. 
Johannes fill us Thome Dykson 

& vx iiij.tf*. 

Willelmus Clerkson k vx . iiij.rf. 

Thomas Clerkson & vx . . iiij.rf. 

Thomas Dykson k vx . xij .rt\ 

Thomas de Twaytes k vx. . iiij.rf. 

Adam Jonson & vx . . iiij.rf. 

Willelmus Vttyng & vx . . iiij.rt*. 

Kobertus Clerkson k vx . . iiij.tf. 

Anabella Grane . . iiij.rt*. 

Johannes filius Willelmi k vx. iiij.rt*. 

Ricardus Rayner', Couper, k vx vj.rt*. 
Summa — ix.*. iiij.tf. 



Conyngston' in Ketlewelldale. 
(Ooniston). 



Willelmus de Pikall' k vx 
Johannes de Pikall' k vx 
Willelmus del Hall* k vx 
Willelmus Jonson k vx . 
Willelmus More and vx . 
Cecilia Glendale 
Willelmus del Mire k vx . 
Nigillus de Folcott k vx 
Johannes Dobson k vx . 
Willelmus ffyscher', Slater, 

vx .... 
Willelmus del Wode k vx 
Johannes del Trop k vx . 
Thomas Vttyng' k vx 
Adam Boy & vx 
Willelmus WJlesker' k vx 
Johannes Blawer' k vx . 
Willelmus del Bank k vx 
Robertus de Kyrkby k vx 
Johannes Forster de Kybissay 

k vx 
Ricardus de Midlehows k vx 
Adam Erie & vx 
Thomas Langsker' k vx . 
Johannes de St! till' & vx . 
Thomas Someer' k vx 
Willelmus Smyth', Faber y k vx 
Adam Tail Hour. Ctisor, k vx 
Thomas Cokson, Cis$or, k vx 
tieruimt' — Robertus Berni/ns 

Johannis Trope 
Thomas Beruu'n* ThomeCokson 
Agnes Rae 
Alicia de Newton 
Agnes ffyscher' 
Johannes filius Ade Tailliour 
Johannes filius Thome Somer' 
Isabella seruien* ejusdem 

Thome . 

Summa — xij.*. vj.tf. 



Collyng (Cowling). 

Johannes West & vx 
Ricardus West k vx 
Willelmus filius Johannis k vx 
Johannes de Totyngton k vx 
Johannes de Paldeyn & vx 
Adam filius Johannis k vx 
Adam del Dobbes k vx . 
Willelmus de Merebeke k vx 
Johannes de To rig' k vx . 
Johannes de Wraton k vx 
Robertas Damson k vx . 
Johannes filius Willelmi k vx 



lllj.rt. 

vj.rt*. 

lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 

liny/, 
lllj.rt. 
nii.fl. 
mj.rt. 

yj.d. 

• •  » ■» 

lllj.rt. 

• • •  * 

lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 

• • •  m 

lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 

• • • • ? 

lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 

•  • • •« 

nij.rt\ 

• • • • ■• 

nij.rt. 

• •  • * 

nij.rt. 

• • • • i 

mj.rt. 

lllj.rt. 

• • • • * 

lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 

Y).d, 
vj.rt*. 
vj.rt*. 

lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 

lllj.rt. 

• • • * * 

lllj.rt. 

lllj.rt. 

• • • • m 

lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 



lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 

• • • • « 

lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 

• • a • m 

lllj.rt. 
lllj.rt. 

• • • • f 

iu\.d. 

lllj.rt. 

• • • f f 

lllj.rt. 



36 



Johannes de Brytwesle k vx 
Ricardus Smyth, Faber, k vx 
Johannes Dauy k vx 
Johannes Scot k vx 
Robertas Dauy k vx 
Johannes Mason k vx 
Agnes filia Johannis 
Willelmus Tillotson 
Tillot' de Northwod* 
Seruient' — Isabella vx Roberti 
Johannes Tillotson 
Johannes de Northwod' . 
Robert us del Rode . 

Summa— viij.*. ivj./f. 



• • • • * 

iiij a. 
vj.//. 

lllj.//. 

• • • * j 
mj.rf. 

• • • • j 

iuj.//. 

m 9 • » J 

ill] .a. 
mi .a. 

• • • t j 

mi.rt. 
ill].//. 

lllj.//. 

• • • • j 

inj.//. 

• • •» » 
ill] .a. 



Crakhowe (Cracoe). 



Adam filius Johannis k vx 
Thomas Schephyrd' k vx 
Johannes Wattson k vx . 
Johannes de Wykleswrth' k vx 
Willelmus Redheued' k vx 
Thomas Henri bee k vx . 
Thomas Morehowse k vx 
Johannes de Morehowse k vx 
Willelmus Jonson k vx . 
Thomas Browne k vx 
Johannes de Riway (?) k vx 
Willelmus de Bolton & vx 
Hugo Nayler' k vx 
Adam Schephyrd* & vx . 
Thomas Stagsaruant k vx 
SeruU>nV — Alicia filia Thome 

Stage .... 
Isolda Bannyesleue . 
Margareta seruiens Johannis 

Trepland . 
Alicia Bertiietu Johannis Tyrry 
Summa— vj.#. iiij.//. 



• • • • 7 
lllj.//. 

* • • * * 

in]. a. 
mi.//, 
nii.rf. 
in].//. 

• • • • * 

mid. 

• • • • t 

inj.//. 
mj./i. 

• • • * j 

iu]. a. 

m • • • f 

inj.tf. 
liij.rf. 

•  • • v 

111] .A. 

• • ft • _» 

lllj.//. 

 ft ft ft f 

111].//, 
lllj.//. 

lllj.//. 

• • • • f 

lllj.rf. 

111].//. 
111].//. 



Draghton* (Draughton). 

Willelmus Mason & vx . . iiij.//. 

Willelmus Waynman k vx . iiij.//. 

Johannes Prest & vx . . iiij.//. 

Johannes de Angrom k vx . iiij.//. 

Robert us de Draghton & vx . iii].//. 

Willelmus de Draghton k vx . iiij.//. 

Johannes de Draghton k vx . iiij.//. 

Johannes Doublegueght k vx . iii].//. 

Willelmus de Heselewod' k vx iiij.//. 

Johannes Artheyngton & vx iii] d. 

Johannes Walker k vx . iiij.//. 
Robertus de Brad lay, CUsor, 

& vx vjy/. 



Willelmus Coluyl & vx . 
Sentient'— Ricardus Doegheson 
Johannes Masan 
Johannes Pawson 
Johannes Lecheson . , 
Ricardus Jonson 
Johannes Parkynson 
Adam Edeson 

Summa — vij.#. 



• • • • V 

111].//. 

a • ft ft f 

111].//. 

vj.//. 

m). a. 

• • • • _j 

Hi].«. 

• t • • 

111] A. 
lllj.//. 
lllj.il. 



ESYNGTON* (EASINGTON). 



Johannes de Townlay & vx 
Robertus filius Ricardi k vx 
Johannes filius Rogeri k vx 
Johannes filius Nicholai k vx 
Johannes de Billyngton k vx 
Johannes Robynson k vx 
Adam Scot & vx 
Willelmus filius Ade k vx 
Thomas de Bolton k vx . 
Johannes de Laukeland* k vx 
Adam Dolfynson k vx 
Johannes Brynham k vx . 
Rogerus de Bathersby, ff ranke- 
leyn, & vx 

Summa — v.* 



Ems ay (Embsay). 

Johannes de Caluerlay k vx . 
Robertus de Calton, Carpenter, 

k vx 

Johannes Oraue k vx 
Johannes Michelson k vx 
Johannes Roper*, Roper, k vx 
Hugo Chapman, Draper, k vx 
Robertus de E in say k vx 
Robertus filius Willelmi k Vx 
Henricus le Qweriowre k vx 
Ricardus le Feloter' & vx 
Robertus Elcok and vx . 
Johannes le Theker* k vx 
Simon Huntman k vx 
Johannes de Holyn k vx 
Thomas de Aldfeld' k vx 
Willelmus de Kyrke k vx 
Adam de Malgham k vx . 
Robertus de Bryndsall k vx 
Johannes Clerkson k vx . 
Willelmus Ward' k vx . 
Willelmus Mason, Mason, k vx 
Adam Doke & vx 
Johannes de Thorbrand', Sutot 

k vx 
Ricardus de Caluerlay k vx 



• • • • * 

in]. a, 
in]. a. 

• • • • j 

inj.//. 

• • • • * 

mj. a. 
iuj.//. 
in], a. 

• • »  « 

lllj.//. 

• • • • * 

lllj.//. 

• • • » f 

111].//, 
lllj.//. 
lllj.//. 
lllj.//. 

xij.//. 



inj.//. 
vj.//. 

t • • • f 

lllj. a. 
mj .a. 

vj.//. 

vj.//. 
inj.//. 
lllj .a. 
iii].//. 

• • • • j 

lllj .a. 
lllj.//. 
lllj.//. 

• • •  3 

ill], a. 
inj.//. 
mj. a. 

• • • • « 

inj.//. 

• • • • -« 

mj.//. 
inj.//. 

• • • • j 

nij.a. 
mj.//. 
xij.//. 

• • • • f 

mj.//. 
vj.//. 

ft • •  « 

111].//. 



87 



Willelmus Ward man & vx 
Seruient" — Wi 1 lelmus Mruiens 

Johannis Graue 
Margareta filia Simonis 
Matilda Aldfeldogter' 
Leticia Browne 
Hugo de Calton 

Summa — xj.#. iiij.rf. 



ESCHETON* (ESHTON). 



Johannes de Grene k vx 
Thomas at le Townhend' k vx 
Thomas Symson & vx 
Thomas Dauson k vx 
Johannes Wreghson k vx 
Johannes de Newton & vx 
Ricardus filius Henrici k vx 
Willelmus Jodson k vx *. 
Johannes de Bolton k vx 
Johannes filius Roberti k vx 
Johannes Langcast k vx 
Robertas Wreghtson k vx 
Johannes Browne k vx . 
Johannes Raper' k vx 
Sentient' — Thomas seruiens 

Johannis Graue . 
Adam Wreght* 
John de Escheton, Faber. 

Summa— vj.*. vj.rf. 



 • • • j 
mj .a. 

mj.rf. 
mi. rf. 
mj.rf. 
mj.rf. 
mj.rf. 



• • • • * 

mj. a. 

• • • • m 

mj.rf. 

• • • * « 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • m 

111] rf. 

liij.rf. 
mj.rf. 

lllj.rf. 

iii].rf. 

 • •  _T 

lin. a. 
in] .rf. 

• • • • « 

ill] .rf. 

• • • • V 

mi .a. 
mj.rf. 

 • • • « 

mj.rf. 

« • • • f 

mi.rf. 

vj.rf. 

xij.rf. 



FFARNILl/ FFBANKILL' (fabnhill). 



Johannes de Coplay, ffranke 

leyn .... 
Thomas Kyrystendome CUsar 

k vx .... 
Johannes Stubes k vx 
Johannes Bowrne k vx 
Paulyn filius Henrici k vx 
Johannes Cheyuot, Ci*sor } k vx 
Henricus Crokbane k vx 
Adam del Stoke k vx 
Johannes Speght' k vx . 
Ricardus Mason k vx 
Johannes Baret senior 
Johannes Baret junior k vx 
GilbertUB Salter k vx 
Willelmus Speght' k vx . 
Thomas Waynman k vx . 
Johannes Collyng' k vx . 
Johannes filius Egidii k vx 
Robertus Ward' k vx 
Seruient' — Cecilia Crokbane 
Cerilia Baret . 



xl.rf. 
vj.rf. 

•  • • * 

mj.rf. 

• • • •  

mj.rf. 

vj.rf. 

lllj.rf. 

vj.rf. 

• • • • 9 

lllj.rf. 

• • * • 9 

111].//, 
lllj.rf. 

lllj.rf. 
111].//, 
lllj.rf. 

v] d. 

• • • • « 

mj.rf. 

111], rf. 

mj.rf. 

mj.rf. 

vj.rf. 

•  • • t 

ill]. A. 



Margareta filia Henrici Crok- 
bane 

Agnes de Barcroft . 

Johannes filius Johannis Gyl- 
esson 

Magota de Brad! ay . 

Thomas Speght 1 

Johannes WytvlP k vx 

Alicia WytbercT 

Juliana Leper 

Rogerus Accok k vx 

Agnes vx Ricardi . 

Margareta Perler 

Alicia de Burn 

Summa — xiiij.*. vj.rf. 



Fflasbt (Flabby). 

Nicholaus Grandage, Armatus 
Thomas Grandage k vx . 
Thomas de Esseton k vx . 
Johannes ffawnell' k vx . 
Doket Flasby k vx 
Adam de Kechyne k vx . 
Robertus filius Ade k vx . 
Johannes de Kerke k vx . 
Nicholaus Pape k vx 
Willelmus de S wen den k vx 
Johannes Spoiler' k vx . 
Willelmus Newcoume k vx 
Willelmus Cowhyrd' k vx 
Willelmus de Hall* k vx . 
Johannes de Horton k vx 
Johannes Turnur' k vx . 
Johannes Browne k vx . 
Willelmus de Cote k vx . 
Johannes de Bonby k vx 
Johannes Addeson k vx . 
Adam Waynman k vx 
Willelmus Geldhyrd' k vx 
Adam Brad belt k vx 
Willelmus de Bone by k vx 
Adam de Cote k vx 
Willelmus Walker' vx 
Henricus Darwent, Walker* 

(&) vx ... 

Henricus de Cote, Draper, (&) 

VJL • • • • 

Johannes Staple, Carpenter 

(&) vx . 
Johannes filius Roberti, Web 

iter, k vx 
Agnes Padmer' doghter,' Web 

si^r, .... 
Johannes filius Thome Grand 

ago .... 
Agnes filia Willelmi 
Amya filia ejus 
Agnes Noryse . 



• • • • y 

lllj.rf. 
mj.rf. 

. •• • r 

ui]. a. 

« • • • T 

mj.rf. 

• • • • or 

mj.rf. 

• • • • T 

Hi] .a. 

• • •  y 

inj. a. 

• • • • v 

mi. a. 
n ij. a. 
liij.rf. 
mj.rf. 
mj.rf. 



xl.rf. 
vj.rf. 

• • • • t 

mj.rf. 

• • • • m 

mj.rf. 
mj.rf. 
mj.rf. 
mj.rf. 
mj.rf. 

• • • • * 

mj.rf. 

• • • • * 

mj.rf. 

 • • • * 

mj.rf. 

• • • • « 

mj.rf. 

• • • • « 

mj.rf. 

• • • • * 

mj.rf. 

lll].rf. 

• •  • « 

mj.rf. 
mj.rf. 
mj.rf. 
mj.rf. 
nij.rf. 
mj.rf. 

111] rf. 

• • • • * 

mj.rf. 

mj.rf. 

mj.rf. 

vj.rf. 

vj.rf. 

vj.rf. 

vj.rf. 

vj.rf. 

vj.rf. 

mj rf. 
in j rf. 

• • • • m 

mj.rf. 

• • • • * 

mj rf. 



38 



Willelmus Walkerman . 

Robertus Grandage . 

Johannes de Wynterburn 

Ricardus Geliot 

Alicia Bascholf 

Robertus Alanson 

Elena Robyndoghter' 

Johannes Doket 

Thomas seruiens Pape 

Robertus Darwent . 

Ed ra undue servient Ade Brad 

belt 
Willelmus filius Roberti filii 

Alani .... 
Henricus Bcruiens Ade del Cote 
Adam seruiens Ada del Cote 
Matilda Browndoghter' . 
Johannes filius Thome de Edd 

leston .... 
Cicilia (filia) ? Ade Bradbelt 
Matilda Sponer' 

Summa — xxj.*. x.rf. 



• • • • V 

ill] a. 

• • • • t 

nij .rf. 

•   • y 

mi rf. 

 • • * y 

lllj.rf. 

• • • » t 

mj.rf. 

• • • • 7 

nij rf. 

• • • » y 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • y 

mi. a. 

• • • * * 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • y 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • * 

nij. a. 

p • • • * 

ui] .a. 
lllj.rf. 

 • • • y 

nij. a. 

• • •  y 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

• • # • 

in] .a. 

• • • • y 

liij.rf. 



Gatbbqraue (Gargrave). 

Johannes de Gayregraue. ffran- 

keleyn .... xl.rf. 

Adam Walthawe, Spicrr, k vx ij.«. 

Robertus Staple, Mercer, k vx vj.rf. 

Ricardus Bowet & vx . . iiij.rf. 

Adam Dylcar' & vx . . . iiij.rf. 

Johannes Lollay, Milner, k vx iiij d. 

Johannese Denle, Ctitor, k vx vj.rf. 

Willelmus Staple & vx . . iiij.rf. 

Adam Dogeson & vx . . iiij d. 

Willelmus Dogeson & vx . . iiij.rf. 

Johannes filius Matilde k vx . iiij.//. 

Laurencius de Norman ton k vx iiij.//. 

Willelmus Hungthorp', jfullo 

& vx vj.rf. 

Johannes del W r od* k vx iiij.//. 

Adam Pawson & vx . . iiij.rf 

Willelmus de Gayregraue, Tcx- 

tor & vx . . . vj.rf. 

Raynerus de ffountayns, Svtor, 

& vx vj.rf. 

Johannes Andre we, Smyth', 

& vx vj.rf. 

Willelmus Cowper, Cowprr, k 

vx vj.rf. 

Robertus Balkes k vx . iiij.r/. 

Robertus Clerk, Scriptor, k vx xij.rf. 

Johannes Wattson & vx . . iiij.//. 

Johannes Heuer' k vx . iyj.rf. 

Thomas Walker', Fulh\ k vx . vj.rf. 

Johannes de Blakburn. Choi- 
oner (#<>), & vx . vj.rf 

Thomas filius Henrici & vx . iiij d. 

Robertus Andre we & vx . . vj.rf. 



Johannes Naker' k vx 
Robertus Chese k vx 
Willelmus de Calton k vx 
Willelmus Pawson k vx . 
Johannes filius Alicie k vx 
Isabella de Preston 
Willelmus Wattson k vx . 
Robertus filius Nicholai & vx 
Margareta Sclater', Textrix 
Cicilia Fleter' 
Agnes Dawyfe 
Johannes Bowet k vx 
Willelmus Seriant k vx . 
Willelmus Ball* k vx 
Johannes Lyttstre, Tinctor, k 

\ .X. • • • 

Summa — xxj.*. vj.//. 



vj.rf. 

• • • • « 

mj.rf. 

•  • • y 

liij.rf. 

 • • « * 

mi.//, 
nij.//. 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

• • • * y 

lllj.rf. 

vj.//. 

• • • » y 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • « 

lllj.rf. 

a a  • J 

mi .a. 

• • • • « 

mi.rf. 

• • • • y 

mj.rf. 
vj.rf. 



GYGLESWTK (GlOaLBSWICK.) 



Willelmus Monk k vx 
Johannes de Bland' k vx.' 
Willelmus de Laukland' k vx 
Willelmus Jonson k vx . 
Abraham filius Ade k vx. 
Johannes de Bolton k vx. 
Johannes filius Ade k vx 
Walterus Forstre & vx . 
Ricardus de Bank k vx . 
Willelmus de Bank k vx. 
Ricardus Prest & vx 
Robertus de Bentham k vx 
Willelmus Wylkynson k vx 
Robertus Bail lie man k vx 
Thomas Cokheued' k vx . 
Willelmus de Bank junior k vx 
Nicholaus Skynner' k vx 
Johannes Jermowth' k vx 
Johannes de G re n fell' & vx 
Willelmus Cokheued' k vx 
Johannes Brone k vx 
Thomas Verty k vx 
Ricardus de Heton & vx 
Johannes Tailliour k vx 
Johannes de Bland' k vx 
Willelmus de Langclyff & vx 
Willelmus de Vicars & vx 
Ricardus Ward' k vx 
Johannes de Skar' & vx 
Willelmus Clerc k vx 
Johannes de Telghfeld' & vx 
Laurencius del ArmetBted' 

ffrankleyn. k vx . 
Willelmus filius Thome k vx 
Adam filius Thome & vx . 
Johannes Hunter' k vx . 
Ricardus de Grenfell' & vx 
Willelmus filius Ricardi' k vx 
Adam de Palay k vx 



• • • • •§ 

mj.rf. 

• • • » y 

lllj.rf. 

t • • • f 

lllj.rf. 

• • a • * 

lllj.rf. 

• • * • y 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

 • • • y 

111] rf. 

• a a • f 

lllj.rf. 

xij.rf. 

•  • • _y 

mj.rf. 

• a a* y 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • y 

lllj.rf. 
lllj rf. 

• • • • y 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • y 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • y 

lllj.rf. 

a   » y 

lllj rf. 

 a • a y 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • f 

lllj rf. 
lllj.rf. 

• • a • 

111]./?. 

a a a • y 

liij.rf. 
mj.rf. 

vj.rf. 

vj.rf. 

 • •  y 

lllj rf. 

• • •  y 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • 9 

lllj.rf. 

• a • • y 

mj.rf. 

• • • • i 

mj.rf. 

• a a • y 

lllj.rf. 

xl.rf. 

lllj rf. 

• • • • y 

lllj rf. 

•  * • * 

lllj.rf. 

a a • • y 

lllj.rf. 

• » a • y 

lllj.rf. 
lll].rf. 



89 



Johannes de Palay k vx . 
Walterus de Wod' k vx . 
Johannes Styegh' k vx . 
Willelmus Kyd' k vx 
Sentient' — Robertas Vessy 
Willelmus filius Thome . 
Apnea relicta Ricardi 
Willelmus de Norham 
Matilda Kemp 
Johannes sentient Willelmi de 

Laukland' 
Emma Harpour 
Willelmus de Grenfell' . 
Isabella de Vicars . 
Henricus Vicarman . 
Johannes Vicarman 

Summa— xxj.«. viij.rf. 



GY8BUBN' (GlSBURN). 



Johannes Bradhee k vx . 
Johannes Moune & vx 
Johannes Nicollson k vx. 
Thomas Sclater' k vx 
Johannes de El leal 1' k vx 
Thomas Mayre k vx 
Thomas de Westby & vx . 
Willelmus .Chapman k vx 
Ricardus Skynner\ Pelliparivs, 

k vx 
Robertus ffethethyan k vx 
Johannes ffleschewer' k vx 
Johannes Tailliour, Citsor, k 

vx .... 

Johannes Webster, Text or, 

vx ... 

Willelmus Archer k vx 
Johannes Turner, Tourner.k vx 
Ricardus Salter* k vx 
Willelmus Smyth', Fabar' k vx 
WillelmuB Bakster' & vx 
Henricus Moune & vx 
Johannes del Tee k vx 
Johannes do NetherhalP k vx 
Willelmus Geliot k vx 
Thomas Nodder' k vx 
Johannes Parcowre k vx 
Henricus de Ryston k vx 
Robertus de Heder' k vx 
Johannes de Hoder' & vx 
Willelmus Lax k vx 
Johannes Vhoge k vx 
Johannes de Altham k vx 
Ricardus frater ejus k vx 
Henricus Lange & vx 
Robertus Ryder' k vx . 
Johannes de Steresaker' k vx 
Adam Hare k vx 



t • • • t 

mj. a. 

• • • • * 

inj a. 

• • • • y 

njj.rf. 

• « * • y 

mj.a. 

•  • • y 

lllj.ff. 

• • • • * 

• * •  y 

lllj.tf. 

•  • • y 

in). a. 

• • • • t 

nij.rf. 

• • • * y 

mi .a. 

• •  » « 

111] M. 

m • • • f 

mj.r/. 

• • •  y 

111] .ff. 

mj .a. 

• • • • y 

mj .a. 



mj.a. 
ni].a\ 

• • • • y 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• « • • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • j 

m].a. 

• • •  * 

in]. a. 

• • * • y 

lllj.a. 

vj.d. 

•  • • * 

inj.a. 

 • •  y 

i ii]. a. 
vj.a*. 

vj.a\ 
lllj.a. 

vj.a*. 
mj.a. 

vj.a\ 

 • a • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • y 

inj.a. 

• • • • y 

ni].a. 

 • • • y 

lllj.a. 

 » •  » 

mj.a. 

« * • • y 

inj.a. 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 
mj.a\ 

• • • • t 

mj.a. 

« • • • i 

mj.a. 

• • • • y 

in] d. 

 •  • t 

liij.a. 

• • • • « 

mj.a. 

• • • • j 

inj.a. 

• • • • y 

mj.a. 

« • • • * 

m). a. 
mj.a. 



Johannes Wylkynson & vx 
Henricus de.Karr' k vx . 
Robertus Bygcroft & vx . 
Johannes de Schawge k vx 
Seruient' — Agnes Sawghr' 
Johannes Trystrem 
Alicia ancilla ejus . 
Agnes Robyndoghter' 
Matilda Smale 
Johannes Rawcystre 
Nicholaus Randolfson 
Alicia de Kyrke 
Matilda Redikar' . 
Matilda de Vicars . 
Robertus filius ejusdem . 
Katerina Bullok' 
Johannes de Hoder' 
Johannes de Brame 
Elena de Brame 
Mariona filia Henrici 
Johannes de Elome 
HenriciiB seruiens Johannis de 

Altaham 
Thomas seruiens Johannis 

Altham 
Willelmus Lauthton 
Willelmus Careles . 
Willelmus Stabeler' . 
Ricardus filius Henrici del Car' 
Summa — xxj.i. vj.o*. 



Glusbubn'. 

Willelmus Tele k vx 
Willelmus de Coplay & vx 
Johannes Scot k vx 
Adam del Hole k vx 
Johannes Wylkynson & vx 
Willelmus Scot k vx 
Robertus Stvrke k vx 
Johannes Peres son k vx . 
Johannes Styrke k vx 
Johannes de Estburn k vx 
Adam Scott & vx 
Johannes Styrke k vx 
Johannes de Burn k vx . 
Robertus Dauyson & vx . 
Thomas de ffyamyH' & vx 
Robertus de Wradon (?) k vx 
Johannes filius Willelmi k vx 
Robertus Pedefer', GentiP, & vx 
Seruient'— Agnes de Draghton 
Matilda de Aldfeld' . 
Johanna filia Johannis 
Emma filia Henrici 
Matilda filia vx Johannis Will 



son 



• •   y 

mj.a. 

• • • • y 

mj.a. 

• •   y 

mj.a\ 

• •   y 

inj.a. 

 *  • « 

mj.a. 
mj.a\ 

• * ft 9 y 

m). a. 

 • m • y 

mj.a. 

 • • • « 

mj.a. 

• • •  * 

mj.a. 

• 9 9 9 -« 

mj.a. 
inj .a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • » 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • y 

mj.a. 

 9 m • m 

m). a. 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• * • • * 

in] .a. 

• • • • « 

mj.a. 

• • •  * 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• b  • y 

in j. a. 
m). a. 

u • • » y 

mj. a. 

•  • • y 

mj.a. 



Summa — viij*. \].d. 



• t • * y 

mj.a. 
inj.a. 

 • • • y 

inj.a. 

• » •  y 

mj.a. 

• « • • y 

in] a. 

 • • • * 

• •  • y 

in j. a. 

• ft • • y 

ni]. a. 

 •  * y 

in]. a. 

• • • • f 

mj.a. 

• • •  * 

mj.a. 

• •  • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • y 

inj.a. 
vj.d. 

• • • • t 

in]. a. 

• •  • ■• 

mj.a. 
inj.a. 
xij.a*. 

• • • • y 

mj. a. 

• •  • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • f 

inj.a. 

• • • « y 

mj.a. 

ft ft • « m 

mj.a. 



40 



Garsyngton' (Grassington). 

Johannes de Scardeburgh, ffir- 
marius . . iij.*. iiij.//. 

Adam Currour k vx. . . xij.//. 

Ei card us de Pycall' & vx . . iiij.//. 

Rogerus Butterinune k vx . iiij.//. 

Willelmus Kokson k vx . . iiij d. 

Simon Diconson k vx . iiij.//. 

Johannes Spenserson & vx . iiij.//. 

Adam Bawer' & vx . . iiij.//. 

Johannes de Brynsair k vx . iiij.//. 

Willelmus Moreson k vx . iii] d. 

Robertus Dykson k vx . . iiij.//. 

Adam Gawke k xx . . . iiij.//. 

Johannes Schephyrd k vx . iiij.//. 

Elias de Crakhewe k vx . iiij.//. 

Johannes Hyrd' & vx . iiij.//. 

Johannes de Mynskyp k vx . iiij.//. 

Willelmus Dykson, Sutor, k vx vj.//. 

Rogerus Hun ton k vx . iiij.//. 

Willelmus Toppyng' k vx . iiij.</. 

Johannes de West & vx . . iiij.//. 

Johannes Dykson & vx . . iiij.//. 

Ricardus de Pylkes & vx . iiij.//. 

Willelmus Smyth', Faber\ k vx vj.//. 

Henricus Tailiiour, Cissor,k\x. vj.//. 

Thomas Taylliour, Cistor. k vx vj.//. 

Johannes Webster, Textoi\ k vx vj.//. 

Seruient' — Johannes de 

Scharth' .... iiij.//. 

Willelmus wruiens Ade Cur- 
rour iiij.//. 

Willelmus Jonson Dykson . iiij d. 

Isabella Snekdoghter' . . iiij.//. 

Marmedoke .... iiij.//. 

Alicia relicta Ade Badson . mj.//. 

Johannes Alius Elie . . iiij.//. 

Magota Bote rm one . . . iiij.//. 

Emma de Dent . . iiij.//. 

Agnes Moredoghter' . iiij.//. 

Margeria sororejus . . . iiij d. 

Alicia Huddok 1 . . . iiij.//. 

Johannes Alius Willelmi Dyk- 
son iiij d. 

Johannes seruienB Ricardi de 

Pylkes iiij.//. 

Thomas srruitfis Johannis de 

Schardbugh . . iiij.//. 

Agnes ancilla ejusdem Johannis iiij.//. 

Thomas sentient ejusdem Jo- 
hannis .... iiij.rf. 
Summa— xviij.#. x.//. 



Gryllyngton' (Grindleton). 

Willelmus de Clapham k vx . iiij.//. 
Willelmus Snell' k vx . iiij.//. 

Willelmus Bakstre k vx . . iiij.//. 



Thomas de Hole k vx 
Robertus Rud' k vx 
Ricardus Qwytschank k vx 
Henricus de Downe k vx 
Willelmus Webstre, Textor, k 

V A • • • • 

Ricardus de Standeyn & vx 
Laurencius Tyreir k vx . 
Hugo Lemyng 1 k vx 
Robertus de Euerby k vx 
Johannes de Kendall* k vx 
Robertus Hanson & vx 
Nicholaus de Altham k vx 
Johannes Malesese k vx 
Johannes Symson & vx 
Symon Watson & vx 
Hugo Bryd k vx 
Pety Jon k vx 

Robertus Alius Hugonis k vx 
Johannes Robynson Hoghson 

k vx 

Rogerous Tailiiour, £*w*v>r,&vx 
Ricardus de Cleghe k vx 
Johannes Fogle k vx 
Johannes de Dudton k vx 
Johannes filius Radulphi k vx 
Ricardus Cowper' & vx . 
Johannes de Malton & vx 
Johannes Milner k vx 
Johannes Tydy k vx 
Adam de Darlav k vx 
Adam de Rokschawe & vx 
Robertus de Rymyngton k vx 
Henricus de Cloghe & vx 
Adam Seriant k vx 
Johannes Stobber' k vx . 
&eruirnt 9 — Eliot' Dawghter' 
Isabella vx Johannia de Marc he 
Willelmus ffox 
Johannes de Brewhouse 
Alicia filia Johannis 
Katerina filia Johannis 

Summa — xiiij.*. viij.rf 



iiij.//. 
11 1 yd. 

• • • • y 

nii.rt. 

• • •* y 

111].//. 

vj.//. 

• •  • y 

111].//. 

•  • • « 

inj.//. 

• • • • * 

lllj./Z. 

 • • • y 

mj./z. 

• • • • ■« 

1111.0. 
lllj./Z. 

•  • • y) 

1111. rf. 

• • • 1 y 

mj d. 

•  • • y 

mj.//. 
mj.//. 

• • • » y 

nij.rf. 

• • • » « 

mj.//. 

• • • • * 

mj //. 

• • • • y 

inj.//. 

vj.//. 

inj.//. 

• • » • y 

mj.//. 

a • a • f 

mj.//. 

• • • a * 

ii lj d. 

 • a • y 

mj.//. 

• • • • y 

mj.//. 

• • • • t 

mj.//. 
mj.//. 

• •  • * 

mi d 

• • • • y 

mj.//. 

• • • • t 

mj.//. 
mj.//. 

• • •  V 

mj.«. 

• • • • t 

mj.«. 
mj.//. 
mj.//. 

• • • • 3 

mj.//. 

 • • • * 

mj.//. 
mj.//. 

• • • • 9 

mj.//. 



Halton* super lb Hyll' 
(Halton East.) 



Thomas Sawgher' k vx . 
Willelmus Carter' k vx . 
Johannes Stud hyrd' & vx 
Willelmus Swynhyrd k vx 
Willelmus Lauerok k vx. 
Henricus filiu6 Walteri & vx 
Willelmus Chapman k vx 
Willelmus del Vicars k vx 
Henricus Sawgher' k vx . 
Robertus Pynder k vx 
Willelmus Sowter k vx . 
Robertus Sawgherr' k vx 



• • • • m 

lllj.//. 

mj.//. 
mj.//. 
mj.//. 

• • a • y 

mj.//. 

• • • • y 

mj.//. 
mj./z. 

• a • • •■ 

mi.//. 

• • •  «> 

mj.//. 

• • • • y 

mj.//. 

a * • » J 

HI].//. 

a a a • ■• 

HI].//. 



41 



Johannes Sawghcr' & vx 

Johannis Brewatre & vx 

Johannes Sawgher' senior & vx 

Ricardus Bakstre & vx 

Willelmus Alius Johannis & vx 

Ricardus de Angrom & vx 

Willelmus de Kendall 1 & vx . 

Alicia vx Johannis . 

Agnes Kay . 

Alicia Cowhyrd' 

„ . 1 Johannes de Oter- 
Emtoresl burn . 

lanarum f JohanneB vicarman 

Sum ma— xiiijx \).d. 



H Alton* West. 

Nicholaus de Halton & vx 
Willelmus de Laukland* & vx 
Ricardus de Thornbargh* & vx 
Robertus de Yauhig* & vx 
Robertus del Twaytes & vx 
Rogerus de Halton & vx 
Johannes Alius ejus & vx 
Johannes Strenger' & vx 
Willelmus de Twaytes & vx 
Nicholaus Steuenson, Carpen 

ter y & vx 
Ricardus de Schyrburn & vx 
Hugo de Grenfell' & vx . 
Johannes Grenfell' & vx . 
Johannes Kyng' & vx 
Robertus filius Nicholai & vx 
Ricardus Qwelwryght' & vx 
Nicholaus Yrys & vx 
Robertus Denysson & vx . 
Thomas Cowper, Couper, & vx 
Johannes Taylliour, Ci**or, A 

vx .... 

Johannes ffayreghe & vx . 
Johannes Thomson & vx . 
Robertus Neleson & vx . 
Servient' — Willelmus Styrtau 

ant .... 
Magota Jakdoghter' 
Johannes filius Johannis 

Stryng' 
Isabella Robyndoghter' . 
Sum ma — x.*. ij.tf. 



Hamebton'. 

Johannes Rider* & vx 
Ricardus de Catchoghe & vx 
Johannes Cowhyrd' & vx 
Adam Hehake & vx 



vj./i. 
mi. a. 
nil. a. 

• • • • 3 
lllj.«. 

ft • fl  7 

\\\].d. 

iiij.rf. 

fiii.rf. 
•• • • j 
mj.a. 

\\\\.d. 

\\\).d. 

i\.d. 
xl.<2. 



xij.tf. 
lllj.tf. 

• • • * _7 

nij.rf. 

• • • • 7 

inj.a. 
mi .a. 

• •  » 7 

nij.rt. 

• • • • 7 

111 J .«. 

• • • • 7 

111] .A. 

• • • • _J 

ill] .a. 
vj.rf. 

• • •  7 

iiij.tf. 

m • • • 7 

nij.a. 
mi .a. 
mj.a. 

• • • * 7 

111] .A. 

• • • • 7 

nii.a. 

• • • * 7 

nij. a. 

 • f  7 

nij.rf. 
v}.d. 

v].d. 

«  • • 7 

lllj.tf. 

 • • • 7 

Ulj.fl. 

  • • 7 

lllj.tf. 

• • > • 7 

nii.ff. 

 • • • f 

iiij.//. 

• • • • ■» 

lllj.tf. 

• • • • 7 

lMJ.fi. 



• •  • f 

nij.tf. 

• • • * 7 

in].//. 

• • •  7 

lllj.tf. 
mj.a. 



Willelmus Tyllson & vx . 
Adam Alayn & vx . 
Henricus de Schawe & vx 
Johannes de Botterfeld' & vx 
Johannes filius Ade & vx 
JohanneB Hardy & vx 
Johannes Heghegate 
Robertus Chapon & vx . 
Willelmus Hardaker* & vx 
Adam Hardaker 1 & vx . 
Willelmus de Botterfeld' & vx 
Sentient'— Cecilia Langea 
Alicia Newhouse 
RicarduB de Hamerton, ffranke- 
leyn, . . • . vj.*. 
Summa — xij.*. iiij.rf. 



• • • • 7 

mj.rf. 

• • • » 7 

lllj.tf. 

• • • • 3 

nil .d. 

lllj.tf. 

• • • • 7 

mi .a. 

• » • » 7 

lllj.tf. 

 • • • 7 

lllj.tf. 

• • • • * 

lllj.tf. 

•  • • 7 

lllj.tf. 

nij.tf. 
« • . • » 
Hi] .a. 

iiij.tf\ 

• • • • 7 

ill] .a. 
viij.tf\ 



Hamlych (Hanlith). 

Ricardus del Myre, Mason, k vx vj.rf. 
Ricardus Dawson, Walker, & 

vx ..... v}.tf\ 

Johannes Walche, Stnvth, & vx vj.tf*. 
Johannes teruiens Willelmi 

Clerke . . • iiij-^- 

Summa— xxij.rf. 



Habtelyngton' (Habtlington). 



Henricus de Hartelyngton & 
vx .... 

Willelmus Walker' & vx . 

Johannes Darr', Text or, & vx 

Willelmus del Hall' & vx 

Adam Watson & vx 

Henricus Smeyth\ Faber, & vx 

Seruie (*i<?) — Nicholaus Nan- 
son . 

Summa— ij.«. viijyZ. 



i iij.0. 

• • • • i 

Hij.ff. 
vi.d. 

• • • » 7 

m].d. 

i\i].d. 

v].d. 

uij. a. 



HAUKE8WYK (HAWKSWICK). 



Johannes Robertson & vx 
Thomas Horner & vx 
Thomas Horn & vx . 
Nicholaus Bell' & vx 
Willelmus Hurtscowe & vx 
Thomas de Sallay & vx . 
Johannes de Parys & vx . 
Johannes Caluehyrd* & vx 
Willelmus Bokson & vx 
Thomas Arneclyff & vx . 
JohanneB Lene & vx 



Hi] .d. 
iiij.0. 

• • •  « 

mi. a. 
mi .a. 

• •   7 

mi .d. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.tf. 

vj.rf. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.tf. 
• » • r 7 
Hi) .d. 

m • • • 7 

lllj.tf. 

• • • • 7 

Hlj.ff. 



42 



Aiiot' de Haukeswyk, vidua, iij*. iiij.rt". 

Alicia filia ejusdem . . uij.d. 

Elizabetha filia ejus . . iiij.rf. 

Elena seruiens ejusdem Anot 1 . iiij.rf. 
Johannes de Malghom, de 

Haukeswyk, & vx . . xij.rZ. 
Summa— ix.*. ij.d. 



Heltghfkld' (Hbllipield). 

Willelmus Cam be, Constabu- 

larius <fc vx . . . . inj.d. 

Robertus Osbaldton k vx . uij.d. 

Henricus Watson & vx . . inj.d. 

Ricardus Tailliour & vx . . yjd. 

Ricardus de Bedale & vx . Uij.d. 

Willelmus Abraham k vx . \i\j.d. 

Johannes Hyrd' & vx . i\ij.d. 

Johannes Alius Thome k vx . uij.d. 

Thomas de Kendall' k vx . \j.d. 

Thomas Jonson & vx . . \iij.d. 

Thomas de Vllay & vx . . iiij.<£. 

Johannes Wyte & vx . . nij.d. 

Johannes Twelfemen k vx . ih'j d. 

Johannes Scharp k vx . iiij.rf. 

Elias Daudson (Carpenter, see 

below) & vx . . . vj.d. 

Johannes de Stable k vx . iiij.d. 

Johannes Emmotson k vx . inj.d. 

Robertus de Stable & vx. . vj d. 

Johannes de Bedale k vx . iiij.rf. 

Robertus del Mon k vx . . iiij.d. 

Adam de Syngleton (Gen til*, 

see below) & vx . . . xij.rf. 

Thomas de Knoll' & vx . xij.d. 

Nicholaus Joner & vx . iiij.rf. 

Ricardus Styrtanaue (?) & vx . iiij.rf. 

Willelmus de Henley ct vx . Mij.d. 

Willelmus de Kendale k vx . iiij.rf. 

Willelmus de BedalP k vx . iiij.i. 

Ricardus de Huton k vx . uij.d. 

Nicholaus Harthacre k vx . iuj.d. 

Ricardus Foxgyll' k vx . . uij.d. 

Thomas de Yeller' k vx . . uij.d. 

Johannes Hodson k vx . . iiij.rf. 

Johannes Baehoner k vx. . uij.d. 

§ Elias Daudson, Carpenter, 

§ Adam de Syngleston, 

Gentil'. v quia 

Thomas de Knoll j supra 

Thomas de Kendale I 

Robertus del Stable ! 

SeruwnV — Ricardus filius Hen- 

rici iiij.rf. 

Johannes filius Henrici . . iiij.fi. 

Adam filius Henrici . . iiij.rf. 

Henricus Abraham . . . uij.d. 

Willelmus Jonson . • . . \i\j.d. 

Emma filia Roberti . . . iiij.rf. 



Robertus Thomson . 

Edmundus filius Elie 

Isabella vx Hugonis 

Alicia seruiens Hendeley . 

Adam de Bedale 

Johannes filius Willelmi de 

Kendale 
Isabella filia ejusdem Willelmi 
Summa — xvij.#. \iij.d. 



Heton' (Hetton). 

Willelmus Chyldson k vx 
Johannes Wyld' k vx 
Johannes Tailliour k vx . 
Johannes Smyth', Faber, k vx 
Willelmus Cowper k vx . 
Willelmus Jakknaue k vx 
Patriciu8 Hyrd' & vx 
Robertus Theshyrd' k vx 
Johannes Soutolyer' k vx 
Willelmus Sysson k vx . 
Thomas Sysson & vx 
Johannes Jakkesknaue & vx 
Willelmus Pylyng' k vx . 
Hugo Wylkynson k vx . 
Hugo Paueson k vx 
Thomas Wyllknaue k vx. 
Hugo Addeson k vx 
Seruient' — Nicholaus Couper 

man .... 
Johannes seruiens ejus . 
Robertus Jakman Tailliour 
Alicia filia Johannis Wylde 
Elena seruiens JohanniB Som 

erler' .... 
Johannes seruiens Johannis 

Smyth' 
Willelmus filius Willelmi Cis- 

son .... 
Agnes soror Willelmi Sysson 
Johannes Tomman Cisson 
Thomas seruiens Thome Cys 

son .... 
Johannes Pellyngman 
Katerina Henri woman 
Matilda Collyng' 
Willelmus Hodson . 
Johannes seruiens Hugonis 

Paweson 
Johannes Wylleson 
Willelmus de Knoll' 
Johannes Toller' 
Willelmus Hoghyrd' 
Johannes Buke 
Johannes de Morton 
Thomas Abot . 
Johannes West 
Johannes Padmyreson 

Summa — xiiij.*. 



in] d. 
inj.d. 

• •  • 4 

mj.tf. 
inj.d. 

• • • • « 

uij.a. 

•   * • 

uij.a. 
uij.a. 



vj.d. 

• • • • « 

llij.tf. 

• • • • f 

uij .a. 
vi .d. 

• • • * * 

mj.d. 
mj.d. 

• • • • f 

mj.d. 

• • • » i 

n\j.d. 
\nj.d. 

• • • « y 

mj.d. 

 • • • y 

nij./f. 

• • •  ■» 

uij.d. 

• • • • m 

mj.d. 
iuj.d. 
mj.d. 

 • • • 7 

lllj.ff. 

• • • • 9 

111J .rt. 
lllj.rt. 

iuj.d. 

lllj.rt. 

  » • * 

mj.d. 
mj.d. 

• • • • * 

nij.rt. 

mj.d. 
iu].d. 

• • • • t 

mi./i. 

• • • • ■» 

liij.//. 

• • • • T 

lllj.rt. 

• • • • 1 

lllj.rt. 

mj.d. 

• • • • ■» 

111J./7. 

• • • • * 

lll].ff. 

• • • • -J 

lllj.rt. 
lllj.ff. 

• • • • _y 

llij.ff. 

• • •  f 

mj.ff. 

• # t • y 

ui).d. 

 • * • » 

liij.r/. 
nij.rt. 

• • • • f 

liij.ff. 



48 



Hobton' (Hgrton-by-Gisburk). 



Johannes de ffamylthorp', Mer 

cer, k vx 
Johannes Rakesburgh', Mar- 

chanty & vx 
Willelmas de Hair k vx . 
Henricus filius Ricardi k vx 
Johannes de Pathenale k vx 
Johannes de Pathenale senior 

k vx .... 
Gilbertus de Armelay k vx 
Willelmus de Grene k vx 
Alanus de Morley & vx . 
Willelmus de Grettabarg' k v 
Adam Diconson k vx 
Thomas de Penelton, Text or, k 

vx .... 

Isabella Mancoll', Tewtrix 
S/tm ienf— Elicia Blanchard ' 
Alanus filius Ade 
Isabella Pykhan 

Suraina— vij.*. 



xij.//. 

xij.//. 
ill].//. 

 t • • V 

nij.rf. 

• • • * y 

111] .//. 

• • • • « 

mi .a. 

• • • • y 

nil .a. 
lllj.//. 

• • • • f 

nij. a. 

• • • « 7 

ni] .//. 
mj.tf. 

vj.rf. 
vj.//. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.//. 

•  • • y 

111}./!. 

f • • • « 

111]. A. 



Kyghlay (Keighley). 

Nicholaus de Kyghelay, Arrra- 

tus .... iij.#. 
Elena de Glaeenbroke, Hoxte- 

vCly ..... 

Johannes de Co play, Marital, . 
Willelmus de Vttelay k vx 
Ricardus de Wode k vx . 
Johannes Hogheson k vx 
Willelmus Hogheson & vx 
Robertas Webstre, Textor, k 

Daue Godelyng', Faber\ k vx . 
Johannes de Cloghe k vx 
Robertas filius Walteri k vx . 
Johannes Mylner& vx 
Johannes Tayllionr, Cusor, k 

Willelmus de Samines & vx . 
Rogerus de Sammes & vx 
Robertas de Benelandes k vx . 
Johannes Walker 1 , ffullo, k vx 
Johannes Wryght, Carpenter, 

k vx .... 
Ricardus filius Radulfi k vx 
Thomas Johson k vx 
Ricardus Akeworth' k vx 
Adam del Wode & vx 
Ricardus Sugden k vx 
Robertas de Sugdeyn k vx 
Ricardus de Leuenthorp' k vx 
Johannes de Grenewod' k vx 
Nicholaus del Clogh k vx 
Johannes Hods on k vx . 



• • • • T 

, ui] .a. 

ij.*. 
xij.//. 

•  • • •» 

in j. a. 

• • « • * 

in].//. 

 • • • -« 

ill] .a. 

• • • • 7 

uij.//. 

vj.d. 

vj.//. 

nij.//. 

• •  • t 

ni] .a. 

• • t • t 

Hi] .a. 
vj.//. 

• • • • 7 

ni] .a. 

 • • • 7 

in] .a. 

 • • • * 

nij.fl. 
v].//. 

vj.//. 

• • a • 7 

mi .//. 
mj.ff. 

• • • • f 

ill] .if. 
ni] .//. 

 • • • t 

inj.//. 

• * • • 7 

lllj.//. 

• •  • y 

mj .a. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.//. 

•  • • y 

lllj.//. 
lllj.//. 



Robertas Hodson k vx 
Johannes Stott (? read " Scott") 

k vx . 
WillelmUB de Schoir k vx 
Johannes de Saltonstall' k vx 
Willelmus Coke k vx 
Johannes del Sammes k vx 
Thomas de Denby k vx . 
Willelmus Grane k vx . 
Thomas Hudson k vx 
Johannes Saltonstall k vx 
Johannes de Laccokk 1 k vx 
Johannes Jodson k vx 
Adam fflechr' k vx . 
Thomas de Lacokke k vx 
Agnes de Newsom k vx (sic) 
Agnes Joddoghter' k vx (jric) 
Robertas filius ejusdem k vx 
Anabella de Elom 
Johannes Erell* k vx 
Anabella de Thwaythes 
Nicholaus de Thwaythes & vx 
Ricardus Pape, Carpenter, k vx 
Elena de Cloghe 
Johannes filius Willelmi k vx 
Thomas Grane k vx 
Cecilia Scott . 
Agnes de Allerton . 
Elena filia ejusdem . 
Elena Walker' 
Willelmus Schaponta 
Willelmus Bloke 
Alicia seruiens Parson e 
Johanna filia Elene . 
Thomas Bennson 

Summa — xxvi j .*. 



• • • » * 

ni].//. 

a • • • t 

ni].//. 

« a  • y 

lllj.//. 

• a •  y 

III].//. 

• • • * * 

111].//. 

• • • • y 

HI].//. 

• • • • y 

in). a. 

• • • • y 

111].//. 

• a • a y 

111].//. 

• • • • 7 

111].//. 

• *  » y 

111].//. 
111].//. 

• • • • -f 

111].//, 
ill].//. 

• •  • y 

111].//. 
111].//. 

a • • • 1 

111].//. 
111].//. 

 • • • f 

111].//. 

• • • » f 

lllj.//. 

• • • • J 

111].//. 

vj.//. 

• • • • y 

111].//. 

• • • • T 

111].//. 
111].//. 

• • • • y 

111].//. 
111].//, 
lllj.//. 

• • • a y 

Hi].//. 

• • • • J 

ill].//. 

• • • • J 

ill].//. 

lllj.rf. 

tiiij.//. 
ill].//. 



Ketilwell* (Kettlewell). 



Willelmus Cowper k vx 
Willelmus Walays k vx 
JohannesTailliour Parws ("Par 

vus "?), Ci8*or, k vx . 
Willelmus de Preston k vx 
Johannes Tailliour, de HylT, k 

vx 

Ricardus Webstre, Cigtor, k vx 
Willelmus Dobson k vx . 
Willelmus Toppayn k vx 
Willelmus de Bordlay k vx 
Willelmus Yeke k vx 
Ricardus de Bowghland' k vx 
Willelmus Bellerby k vx . 
Thomas Schawe k vx 
Adam Wyllson k vx 
Willelmus Ward' & vx 
Thomas filius Isabelle & vx 
Ricardus Cowper' k vx . 
Ricardus Cale k vx 



lllj.f/. 
111].//. 

vj.//. 

 • • » y 

HI].//. 

• • • • y 

lllj.//. 

V]'.//. 

lllj.//. 

lllj.//. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.//. 

  • • 7 

lllj.//. 

a • ft • 7 

lllj.//. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.//. 

• a •  7 

lllj.//. 

a a • a 7 

111].//. 

• a a • 7 

lllj.//. 

• a • • 7 

111].//. 

• • a a 7 

lllj.//. 

• a • • 7 

lllj.ff. 



44 



Johannes filius Hugonis & vx 
Willelmus Clerke & vx . 
Johannes Toppan & vx . 
Willelmus Thomson & vx 
Johannes Bullok & vx 
Thomas Milnerson & vx . 
Ricardus Euerhyrd 1 & vx 
Willelmus filius Ade & vx 
Ricardus de S tod lay & vx 
Johannes Smyth', Fabar, & vx 
Elias Hyrd' & vx . 
Johannes Bullok & vx 
Johannes Milner & vx 
Willelmus Forstre & vx . 
Robertus Smytheman & vx 
Willelmus de Bakhowse & vx 
Johannes Nabillson & vx 
Henricus GrenfelP, Emptor 

bftt\ & vx 
Willelmus de Midlesmore & vx 
Willelmus Henriman & vx 
Struirnt' — Matilda de Ryplay 
Thomas filius ejus . 
Thomas Toppan 
Sibbella Bern ten* Willemi filii 

Thome 
Johanna (?) Jaksonbuw (?) 
Agnes de Stud lay 
Willelmus filius Willelmi Ward 
Agnes de Rowland' . 
Willelmus de Lvtten 
Isabella Ward' * 
Emma filia ejus 

Summa — xix.*. x.//. 



mi. //. 
m].d. 

• • • • 3 

111].//. 

mi .//. 
i •• » » 

111] .A. 

• •• • 3 

in] .a. 
in].//, 
nij.//. 
Hi]. a. 
vj.//. 

• •  • 3 

111]./!. 

• • • • 3 

111].//. 

•  • • « 

Hi] .a. 

111].//. 

• • • • 3 

mj.a. 

111] .A. 

  • • y 

111].//. 

xl./f. 

•  • • t 

m). a. 

111].//. 
111].//. 

• • • • 3 

ill].//, 
nij.//. 

• * • • 7 

Hi] .a. 

• • • • « 

ill] .a. 
ill] J .a. 

• • • • 3 

nij.//. 

• • • • 3 

mi.//. 

mi .a. 
... » « 
in] .a. 

• • • • 3 

in] .//. 



Kyldwyk' (Kildwick). 



Robertus Wyld' & vx 
Johannes de Hardwyk & vx 
Willelmus Fowrnays & vx 
Johannes Howsinan & vx 
Laurencins filius Petry & vx 
Philippus de Brad lay & vx 
Johannes Hardwyk man & vx 
Ricardus Peke servient Ricardi 

& vx 
Johannes Clerke & vx 
Ricardus Schephyrd' & vx 

Summa — iij.*. iiij.//. 



•  • • 3 

nn.rf. 

• • • • 3 

mj.a. 

• • • • « 

nij.//. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 

• • • • 3 

ill]. a. 

• • • • m 

nij./x. 

• • • • * 

in], a. 

• • • » 3 

in j. a. 

• • • • « 

ui] .a. 

• •  * 3 

lllj .a. 



Kyrkby (Kibkby Malham). 

Willelmus Seriantson & vx . iiij.//. 

Willelmus Kychyne & vx . iiij.//. 

Robertus de Poxton & vx . iiij.//. 

Johannes de Aston & vx . iiij.//. 



Willelmus de Grene & vx 
Thomas Nableson & vx . 
Petrus del Hair & vx 
Willelmus Stothyrd' & vx 
Ricardus de Sallav & vx 
Robertus de Stephen & vx 
Sabyna Tottedoghter' 
Agnes servient Willelmi Stot 

hyrd .... 
Johannes Tailliour, Cissor, & vx 
Thomas Walker', Fullo, & vx 
Summa -v.*. 



•  • • * 

1111.0. 

• • • • » 

in] .d. 

• •   y 

111] .A. 

• • a  m 

ni] .a. 

• • • . 3 
lllj.//. 

...» J 

iiij.//. 
lllj.//. 

• •  • « 

111].//. 

vi.//. 
v].//. 



Lanocltff' (Langclifpb). 



Willelmus filius Thome & vx 
Willelmus filius Ade & vx 
Laurencius filius Ade & vx 
Laurencius filius Johannis & vx 
Willelmus ffyschr' & vx 
Willelmus Prest & vx 
Thomas Forester 1 & vx 
Ricardus de Carr & vx 
Edmundus Suerdson & vx 
Thomas Ineson & vx 
Thomas Robertson & vx 
Johannes de Armetstede & vx 
Seruientes — Ricardus filius 

Laurencii 
Alicia vx Ade . 
Agnes filia Nicholai 
Matilda de Thorp' 
Matilda filia Willelmi 
Emma ffyscher' 
Cecilia filia Willelmi 
MatheuB ffyscher 1 . 
Agnes Prest 
Alicia filia ejusdem 
Patricius Syke 

Summa — viij.*. iiij.//. 



a« * a f 

111].//. 

mi. a. 

a a  • m 

lllj.//. 

a a • a * 

lll].ff. 

• • a a « 

111].//. 

t • • • "» 

111] ./I. 

• a • » f 

111].//. 

a a • a « 

111].//. 
111].//. 

x\).d. 

• • • a « 

111].//. 

a a • • ■• 

lllj.//. 

a a • a « 

111].//. 

• a a* f 

111].//. 

a • • k * 

HI].//. 

a • • a * 

111].//. 

a  a a J 

111}.//. 

a a a • m 

111].//. 

• • a a « 

HI].//. 

a a a a « 

111].//. 

•  a a _y 

111].//. 

a a a * m 

111].//. 

a • a a « 

111].//. 



LTNtON' (Linton-in-Craven). 



Adam Wryght, W(f)egkt, k vx 
Walterus Elys, Wright, & vx . 
Willelmus Dawnay,jf?////i, & vx 
Laurencius de Lynton & vx 
Willelmus de Malghom & vx 
Willelmus Brimsall' & vx 
Willelmus Walok & vx 
Thomas de Sowth & vx 
Hugo Clerke & vx . 
Adam Derehog' & vx 
Ricardus Piper" & vx 
Seruient'— Willelmus servient 
Malghom . 



vj.rf. 
vj./Z. 
vj./Z. 

a • a a « 

lllj.//. 

xij./Z. 

• • • a * 

111].//. 

• a « a m 

111].//. 

a a a a « 

111].//. 

a a a a « 

HI].//. 

a a a a m 

111].//. 

a a a a f 

111].//. 

a a a a ■• 

111].//. 



45 



Johannes sentient rectorie 
Willelmus sentient ejusdem 

Rectoris . . 
Alicia sentient Rectoris . 
Adam filius Henrici 
Johannes Wattson de Elys 
Emmota sentient Johannis filii 

Henrici 
Alicia ffrost 

Isolda filia Ade Derehoge 
Johannes de Stokton 
Alicia filia Henrici Milner 
Rogerus Milner 
Henricus Milner 

Summa— Lr.*. ij.//. 



Litton 1 . 

Elias Clerke k vx . 
Ricardus Stapter k vx 
Adam Midlesmore k vx . 
Johannes fill as Willelmi k vx 
Willelmus filius Ade k vx 
Thomas de Sal lay k vx . 
Robertas de Palay k vx . 
Thomas Deyne k vx 
Willelmus ffranynlan & vx 
Edmundus Yonger k vx . 
Rogerus filius Thome k vx 
4dam de Blakburn k vx 
Thomas Stele k vx 
Thomas Gamle k vx 
Rogerus filius Walteri k vx 
Johannes de Lytton k vx 
Simon Bankson k vx 
Johannes filius Elie k vx 
Elias filius Willelmi k vx 
Henricus de Adlay k vx 
Thomas Lene k vx 
Johannes Ke til well' k vx 
Johannes filius Thome k vx 
Laurencius de Ketilwell' k vx 
Alicia filia Ricardi 
Agnes filia Ricardi 
Magota de Sallay 
Willelmus sentient Willelmi 

filii Ade 
Agnes Clerke . 
Elena sentient Willelmi filii 

Ade .... 
Matilda filia Laurencii . 
Agnes Pyme . 
Henricus filius Rogeri 
Johannes Lokece 
Isabella fframolan . 
Thomas filius Elie . 
Willelmus Lene • 

Summa — xij.*. x,//. 



•  • a 7 

lllj.//. 

• • • • 7 

nii.tf. 
inj.//. 
iiij.//. 

•  t • 7 

111] .</. 

• a • a 7 

lllj.//. 

nij.//. 

• •  * 7 

nij.//. 

 • * • 7 

mi.//. 

• a • » J 

111].'/. 

a a • » « 

iu].d. 
m] J. 



• • • • » 
mi .a. 

• a • » j 

lllj.//. 

Hi].//, 
iiij.//. 

111].//. 

a* a* * 

111].//. 

iiij.//. 
lllj.//. 

• • a > * 

mi. a. 

VJ.//. 

a a  • * 

ui] .a. 
in]. a. 

• • • • « 

111]. A. 

• • •  7 

in] .a. 

uij. a. 

vj.//. 

HI].//. 

• • • • 7 

Ulj.//. 

• a  a 7 

111].//. 

• a • • « 

mi .a. 

(•n 7 

ill].//. 

VJ.//. 

iiii.rf. 
» ••» » 
lin.a. 

a • • • 7 

111].//. 

• • • a f 

111].//. 
HI}.//. 

111].//. 

111].//. 

iiij.//. 

• • a  * 

111].//. 

• • a m j 

HI].//. 

t • * a 7 

111].//. 

• • • a m 

111].//. 

• • at 7 

111].//. 

a a • • f 

111].//. 

.•••I 7 

111).//. 



Balohom (Malham). 



Richardus de Dale k vx 
Willelmus Richardson k vx 
Robertus de Wod' k vx 
Adam Tomson & vx 
Willelmus Hodson k vx 
Robertus de Cote k vx 
Ricardus Walche k vx 
Willelmus Richardson k vx 
Adam Wyllson k vx 
Robertus Crumbok' & vx 
Willelmus de Steuen k vx 
Willelmus de Wyndesouer' 

vx .... 
Thomas Jose k vx . 
Johannes de Sallay & vx 
Ricardus Wyndesouer & vx 
Johannes Nottson k vx . 
Ricardus del Mire k vx . 
Johannes Hyne k vx 
Adam Wylkokson k vx 
Simon del Hall' k vx 
Willelmus de Dene k vx 
Ricardus Wilkokson k vx 
Willelmus de Westsydhowse 

k vx 
Henricus de Grene k vx 
Adam de Medlehewe k vx 
Johannes de Kyrkby k vx 
Johannes Akeson & vx 
Willelmus Swyer' k vx 
Seruient — Henricus Spuner' 
Henricus del Hair 
Johannes filius Ade Wylkokson 
Ricardus Wylyn 
Robertus Qwytheued 
Jahannes Browne 
Johannes sentient Ricardi Ay 

kokson 
Henricus sentient ejusdem 
Johannes de Crumbok 
Richardus Hardy 
Thomas Golgill' . , 
Thomas Swyer 1 
Alicia de Yowdall' 
Agnes Brukne (/), Textrix, 
Agnes Webstre, Textrix, 
Johannes Tail Hour, Cittor, 
Summa — xvj.*. ij,//. 



t a a a 7 

111].//. 

• • a • * 

111].//. 

a a a* 7 

111].//. 

a • a a w 

111].//. 
HI].//. 

a • a a -m 

111].//. 

• a » a 7 

111].//. 

•  • a 7 

injur. 

a • • a f 

lllj.//. 

• a  a m 

lllj.//. 
lllj.//. 

vj.//. 

• a  a • 

111].//. 

• • • • 7 

inj.//, 
vj.//. 

lllj.//. 

a a a a 7 

lllj.//. 

a • • a ^ 

lllj.//. 

a • * a * 

lllj.//. 

• a a a 7 

lllj.//. 

a a a  7 

lllj.//. 

xij //. 
mj .a. 

• • a • « 

lllj.//. 

a a * a •» 

lllj.//. 

a a a a -f 

111].//. 

lllj.//. 

•  a • 7 

lllj.//. 

a a • • 7 

lllj.//. 

lllj.//. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.//. 

 a •  7 

nij.//. 

• • a * 7 

lllj.//. 

• • a « j 

mj. a. 
lllj.//. 

• •  • 7 

inj.//. 
nij.//. 

a a  • 7 

lllj.//. 

a a a • 7 

lllj.//. 

• 9 a  7 

lllj.rf. 

a • a • 7 

lllj.//. 

vj.//. 
vj.//. 
vj.//. 



Mabtok'. 

Symon de Marton, ad valen- 

ciam Militia, . . . xxj. 

Robertus de Rylay k vx . iiij.//. 

Johannes Taburner' k vx . iiij.//. 

Henricus Tail Hour, Drapur, k 

vx vj.//. 



46 



' 



Johannes de Lethelay k vx 
Thomas de Londesdale & vx 
Ricardus Leget k vx 
Robertas Perkynson k vx 
Adam Knyght k vx 
Johannes Spenloue, Ciuor, k 

vx .... 

Johannes Hyrd' k vx 
Nicholaus Hyrd' & vx 
Patricius & vx 
Johannes de Grene, Fabar, k 

vx .... 

Willelmu8 de Stok & vx 
Robertas Ireland k vx 
Simon Tailliour, Ciisor, k vx 
Will el my us Hyrd' k vx 
Johannes Turnebuir k vx 
Alanus Hyrd' k vx 
Ricardus Webstre, Webster, k 

vx .... 

Johannes filius Edmundi & vx 
Galfridus Milner k vx 
Robertas de Medop k vx 
Johannes Oxynhyrd' k vx 
Johannes Graneson <fc vx 
Johannes Wyllion k vx 
Johannes Turnbull' seruiens 

domini & vx 
Johannes Bateman & vx 
Willelmus de Londesdale k vx 
Robertas de Lethelay k vx 
Agnes Grane 

Robertas S my the k vx . 
Sentient' — Nicholaus seruiens 

Recto ris 
Johannes de Arneclyff 
Johannes de Thorneton . 
Agnes written* domini . 
Johanna seruirnt domini 
Alicia de Papillyngton . 
Cecilia Grane 
Agnes de Lethelay 
Matilda Grane 

Summa— xxxv.«. iiij.rf. 



• • • • V 

inj.tf. 

• • • • * 

nij.ff. 
vj.rZ. 

• • • • •• 

u\\.d. 

•  • • i 

mj.a. 

vj.rf. 
n lj .a. 

•  a a * 

mi .a. 

• • • • t 

nij.0. 

vj.d. 
li lj. rf. 

• ft • a « 

mj.tf. 
xij.rf. 

• a • • 9 

uij.a. 

• • • • y 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • n 

mj.a. 
vj.<f. 

• a a • y 

lllj.tt. 

inj.«. 

lllj.ff. 

a • • a 1 

111J.0. 

• a • a * 

1111 .a, 
lllj.rf. 

• • t a f 

111J.A. 

a a • a f 

lllj.ff. 

• • a* <f 

lllj.tf. 

• a a a 1 

Ulj.rf. 
Ulj.rf. 

vj.r/. 

a • • • « 

lllj.ff. 

a a a  * 

lllj.ff. 

a 4 a a f 

lllj.tf. 

• a a • * 

lllj.tf. 

• a • a f 

lllj.fl. 

• a • a f 

lllj.rt. 

• a a • « 

lllj.fl. 

• a • • « 

lllj.ff. 

a • a • « 

lllj.rf. 



Mydhop (Middop). 

Johannes filius Ricardi k vx , 
Johannes Pyme & vx 
Robertas de Mydhop', Arma- 

tus, .... iij.*. 
Robertus A n toy n son, Mercer, . 
Willelmus Daldreston, Spicer, 
Willelmus Redcarr' k vx 
Willelmus de Waddes worth k 

vx 
Edmundus de Ayereton k vx . 
Ricardus de Caluerlay k vx . 
Willelmus ffox Ac vx 



• a a • m 

lllj.rf. 

• * a • Y 

lllj.tf. 

• a • a f 

lllj.rt. 
xij./f. 
xij.rf. 

a a a • f 

lllj.ff. 

a • a a f 

lllj.rt. 

a a  • -j 

1111. <I. 

• • a • « 

mj d. 

a a a * « 

lllj.fl. 



Johannes filius Gilberti k vx 
Johannes Parker' & vx 
Seruient' — Willelmus filius Ro- 

berti de Medhop 
Isabella Robertdoghter' 
Agnes semiens predicti Roberti 
Matilda Redicarr' 
Agnes Waddesworth' 
Agnes filia Gilberti 
Robertus Bald res ton 
Isabella soror ejusdem . 
Alicia soror ejusdem 

Summa — xj.j. iiij.i. 



MlTTON' 

Henricus de Biri (•' g " in mar 

gin) k vx 
Johannes Yoman k vx 
Willelmus Sothorn k vx 
Adam Scharp & vx 
Hugo fflecher' k vx 
Johannes Downall k vx 
Johannes Allok k vx 
Johannes Wodward' & vx 
Willelmus Cowper* k vx 
Johannes de Carlton' k vx 
Thomas Wodward' k vx 
Johannes Wattson k vx 
Johannes Tyteryngton k vx 
Walterus Palfrayman k vx 
Willelmus Yoman & vx 
Johannes Mody & vx 
Haukyn Talbotman k vx 
Johannes Adamson k vx 
Johannes Scot k vx 
Henricus de Biri & vx 
Johannes filius He(n)rici de 

Biri & vx 
Alicia de Yate 
Agnes del Parke 
Isabella Botterfeld' 

Summa— x.« 



• • • a m 

IHJ.0. 

in] a. 

m m a • a> 

mj.a. 

a • a a «■ 

nij.tf. 

• • a  m 

in) d. 
iii].«. 

• a a a m 

mj.a. 

a • a a -m 

lllj.tf. 

a a • • -V 

mj.a. 

a •• • ■» 

111].«. 



lj.*. 

a a • a « 

mj.a. 

lll].a\ 

• • a a f 

lllj.rf. 

• • • a * 

mj.a. 

•  a a « 

HlJ.tf. 

• • • a J 

mj.a. 

a • a • * 

111]. rf. 

a * a a « 

lllj.rf. 

a a a • « 

UlJ.ff. 

• a a a f 

in j a. 

mj.a. 

• a • a « 

in]. a. 

a a a a «| 

in]. a. 

• a a a •■ 

lllj.rf. 

a a a * * 

mj.a. 

a t • • m 

mj. a. 

a a a a * 

Hi] .a. 

a • a • « 

Hi]. a. 

a a a * m 

Ulj.fl. 

• • • a j 

lll].rf. 

• a a a •• 

lll].tf. 

a a a a •• 

Ulj.tf. 

• a « a ^ 

111].*. 



Newbom' (Nbwsholme). 

Johannes Pedder' & vx . . iiij.rf. 

Adam de Grene & vx . . iiij.rf. 
Edmundus de Grene, Mercator, 

k\x \j.s. 

Johannes de Grene, Draper, 

k vx . . . . xij.[>U 

Willelmus Heker' k vx . iiij.rf. 

Johannes filius Ade k vx . iiij.rf. 



47 



Willelmus de Newsoin & vx 
Johannes filiua Rogeri & vx 
Johannes filius Ricardi & vx 
Johannes Elysinagh' & vx 
Robertus Brewer' & vx 
Robertus Toller' & vx 
Robertus Walker' & vx 
Johannes Kempe & vx 
Johannes Cant & vx 
Seruient' -Johanna filia Will 

elini 
Alicia Bee 

Elizabetha vx Haker' 
Margareta de Marlay 
Johannes filius Johannis filii 

Ricardi 
Katerina soror ejus 
Alicia soror ejus 
Johannes filius Elysmaghe 
Thoma (*«>) frater ejus 
Amya filia Toller* 
Alicia Qwene 
Willelmus filius Cant 
Johannes frater ejus 

Suuiina — xj.*. viij.o'. 



»■ • • j 
1113 .ft. 

111 j a. 

• • • • m 

nij.ft. 

• • « • * 

nij.ft. 

• •  • * 

in], a. 

• • • • « 

nij .a. 
nij.ft. 

• • •  * 

nn.ft\ 
111] d. 

• • • • * 

in] .a. 
iiij.rf. 
mi d. 

 •   n 

ill] .a. 

• • • • m 

ui] .a. 

lllj.ft. 

• • • • J 

ill] .ft. 

• • • • « 

mj.a. 
iiij.ft. 
nij.ft. 

• • • • * 

ui]. a. 

» • • • m 

myd. 

• • • • 9 

liij.ft. 



Newton' juxta Gaybkgbaue. 
(Bank Newton). 



Johannes Bank, ffrankeleyn, 

& vx ... 

Willelmus Mabotson & vx 
Robertus fforstre & vx 
Adam Swyer' & vx 
Willelmus filius ejus 
Johannes Diconson & vx 
Matilda ancillaipsius Johannis 
Willelmus de Waldbank & vx 
Willelmus Diconson, de Hor 

ton, & vx 
Alicia Bratholne 
Adam Smythson & vx 
Matilda Cortom, Trxtrto, 
Robertus filius ejus 
Elena filia ejus 
Ricardus de Byngham & vx 
Rogerus Smyth', Faher % & vx 
Auelina de Caterton 
Isabella de Puddesay 
Ricardus del Hall' & vx 
Rogerus Tailliour, Cissor, & vx 
Rogerus filius Willelmi Mabot- 
son & vx 
Emniota de Newton 
fteruiens Willelmi Mabetson 
Thomas Nebe & vx 
Seruiens ipsius Thome 
Thomas de Lethelay & vx 



xl.ft\ 

• • • • _j 

in]. a. 

• • • • 9 

nij.ft. 
nij.ft. 

 » * • t 

mj.«. 
ni].ft. 

•   • t 

11 1]. a. 

• • * • « 

Hi], a. 
nij.ft. 

• • • • y 

ill]. ft. 

lllj.ft. 

vj.ft*. 

• • • • * 

ui] .a. 

 * • • 1 

mj.ft. 

Hi] .ft. 

vj.ft*. 

•  •  « 

Hi] ft. 

nij.ft. 

Hi] .a. 

vj.ft\ 

• • • • v 

nij.ft. 

• • •  » 

nij.ft. 

• •  • f 

nij.ft. 

• • • • f 

nrj.ft. 
nij.ft. 

•  • • * 

111 j .«. 



Thomas Latimer & vx 
Robertus Holdemes & vx 
Hugo Smyth' & vx 
Willelmus de Marton & vx 
Adam de Kendall' & vx 
Johannes de Vicars & vx 
Johannes Bakster & vx 
Katerina filia ejus 

Summa — xiiij.«. x.ft*. 



• t  • -j 

nij.a. 

nij.a. 
... * . 
in] .a. 

• • • • * 

Hi]. a. 

• • t • 1 

in] .a. 

• •• • m 

111] ft. 

nij.ft. 

• •  • • 

in], ft. 



Newton' in Bowland', 



Radulphus de Claghton & vx 
Robertus de Hamerton & vx 
Nicholaus Hanson & vx 
Johannes Symson & vx 
Johannes filius Johannis & vx 
Adam de Butterfeld' & vx 
Adam Rud' & vx 
Johannes Cam be & vx 
Adam Milner & vx 
Willelmus de Lye k. vx 
Johannes de Peny & vx 
Alanus filius Willelmi & vx 
Nicholaus Cambe & vx 
Ricardus de Rau thine IT & vx 
Ricardus de Sykes & vx 
Johannes Marler' & vx 
Ricardus filius Simonis & vx 
Adam Stout & vx 
Henricus filoyter' & vx , 
Johannes Bell' & vx 
Seruient'— Eliot' Scott 
Elias Wyllson 
Johannes Rud' 
Stephanus do Knoll' 
Ricardus de Bather Bby 

Summa— xj.*. viij.rf. 



• • •  m 

111 J. 4. 

• • • • m 

111]. ft. 

9 • • • * 

nij.ft. 

 • • • « 

nij.ft. 

•  » • « 

nij.ft. 

• • « • m 

lllj.rf. 

• • • * « 

111]. ft. 

• • • • m 

111] .ft. 

• • • • m 

nn.d. 

•  • • -m 

nij.ft. 

• •  • f 

nij.ft. 
nij.ft. 

• » • • m 

111]. ft. 

• • • • t 

nij.ft. 

• •  • m 

nij.ft. 
• . • • « 
nij.d 

111].^- 

 •  • * 

lllj.ft. 

• ft • • « 

nij.ft. 

• • • • * 

nij.ft. 

• • • • 1 

nij.ft. 

nij.d. 

nij.ft. 

ij.*. 



Oterburn (Otterburn). 



vx 



vx 



Willelmus de Brad lay & vx 
Johannes Chyld' & vx 
Willelmus filius Roberti & 
Johannes Medvlhowe & vx 
Ricardus filius Henrici & 
Willelmus Maldson & vx 
Johannes Bolyngton & vx 
Willelmus de Bolyngton 

Smyth, & vx 
Johannes Setle & vx 
WillelmuB Nayler' & vx 
Henricus Jamsman & vx 
Johannes Lamberd' & vx 
Thomas Lambhyrd' & vx 



 •• • 9 

in]. ft. 

 • • • « 

nrj.ft. 
nij.ft. 
nij.ft. 
liij.ft. 

• • • • i 

nij.ft. 
nij.ft 

• • •  7 

nij.ft. 

• • • • f 

nij.ft. 

• • • • f 

nij.ft. 

• • • • * 

nij.ft. 

• • • • 1 

in]. ft. 



48 



Seruient' — JohanneB de Bol- 
yngton .... iiij.**. 

Alicia de Skypton . . iiij.**. 

Matilda seruwns Johannis de 
Setle .... iiij-rf- 

Summa — v.*. vj,rf. 



Pathorn (Paythorne). 

Johannes de Bradlay & vx . inj.d. 

Henricus de Holm & vx . iiij rf. 
Willelmus Leinyng', Sutor, & 

vx xij.//. 

Ricardus de Syndeyn & vx . iiij.rf. 

Willelmus de Holm & vx ' . iiij.rf. 

Ricardus Gold* & vx . . inj.d. 

WillelmuB de Thone (?) & vx iiij.<*. 

Willelmus Brown & vx . iii].<*. 

Thomas del Hair & vx . iiij.<*. 

Walterus Klkoc & vx . . iiij.rf. 

RobertuB Alius ejusdem & vx iiij d. 

Johannes filius ejus & vx iiij.rf. 

Robertus del Scale & vx . iii].<*. 

Robertus filius Rogeri & vx . iiij.rf. 

Robertus Brown & vx . iiij d. 

Johannes Brown & vx inj.d. 

Ricardus de Skypton & vx . xij.tf. 

Johannes filius Ricardi & vx . \i\].d. 

Alicia filia Willelmi . . iii].«*. 

Isabella filia Robert! . ijij.<*. 

Emma filia Roberti . . iiij d. 
Summa — viij.*. iiij.<*. 



Pathenall' (Painley?). 

Ricardus Alcok & vx . . ijjj.<*- 

Johannes Elys & vx . . iiij.rf. 
Willelmus de Horton, ffranke- 

leyn, & vx . . . xl.rf. 

Henricus de Chatburn & vx . iiij d. 

Johannes Hayregry & vx . iiij d. 

Thomas Waddester' & vx . iiij.rf. 

Willelmus Schephyrd' & vx . inj.d. 

Johannes de Holme & vx . iiij.rf. 

Ricardus filius Ricardi & vx . iiij.rf. 

Johannes Alcok & vx . iiij d. 

Thomas Swynhyrd' & vx • . iiij.**. 

Adam filius Rogeri & vx . inj.d. 

Willelmus Porter' & vx . iiij.<*. 

Johannes de Swyndeyn & vx iiij.^. 

Robertus Fort & vx . . inj.d. 

Thomas Grysse & vx . . iiij.<*. 

Johannes de Pryston & vx . ilij--*^- 

Johannes Wodcok & vx . iiij. d. 

Amya Bullok . . . nij-d. 

Alicia filia JohanniB de Holme iiij.rf. 
Summa— ix.j. viij.rf. 



Preston' (Long Preston). 



Willelmus Thomson & vx 
Galfridus Syse & vx , 
Anabella filia ejus 
WillelmuB Sowter & vx . 
Johannes Styrkhyrd', Smyth 

& vx ... 

Willelmus de Puddesay & vx 
Willelmus de Dowland & vx 
Agnes filia ejus 
Johannes Nellson & vx . 
Johannes Den ne son & vx 
Henricus Jakson & vx 
Johannes Lambhyrd' & vx 
Johannes de Scale & vx 
Anabella filia ejus 
Adam de Bekelleworth', Spicer 

& vx ... 

Adam Denysson & vx 
Thomas Warcop' & vx 
Thomas Spenser 1 & vx 
Willelmus Lammer & vx 
Willelmus de Westwod' & vx 
Hugo Spenser' & vx 
Yuo Pape, Ctisor, & vx 
Edmund us Barker', Barlter, & 

vx .... 
HenricuB Tailliour. Cis$or y & 

vx .... 
Henricus Rud & vx 
Ricardus Sqwyer' & vx 
Johannes de Bowland & vx 
Johannes Robertson & vx 
Ricardus Chattburn, ffvllo, 

Va » • • • 

Ricardus Wratholff & vx 
Alicia Bathersby 
Adam de Mytton & vx 
Johannes fforester & vx 
Johannes de Kendall' & vx 
Adam Denyson & vx 
Anabella de Carle ton 
Willelmus de Wode & vx 
Alicia Tybet 

Johannes de Horneby & vx 
Johannes de Bowland' & vx 
Johannes Gilleson & vx 
Willelmus Spenser' & vx 
Adam de Wadby & vx 

Summa — xv.*. vj.d. 



iiij.rf. 

• • • • % 

nij.d. 

• • • • « 

nij.fl. 
Yj.d. 

v\.d. 

n n. d. 
•••* » 
ni].a. 

• • • • m 

mj.d. 

• •  • 3 

lllj.tf. 

•  • • * 

1I1J.A. 

• • • » • 

Hi] d. 

• •  • m 

ni].<*. 

• • • • m 

lllj.rt. 

• • • • m 

nij.a. 
yj.d. 

• • •  * 

\uyd. 

• • • • * 

liij.rf. 

• • • • * 

mj.tf. 

. •• • j 

ill] ./I. 

• • • • • 

ui].«. 

liij d. 

v].rf. 

vj.d. 

vj.d. 
...» « 
mj.d. 

• • • • * 
•• • • _3 

ill] .a. 
nij.a. 

vj.d. 

•»• • » 
mj.a. 

• ••  « 

in] .a. 
ill] d. 
mj.rf. 

• • • • * 

in] .a. 

• • • • 9 

111] .a. 

mj.d. 

• • • • 3 

mj.a. 
mj.d. 

• •  * 3 

ill] .a. 

 •  • « 

ill]. a. 
mj.d. 

• •  • _■ 

Hi] .a. 
ill] d. 



Rascheholne (Radholme ?) 

Willelmus Scot & vx . . inj.d. 

Eustachius de Pewot'thham (?) iiij.rf. 

Ricardus de Rowland' &, vx . iiij.ci. 

Ricardus Talbot & vx . . xij.i. 



49 



WillelmiiB Colthyrst k vx 
RicarduB Profet k vx 
Johannes Dawkyn k vx . 
Johannes de Coke k vx . 
Henricus Alius Ricardi k vx 
Thomas de Yngholne k vx 
Johannes de Wro & vx . 
Ri card us de Sedale k vx 
RobertuB Nodeler' k vx . 
Johannes Reglesmyre and vx 
Robertus de Oroke k vx 
Willelmus Prefet k vx . 
Willelmus de Staumford' k vx 
Johannes Smeth' k vx 
Adam Horn k vx 
[Thomas Page, Flecker, k vx 
Agnes Brand 1 , 

Petronilla de Brokhole* 
Agnes Tornour 
Beruienf — Johannes Nodeler' 
Johannes Brand' 
Willelmus Profet junior . 

Summa— xj.jr. ij.o\ 



ij.*. 
inj.a. 

• • * • « 

lllj.tf. 

... » _j 
lllj.0. 

• • • » 3 

mj.a. 

• • •  « 

mj.a. 
in] .a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • « 

mj.a. 
mi. a. 
inj.a. 
inj.a. 

 • • • * 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • T 

mj. a. 
vj .a*. 

• • a • 1 

lllj.tf. 

• • • • jj 

mj.a. 

• • • • Y 

mj.a. 

• • •  n 

ni].a. 
inj.a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 



Rauchemell' (Rat hm ell). 



Wilielmus de Cote k vx 
Thomas filius Ade & vx 
Johannes Saylebank k vx 
Ricardus de Carr' k vx 
Hugo Schether' k vx 
Thomas Milner k vx 
Ricardus filius Johannis k vx 
Adam Camle (?) k vx 
Johannes Godson k vx 
Willelmus filius Ade & vx 
Willelmus Swane k vx 
Henricus Forster' k vx 
Johannes Lyndsey k vx 
Adam filius Ricardi k vx 
Ricardus filius ejus k vx 
Willelmus Kokheued' k vx 
Willelmus Walesman k vx 
Thomas filius Walter, k vx 
Johannes filius Alani k vx 
Willelmus Curtays k vx 
Johannes Webstre, Text or, k vx 
Willelmus filius Agnetis k vx 
Willelmns Hendley k vx 
Robertus filius Willelmi k vx 
Willelmus de Gisburn k vx 
Robertus filius Alane k vx 
Servient' — Magota Daudwyfe 
Matilda Daudoghter 
Tillot' de Carr' 
Alicia de Akedeyn 
Anabilla Daugoghter' (*fo) 
Matilda sorr.or ejus 
Agnes de Broghton 



t • •  i 
HI] .a. 

• • • • T 

mj.a. 
iii].a\ 
inj.a. 

• • • • n 

mj.a. 

• • • * * 

in]. a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • « 

mj.a. 
nij.a. 

• • • * 9 

mj.a. 

•  • t 7 

Hi] .a. 

• • • • n 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 

• « • • f 

inj.a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • m 

mj.a. 

• • • • i 

mj.a. 

• * • • 9 

mj.a. 

 • • » « 

ni]. a. 
vj.a\ 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• • a • 9 

mj.a. 

• • • • i 

iuj.a. 

• • • • t 

mj. a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 
iiij.a\ 

•  • • « 

Hi] .a. 
mj.a. 
inj.a. 



Willelmus Rydhowt . iiij.a\ 

Johannes Daudson . iiij.a*. 

Summa — xj.«. x.a*. 



Rtmynoton (Rimington). 



Jacobus de Gasegill', Armatus. 
Willelmus de Gyrlyngton k vx 
Henricus Dogeson k vx . 
Johannes de Clynacher k vx 
Johannes del Smethy k vx 
Robertus del Stanes k vx 
Robertus Barker' k vx 
Willelmus Baudwy n,ffullo, k vx 
Robertus Walays k vx 
Robertus del Smethy k vx 
Johannes Merler' k vx 
Willelmus Weter' k vx . 
Johannes Rchirfeld' k vx 
Johannes Walays k vx . 
Robertus Butterberd', Suter 

k vx .... 
Thomas de Barton & vx 
WillelmuB filius Henrici k vx 
Johannes de Lound' & vx 
Adam Porter k vx 
Johannes de Welles k vx 
Edmundus de Loge k vx 
Thomas del Dale k vx . 
Willelmus Baudwyn k vx 
Willelmus Rygby k vx . 
Adam Leleson k vx 
Johannes Odde k vx 
Johannes Schephyrd' k vx 
Thomas Boythorp' k vx 
Willelmus de Ayreton k vx 
Nicholaus Pykhauer k vx 
Robertus de Caluerlay k vx 
WillelmuB de Caluerlay k vx 
Hugo Sawgher' k vx 
Henricus de Caluerlay k vx 
Johannes del Hyll' k vx 
Willelmus Pyee k vx 
Willelmus filius Henrici k vx 
Willelmus de ffountayns. Car- 
penter, & vx 
Johannes Tournour, Tourrwur, 

& vx 

Johannes Tailliour, Cis8or,k vx 
Willelmus Stodehird, Carpers 

ter, & vx 
Willelmus Hudson, Text or, k vx 
Seruientes — Beatrix de ffun- 
taignes .... 

Cecilia de SulbergV 
Johannes de Sullebergh* 
Robertus Beruiens Robert! de 
Caluerlay .... 
Alicia de Chatburn 



xl.rf* 
ni] .a' 

• • • • m 

lllj./f' 

• • • • « 

ni] .a* 

• • • • « 

mj.a* 
in j .rf* 

inj.a- 

vj.rf. 

mj.a. 

inj.a. 

• • • • 9 

uij.a. 
inj.a. 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 

vj.a\ 

• • • • « 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 
nij. a. 

• • • • * 

nij.rt. 
iuj.a. 

« • • • y 

ni] .a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 
nij.a. 

t •  • m 

ni] .a. 
mj.a. 

• • • * m 

ni].a. 

• • • • y 

iuj.a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • * 

ni] .a. 
mj.a. 

• • •  * 

nij.a. 

• • • • « 

mj.a. 

 • • • m 

ni] .a. 

• • • • f 

inj.a. 

• • • • » 

inj.a. 

• •  • « 

ni] .a. 

xij.rf. 

vj.d. 
YJ.d. 

vj.</. 
vj.a*. 

nij.a. 

• •  • « 

ni]. a. 
mj.a. 

inj.a. 
mj.a. 

D 



50 



Johannes de Hawesgill' 

Cecilia Pykhauer' . 

Magota Nutte 

Matilda Pykhauer . 

Katerina filia Heretnpte 

Margareta filia Willelmi Py 

Johanna Bower' 

Juliana de Sulbergh' 

Elizota filia Hugonis 

Alicia de Caton 

Magota Duyott' 

Hugo Coke 

Jeppe de Hesilden . 

Til lota Webster 

Isabella relict a Hugonis Tail 

Hour .... 
Alicia relic ta Johannis de Hoi 

gilP . 

Samma-xxvA iiij.rf. 



• • • • y 

mj.o. 

• • • • i 

mj.a. 

a  • • y 

mj.a. 

• • • * y 

mj.a. 

• • • • y 

nij. a. 

• • • • y 

mj.a. 

• B • ft y 

lllj.rf. 

 • • • y 

lirj.a. 

• • • • y 

mi. a. 

• • • • y 

mj.a. 

ft ft • » y 

nij. a. 

•  • • y 

inj. a. 

• • • • _r 

mj.a. 

• • • * y 

mj.a. 

 • • • y 

mj.a. 

• •  • y 

mj.a. 



Ryllston' (Rylstone). 

Willelmus de Releston, dominus 
ville, .... iij.*. 
Johannes filius Ade & vx 
Johannes filius Elie k vx 
Henricus Sclater' k vx . 
Johannes Day & vx 
Johannes Webstre, Webster \ 

oC VX . . . • 

Thomas Chalunner k vx 

Thomas Slafot & vx 

Willelmus Hyrd k vx . 

Johannes Watson k vx . 

Robertus Hyrd* k vx 

Willelmus filius Roberti & vx 

Robertus Milner k vx 

Robertus Banesclytf (&) vx 

Thomas Jonson k vx 

Thomas filius Elie & vx . 

Johannes de Mitton k vx 

Thomas Chese k vx 

Elias Magson k vx 

Adam de Merehowse k vx 

Thomas Milner k vx 

Willelmus Brown k vx . 

Johannes filius Heginaldik vx 

Sentient* — Willelmus Browne 

Magota le Nuris 

Agnes sentient Johannis de 
Morehowse . 

Agnes de Brad lay . 

Alicia de Haunlyth' 

Agnes wruiena Johannis Wat- 
son .... 

Agnes &emiens Roberti le 
Milner 

Alicia filia Roberti de Banes- 
clyff .... 



 • • • y 

mj.a. 

i • • • f 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • y 

mj.a. 

vj.a\ 
vj.a*. 

• • • • • 

mj.a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a\ 

• • « • y 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • y 

liij.rf. 

• • • • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 

ft • • • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • j 

in] .a. 
mj.a. 

• p • • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • T 

inj.a. 

•  • • y 

mj.a. 

• • • * y 

mj*a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 

• • • • * 

ill] .a. 

• •  • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • j 

in] .a. 

• • « • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • 7 

mj.a. 

• ft »  y 

in] .a. 



Willelmus Mitton son . . \i\j.d. 

Alicia filia Thome Chese . iiij.o*. 

Summa — xiiij.*, iiij.o*. 



SCOTHORP' (SCOSTHBOP). 

Ricardus de Calton k vx . iiij.o*. 

Thomas Maknest k vx . . iiij.o'. 

Willelmus Clerke, Scriptor, k vx vj.a*. 

Thomas Steuenson k vx . iiij.o*. 

Johannes Pymson k vx . iiij.o*. 

Johannes Hyne k vx . . iiij.o*. 

Adam Robynson, Ciesor. k vx vj.o*. 

Henricus Pynder' & vx . . nij.a*. 

Thomas Robyson, Faber, k vx yj.o*. 
Seruient'— Thomas filius Ade 

Robynson k vx . iiij.o". 

Matilda Yowhyrd' . . iiij.o\ 

Isabella Barker* . . . iiij.o\ 

Thomas Browne . . . iiij.o*. 

Isabella Aylyn . . . iiij.o*. 

Cecilia Wylyn . . . iiij.o*. 
Johannes seruiens Willelmi 

Clerke .... iiij.a*. 
Summa— v.*. x.o*. 



Setlk (Settle). 

Johannes de Wadyngton & vx 
Simod' Nicolson k vx 
Laurencius Nell son k vx 
Johannes Walker' k vx . 
Robertus Betonson k vx 
Robertus Nellson k vx . 
Willelmus Sclater' & vx . 
Willelmus de Lyndesay k vx 
Johannes Smeth' & vx 
Willelmus Broket k vx . 
Robertus de Clare k vx . 
Willelmus Wayt & vx . 
Adam filius Willelmi k vx 
Willelmus de Clore k vx 
Adam de Ottlay & vx 
Rogerus SnelT k vx 
Johannes de Hege k vx 
Adam de Grene k vx 
Simon Kyd' k vx . 
Willelmus Brunson k vx 
Johannes de Langeclyffe & vx 
Thomas de Kyme k vx . 
Thomas Schayl' k vx 
Simon Belhyrd* k vx 
Willelmus Lauson k vx 
Willelmus de Ouersetle k vx 
Johannes Cleuache k vx 



• • • • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 

• • • *• y 

inj. a. 

• • • • y 

mj.a. 

 • • • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • 9 

mj.a. 

•  • • y 

mj.a. 
vj.a*. 
vj.a*. 

• • • • y 

nij. a. 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • m 

ill] .a. 
m j. a. 

• • • • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • y 

mj.a. 

• • * • y 

mj.a. 

• * • • y 

mj.a. 
in j .a. 

 • •  y 

in]. a. 
mj.a. 
iiij.o'. 

• • • • y 

n li. a. 

• • • • y 

mj.a. 

• • • • * 

iiij.o. 

• • • • y 

Ulj.O. 

 • • ft * 

mj.a. 



51 



Thomas Megson k vz 
HanricuB (sic) Helynson k vz 
Johannes Blvth', Milner, k vz 

lllj.rf 

Johannes de Watre k vz 
Johannes Baillie & vz 
Thomas Manhyrd' & vz 
Johannes Stele k vz 
Willelmus Tyllson k vz 
Thomas de Waddesworth' k vz 
Willelmus Hunter k vz 
Elias Neleson k vz 
Johannes Dyrton k vz . 
Magota de Ye 1 bank 
Alicia de Gad by 
Aimes Jonwyfe 
Tillot* Clynch 
Hugo de Burn 
Willelmus filius Elie 
Seruie («c)— Thomas Hunter- 
man .... 
Willelmus Lawghman 
Nell' de Hege 
Adam Broketman 
Alicia de Lytton 
Agnes Broket 
Willelmus Toller 

Summa — zvij.*. z.«\ 



• • • • m 

mj.a. 
(tic). 

 • • • 9 

1111.0. 

v].«*. 

mj.a. 

inj//. 

mj.a. 
• • • • j 
mj.a. 

• • • • t 

luj .a. 
mj.a. 
nij .a. 

lllj.«. 

 P • • f 

ill] .a. 

lllj.rt. 

• • • • * 

111].*/. 

• • • • * 

nij. a. 

• • • • « 

mj.a. 
mi. a. 
uij. a. 
lili.rt. 

lllj.fl. 

mj.a. 
nij .a. 



SYGLESDEYN (SIL8DBN). 



Johannes de Cote k vz . 
Johannes Theker' & vz 
Johannes Reder' & vz 
Richardus filius Johannis k vz 
Johannes Bate man k vz 
Hugo Mylner & vz 
Dauyd' Bene k vz . 
Willelmus filius Roberti Smyth 

& vz .... 
Willelmus del Wod' k vz 
Thomas Dobson & vz 
Johannes Glushuro k vz 
Robertus de Collyng' k vz 
Johannes de Dent k vz 
Robertus Jolby k vz 
Adam Boghan k vz 
Willelmus filius Agnetis k vz 
ThomaB Milner k vz 
Robertus Husteler', Sutor, k vz 
Johannes Cowhyrd' k vz 
Johannes Smyth' k vz . 
Thomas del Stanes k vz 
Robertus del Ouerheynd' k vz 
Johannes de Ryllston k vz 
Thomas de Suardby k vz 
Amary k vz . 
Henricus del Rode k vz 
Thomas Smeth' k vz 



• • • • « 

mi .d. 

• •  * ■» 

111]. A. 

vj.o*. 

•  • » « 

111], a. 

mj.a. 
nij. a. 

 • • • « 

mj.tf. 

nij .a. 

vj.a\ 

nij .a. 

• • • • t 

nij .a. 
nij .a. 

•  • • m 

ui] .a. 

• • • • m 

mi. a. 

• • • • i 

mj.a. 

• • • • f 

nij.tf. 

• • • • j 

ni] .a, 
vj.a\ 

• •  • « 

nij. a. 
mi .a. 
nij. a. 

• • • • w 

nii.0. 

• • • * y 

Hi] .a. 

• p a p m 

inj.a. 
mj.a. 

 • • • i 

lllj.tf. 

nij .a. 



Johannes Sowter k vz 
Willelmus Wade k vz 
ThomaB Bene k vz 
Willelmus, sentient Willelmi 

de Wode, & vz 
Robertus, seruiens Roberti Jep 

son, k vz 
Johannes Chapman k vz 
Thomas Jon son k vz 
Willelmus Boghane k vz 
Magota Coke 
Matilda Wade 
Elena Smeth' . 
Matilda Pedler' 
Alicia Smyth' 
Alicia Bateman 

Summa — ziiij.*. iiij.o'. 



Skybdon' (Skibeden). 



Hugo de Cottynglay k vz 
Johannes de Marton k vz 
Thomas de Mai gum k vz 
Johannes Wy Hyson k vz 
Johannes de Waller k vz 
Willelmus de Malghom k vz 
Henricus Rysphyll' k vz 
Willelmus filius ejusdem k vz 
Willelmus le Wode k vz 
Johannes de Crakhowe k vz 
Summa — iij.*. vj.o*. 



Skypton' (Skipton). 



Step nanus de Malgham, l>r^<?r, 

k vz 
Johannes Henkesworth',&jric?r 

k vz 
Robertus de Ledes, Mereator 

& vz . 
Robertus Bayllie k vz 
Hugo Ha well' k vz 
Willelmus Pulter' k vz . 
Willelmus Dawson k vz 
Thomas de Wrose k vz . 
Willelmus Groper' k vz . 
Robertus Wodhewer' k vz 
Marinus de Thornton k vz 
Petrus de Thorp' & vz 
Thomas de Malghom, Cistar 

k vz 
Robertus Thorbrand, junior 

Textor, & vz 
Raynerus de Selesden, liar 

beiour, & vz 
Willelmus Serell' k vz . 
Thomas ffele k vz 
RobertuB Hyrd k vz 



vj.o*. 

• • • • m 

mj.a. 

• » • • * 

Hi] .a. 

   • m 

mj.a. 

• • • • m 

lll].i. 

mi. a. 

• • • » m 

H1].0. 

• • • • « 

mj.a. 

• • • • « 

in] .a. 
mj.a. 

111J.O-. 

nij .a. 

• • • • n 

111] a. 
lllj.rf. 



• • • • « 

lllj.<X. 

mm m • « 

lllj.tf. 

• • • • m 

mj.d. 

• • • p « 

ni].a. 

• • • • « 

mj.d. 

m * • • f 

• •  * ■• 

nij.rf. 

nij .a. 

nij .a. 

v).d. 



ij^. 

• • 

i]*\ 
xij.rf. 

 • p" « 

ni].rf. 

• • • • « 

liij.a. 

• p • • m 

Hl],rf. 

• « • • * 

nij .a. 

• • • * * 

mj d. 

• • « p ^ 

mj.a. 

MM « 

111] .rf. 

P P • P « 

mj.rf. 

• • •  m 

mj.d. 

vj.rf. 

yj.d. 
x\].d. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 

p « • » ■• 

nij.rf. 

• p • p 3 

mj.a. 



52 



Johannes Dryucr' & vx . 
Robertas Thorbrand senior k v 
Petrus Pynder' k vx 
Willelmus Mune k vx 
Johannes Skypton k vx . 
Johannes "Lnmbe. Jfullo, k vx 
Johannes Warner' & vx . 
Willelmus de Werdlay & vx 
Adam filius Elie k vx 
Henricus aeruicM Ranulphy 

k vx 
Willelmus Thorbrand 1 & vx 
Johannes Groper' k vx 
Willelmus Schyphird 1 k vx 
Johannes Lassy, Carnifex, k vx 
Willelmus Pvkhan k vx 

* 

Johannes Danald' & vx . 
Willelmus Sparowe k vx 
Willelmus Rogerson, Chsor, k 

▼ i • • • • 

Willelmus Clerke k vx 
Thomas de Chambre k vx 
Thomas Boynell' k vx 
Roger u 8 de Sleue k vx 
An toy n Tail Hour, Ci**or, k vx 
Willelmus Walkere^wZZo, k vx 
Willelmus filius Ranulphi, 

Sutor, & vx 
Robertas Spycer', Spyeer* k vx 
Rogerus Roper', Jfoper\ k vx . 
Petrus Brabaner, Webut er, k vx 
Petrus Brabaynner junior, 

Webstre, k vx 
Robertus Mason, Ma ton y k vx 
Willelmus Webstre, Webgter, 

Qit * J*v • a •  • 

Johannes Doweson, Faber* kvx 
Walterus Tail Hour, Ch*or^k vx 
Willelmus Grane. Olover\ k vx 
Johannes Launder 1 , Cisso?; k vx 
Johannes Lorimer' k vx 
Thomas Marescall' vx 
Seruient — AgneB Bakstre 
Radulphus written* Radulphi 

Selesdeyn 
Matilda Hyrd' 
Alicia Doghty 
Matilda de Cownall' 
Willelmus wmien* Will el mi 

Webstre 
Willelmus Hodson . 
Willelmus Battson (?) 
Alicia Ben 
Isabella Barker' 
Johannes Grane 
Thomas de Bentham 
Alicia Semstre 
Agnes Semestre 
Agnes de Greues 
Margareta Mayne 
Margareta Bacone . 

Summa — xxxv.x. 



• t  • 7 

nij.ff. 

• • •  • 

iiij.//. 

• • • • v 

iiij.//. 
mj .//. 

a a a • * 

mi.//. 

vi.rf. 

nij.//. 

• • • • » 

lllj.//. 

ill] .//. 

• • • • « 

uii.ff. 
nij.tf. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.//. 

• • • • y 

iiij.//. 

V].//. 

• • m a y 

111).//. 

• • • • m 

in j. a. 
\],d. 

 • • • * 

nij.ff. 

• • • a m 

111].//, 
lllj.//. 

• • a a ■* 

lllj.//. 

vj.//. 
xij.//. 

xij.//. 
xij.//. 
xij.//. 
xij.//. 

vj.//. 
vj.//. 

xij.rf. 
vj.rf. 
vj.//. 
v].//. 
vj.//. 
vj.//. 

• • a • « 

inj.</. 

 • • • * 

iiij.//. 

lllj.//. 
lllj.//. 

• • • • * 

lljj.//. 

• • •  » 

lllj.//. 

• • • • f 

lllj.//. 
lllj.//. 
lllj.//. 

luj.d. 
iiij.//. 

 • t • v 

nij.rf. 
in].//. 

•  • • t 

nij.rt. 
nij./i. 
inj.//. 

• • • • T 

lllj.//. 
lllj.//. 



Slaytburn' (Slaidburx). 



Johannes de Cokfeld' & vx 
Adam Brand' k vx 
NicholauB Milner k vx . 
Johannes de Hesylheued' & 

vx . 

Robertus Hattale k vx . 
Willielmus Swayne k vx 
Johannes Cawdray k vx 
Robertus Smyth, Faber, k vx 
Willelmus Dobson k vx 
Willelmus de Stokdale k vx 
Johannes Coll' k vx 
Johannes filius Ricardi k vx 
Willelmus Wodward' k vx 
Willelmus Hattale k vx . 
Coll' Badver' & vx . 

Willelmus Boyd' k vx . 
Johannes de Crosdale & vx 
Willelmus Cowhyrd' k vx 
Ricardus de Newhese k vx 
JacobuB de Lyghe & vx . 
Rogerus de Saghe k vx . 
Ricardus Jakknaue k vx 
Johannes Prestson k vx, 
Robertus Brand' k vx 
Johannes filius Willelmi k vx 
Alan us Floyter' k vx 
Johannes Halepeny, Tlwlter 

k vx 
Willelmus Coke k vx 
Willelmus filius Johannis k vx 
Johannes de Wallbank k vx 
Willelmus Brand' k vx 
Johannes de Plesyngton k vx 
Johannes Heued' k vx 
Robertus f rater ejus & vx 
Robertus de Butterfeld' k vx 
Willelmus Kvtson k vx . 
Johannes de Stokdele k vx 
Adam de Haldhgres k vx 
Servient'— Willelmus de Wall 

bank k vx . 
Ricardus Hattale 
Agnes Reglesmyre . 
Johannes Diconson Jakknaue 
Emma de ffyssw 
Johannes Quelwryght, Carpefi 

ter .... 
Jdonia Darbyschyre 
Agnes soror ejus 
Hugo Paytfyn 
Hawvsia del Schawe 
Willelmus Brand' 
Margareta seruien* ejus . 
Isabella Paytfyn 
Agnes Playnamour . 

Summa — xvij.«. x./7. 



• • • • i 

1I1J./7, 

• a • • 9 

ni].a. 
iiij./7. 

• • • • « 

in].//. 

• • • • * 

ni]./f. 

• • • • t 

mi .a. 
vj./f. 

111J./T. 

• • • • « 

i\\)A. 

• • • • T 

1UJ.//, 

lll].rf. 

• • • • f 

inj./y. 
nil.//. 

• •  * j 

uij./z. 

• • • • f 

111J./7. 

a • • • ■• 

111J./I. 

• • a  -m 

lllj.rf. 
111].//. 

a a  • « 

111].//. 

• a • • * 

111].//. 

a a • a a> 

111].//. 

•  a a « 

lllj.//. 

Ml' -J 

lllj.//. 

HM aj 

111].//. 

• a • a f 

lllj.//. 

vj.//. 

a • a * ^ 

111].//. 

a • • » m 

111].//. 

a a • » aj 

liij .a* 

• a a • m 

111].//. 

a • • a f 

lllj.//. 

a • •  j 

111].//. 

 a a a « 

lllj.//. 

a a  a f 

lllj.//. 

• a a • v 

lllj.//. 

• • a a « 

111].//. 

a • a • -9 

lllj.//. 
lllj.//. 

• a a a * 

lllj.//. 

a a a a v 

lllj.//. 

• a a a » 

lllj./f. 

mm m 

111].//. 

vj.//. 

lllj.//. 

a • • a « 

lllj.ff. 

a • • • • 

111].//. 

• a a a m 

111].//. 

• a «  « 

mj. a. 

a a • a j 

iiij. a. 

a a a a v 

inj. a. 

• • • • J 

lllj.//. 



53 



Staynfobd' (Stainfobth). 



Robertus de Staynford', domin 
us Ville 

Wiilelinus de Austwyk & vx 
Willelinue filius Roberti k vx 
Johannes Wayes k vx 
Johannes filius Ricardi Tyll- 

son k vx 
Oilbertus Milner & vx 
Johannes Lemyng' & vx 
Stephanus Milner k vx . 
Johannes Tomson k vx . 
Hugo Coyllyer' k vx 
Robertus Hvrd' k vx 
Johannes Turpyn & vx . 
Henricus Tomson k vx . 
Johannes Preston k vx . 
Thomas filius Ade k vx . 
Wiilelinus Walker' & vx 
Henricus de Braychawe k vx 
Thomas Symson k vx 
Johannes filius Willelmi k vx 
Henricus de Laukland' k vx 
Wiilelinus Schyrwod' k vx 
Rica rd us Walays k vx 
Robertus Tuilliour k vx . 
Johannes ffeton k vx 
Adam filius Roberti k vx 
Adam Benhowre k vx 
Thomas Emanson k vx . 
Robertus Thomson k vx 
Willelmus Walays & vx . 
Kicardus de Crauen & vx 
Robertus Mogson k vx . 
Adam Derakes k vx 
Sentient' — Agnes ffyscher' 
Matilda filia Roberti 
Robertus Gybson 
Johannes Robynson Hyrd* 
Summa — xxxi j .*. 



Steueton' (Steeton). 

Thomas Pereson, Husband', k 

vx .... 
Thomas filius ejusdem k vx 
Laureucius de Estburn k vx 
Thomas del Weste & vx 
Willelmus filius Roberti k vx 
WillelmuB de Stanes k vx 
Ricardus de Vtlay k vx 
Thomas filius Hugonis k vx 
Johannes de Estburn k vx 
Ricardus del Cote k vx 
Johannes Mareschall' k vx 
Agnes vx Ricanli de Kyghlay 
Johanna relicta Johannis Sysson 
Johannes Harower' k vx 



• • • • 7 

nij.a. 
nij.a. 

• • f » 7 

lllj.tf. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.a. 

• • • • 7 

iii].a. 

• » • • * 

mj.a. 

• • • » 7 

nij .a. 

• • • • « 

liij.a. 

t • • • 7 

mj.a. 

•  • • 7 

liij.a. 
mj.a\ 

m • • • 7 

• • • • « 

lllj.a. 

• • » • 7 

lllj.a. 

vj.a\ 

mj.a. 

• • • • 7 

mj.a. 

• • • • • 

mj.a. 

• • • » 7 

lllj.a. 

 •  • 7 

liij.a. 

• • •  7 

lllj.a. 

vj.a\ 

 • • • 7 

11 11. a. 

• • • • 7 

mj.a. 

• • • • 7 

HI J .ft. 

• • • • J 

mj.a. 

• •  » 7 

lllj.a. 

mj.a. 

• 9 •  7 

mj.a. 

• • • • 7 

mj.a\ 

• •  • 7 

lllj.a. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.rt. 

• • • » 7 

li il. a. 

• • • * 7 

inj.a. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.rt. 



 • • • m 

mj.a. 

  • • 7 

mj.a. 

•    7 

mj.a. 

• • •  7 

mj.a. 

• • • • 7 

mj.a. 

• • • • 7 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 

 • • • 7 

mj.a. 

• • • • m 

mj.a\ 
mj.a. 
liij.a. 

• • •  7 

mj.a. 

• # • • 7 

mj.a. 



Robertus de Schyplay k vx 
Thomas filius Willelmi k vx 
Willelmus de Bradlay k vx 
Robertus Walker' k vx . 
Bobertus Pape k vx 
Johannes Bretland' k vx 
Johannes Syward' & vx . 
Alicia relicta Hugonis Dauyson 
Matilda Dauydoghter' 
RicarduB Ryder', Textor, k vx 
Seruientes Ville Johannes Hob- 
son . 
WillelmuB Hobson 
Johannes seruiens Laurencii 

de Estburn 
Matilda filia Johannis Syward 
Agnes de Elom 
WillelmuB Ryder' . 
Agnes soror ejusdem Willelmi 
Alicia de Morton 
Elena Baret 
Agnes filia Johannis 
Elyzabetha Gylledoghter' 
Johannes filius Thome del West 
Johannes Pape 
Robertus le Mayre . 

Summa — xij.*. x.o*. 



• • •  7 

mj.a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 

•  » • 7 

mi .a. 

• •  • 7 

mj.a. 
iuj.4. 

 •  • 7 

un.a. 

• • • • 7 

mj.a. 

• • • • 7 

mj.a. 

• » •  7 

mj.a. 
vj.a*. 

mj.a. 

• • • • • 

mj.a. 

• • t • 7 

mj.a. 

• • • • 7 

mj.a. 

 • « * « 

mj.a. 

• • • • 7 

mj.a. 

 • • • -v 

mi. a. 

• •  • 7 

mj.a. 

• • • • « 

mj.a. 
\n].d. 

m • • • 7 

mj.a. 

• • • * 7 

mj.a. 

• • • 1 7 

mj.a. 

 • • • 7 

mj.a. 



Stretton' (Stibton). 



Johannes Ferawnt k vx 
Thomas Dauv k vx 
Thomas de Hudrespale k vx 
Johannes Lytsterson k vx 
Hugo de Che*ton k vx 
Willelmus Vttyng' & vx 
Willelmus Lyghtfot k vx 
Adam Grengore k vx 
Johannes Rawghe k vx 
Johannes Plesyngtonman k vx 
Robertus Seriant k vx 
Willelmus Glybdon ( 1 should 

be *• Skybdon ") k vx 
Willelmus de Wyndhows k vx 
Thomas Wyllson k vx 
Willelmus de Hall' k vx 
Sentient* — Emma Chapman 
Emma Kay 
Margareta Cay 
Thomas Styrke 
Johannes Robertalepson sari ant 
Agnes st: mien* Thome de Hud- 

resall' . 

Elena de Vttyng' . 
Cecilia %eru'wn« Hugonis Ches- 

ton . . . . . 
Summa — vij.*. viij.o". 



• • « • 7 

mj.a. 

• • • • 7 

Hi] .a. « 

• •   T 

in j .a. 

•  * • 7 

mj.a. 

t • • • _7 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• •  • 7 

mj.a. 

 • » • 7 

mj.a. 

• • • • 7 

mj.a. 

• • • fc 7 

in] .a. 

• • • • * 

ill]. a. 

 • • • 7 

iin.a. 

• • •  7 

mj.a. 

.... m 

mj.a. 

• • • • 7 

mj.a. 

• * • • 7 

mj.a. 

 • • • 7 

ill] .a. 

  • • 7 

mj.a. 

• • • • 7 

mj.a. 

• •  • 7 

mj.a. 

• • • • 7 

mj.a. 

• • •  7 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 



54 



Sutton'. 

Johannes Harper k vx 
Johannes Bryd' & vx 
Willelmus Estburn & vx 
Adam J on son & vx 
Adam Alius Philippi k vx 
Rogerus Harper k vx 
Robertas de Coplay & vx 
Thomas del Stans k vx . 
Willelmus de Bent k vx 
Johannes Baret k vx 
Johannes Warelewythes k vx 
Willelmus May re (?) k vx 
\Villelmus Mason k vx 
Willelmus de Coplay k vx 
Alicia Harper' 
Agnes vx Hugonis . 
Alicia tilia Hugonis 
Johanna de North wod' 
Matilda del Stanes 
Alicia tilia Hugonis 
Johannes Baret jonior (*u?) 
Summa — vij s. xrf. 



SWENDEN (SWINDEN). 

Johannes Symson & vx 
RicarduB Symraane k vx 
Nicholaus de Horton, Mercator 

Best\ & vx 
Willelmus de Setle k vx 
Thomas de Wad by k vx 
Johannes filius Johannis Hyrd 

k vx 
Edmundus Buriays k vx 
Johannes de Morlay k vx 
Johannes Browne k vx . 
Agnes Symwyfe 
Matilda Kay (?) 
Alicia Spurkes 
Agnes Pollerd 
Margareta Buriays . 
Seruient' — Thomas Symson 
Thomas Jonson 
Agnes Jondoghter' 
Matilda *eniien$ Morlay 
Alicia filia Johannis Browe {sic) 
RicarduB Mareschall', Faber, . 
Summa — viij*. vj.rf. 



• • • • * 

in]. a. 

vj.rf. 

nij.rf. 

• • • • m 

mj.rf. 
nij .a. 
uij. a. 
xij.rf. 

• • • • ? 

liij.a. 

• • • • y 

nij. a. 
uij. a. 
lllj.rf. 

 a a » 7/ 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • •• 

nij. a. 

« • • • m 

lllj.rf. 

mj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

• a a » 3 

lllj.rf. 

 • • • * 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • « 

lllj.rf. 

• • a • m 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 



• • • • V 

lllj.rf. 

 • • • « 

lllj.rf 

ij.*. 

• •  • » 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • • 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

• • • • * 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • J 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

 • a • V 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

• • • • f 

lllj.rf. 
.... j 
lllj.rf. 

lllj.rf. 

• • • * 3 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • _f 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • j 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • y 

lllj.rf. 

lllj.rf. 

vj.rf. 



Thornton' (Thornton-in-Craven). 



Johannes Cokerell' k vx 
Ricardus Schephyrd' k vx 



• • •  j* 

nij.rf. 
mj.rf. 



Johannes Mody k vx 
Thomas Cokerle k vx 
Thomas de Fowtayns & vx 
Elias de Hodlesdeyn k vx 
Ricardus Wydyerd senior & vx 
Thomas de Berdeyn k vx 
Willelmus Walker* k vx 
Johannes Byus k vx 
Edmundus Gadder' & vx 
Willelmus Euerhyrd' k vx 
Elias Milner k vx 
Johannes Gillson k vx . 
Ricardus Wysteler' k vx 
Johannes de Rylay k vx 
Maykyn de Sythwrt k vx 
Ricardus Lytster k vx 
Thomas Smeyth' k vx . 
Henricus filius Alicie k vx 
Johannes Chawberlayn k vx 
Hugo Huwetson k vx 
Johannes Pyrler' k vx 
Abell' Clerk k vx . 
Johannes de Estburn k vx 
Thomas de Estburn k vx 
Johannes filius Roberti k vx 
Adam Baudwyn k vx 
Willelmus Styrke k vx . 
Henricus Gayte k vx 
Adam Smartrod' k vx 
Johannes de Monkrod' k vx 
Robertus de Wyke k vx 
Willelmus de Kelbroke k vx 
Johannes Wysteler' junior k vx 
Johannes Wysteler' senior &vx 
Henricus de Grene k vx 
Johannes filius Willelmi k vx 
Johannes filius Henrici k vx . 
Johannes de Fowntayns, Car- 
penter. & vx 
Johannes Taylliour, Cissor^ k vx 
Johannes Smeyth', Fabar^kviL 
Agnes Lytster, Textrix, 
Johannes Wyinarkson, CUtor. 

& vx 

Willelmus de Wetaker.' Cusov y 

k vx 

Johannes filius Regeri (?) k vx 
Seruient' - Margareta Cokerell' 
Oliuer servient Forster 
Elana de Radclyf . 
Johannes Euerhyrd' 
Alicia vx Nicholai 
Alicia Doflfe 
Cecilia Brygdoghter' 
Johannes Smartrode 
Johannes seruiens Henrici Gay t 
Isabella Lvtster, Textrix, 
Willelmus" Forster' 
Johannes de Cressy 
Johannes Hobson 
Magota de Bollyngton 
Agnes de ffountayns 



• • • • y 

nij.rf. 
nij.rf, 
mj.rf. 

• • • • * 

mj.rf. 

• • • » y 
lllj.rf, 

lllj.rf. 

• a a a • 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

lllj.rf. 

• at* ? 

lllj.rf, 

• • a • T 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf, 

• • a • f 

lllj.rf. 

a a a • y 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • J 

lllj.rf. 

• • •  3 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf, 

• • •  J 

lllj.rf. 

 • a a * 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

• • • a * 

lllj.rf, 
lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

• • • • f 

lllj.rf, 

• • • • m 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf, 

.xii.rf. 

a • a » « 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

• • • • J 

lllj.rf. 

vj.rf. 
vj.rf. 
v}.rf. 
vj.rf. 

vj.rf.. 

vj.rf, 
lllj.rf. 
mj.rf. 
nij.rf, 

 • • • * 

lllj.rf, 
lllj.rf. 

a • • • « 

lllj.rf. 

• a a • 3 

lllj.rf. 

• at* y 

lllj.rf. 

• a a • «J 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • 1 

lllj.rf. 
Vj.rf. 

• • a • f 

lllj.rf, 
• • • • j 
lllj.rf. 

• • a a v 

lllj.rf. 

a a a a f 

lllj.rf, 

a • a a f 

lllj.rf. 



55 



Tillot' Hobwyff' . . . ffiw 

Ricardus Wydyerd' junior . iiij.rf. 

Isabella Brand' . . . iiij.a*. 

Nicholaus Gaytknaue . iiij.a\ 

Summa — xxiij.*. vj.o\ 



Thresfeld* (Thresh field). 



Johannes de Priston k vx 
Robertus Hawenlyc k vx 
Johannes Lara be k vx 
Ricardus Mori ay k vx 
Elias de Kylusay k vx . 
Robertus de Colgill' k vx 
Johannes Midelehowe k vx 
Will el ui us Alius Klie k vx 
Thomas Walker' k vx 
Thomas Milner k vx 
Ricardus de Deyn k vx 
Johannes de Deyn k vx 
Johannes Milner k vx 
Walterus Gryme k vx 
Johannes de Preston & vx 
Johannes Stayndrop k vx 
Johannes Elis k vx 
Henricus Milner, Teoetor^ k vx 
Sentient'— Agnes filia Ade 
Johannes Brenore 
Margeria filia Ricardi 
Katerina seruiens Roberti 
Katerina filia Johannis Milner 
Summa — viij.*. \\.d. 



m • • • m 

mj.a. 

m » • *■ <* 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 

lllj.tf. 

• • • • f 

Jllj.fl. 

• • • • f 

Illj.A. 

mj.a. 
mi.//. 

• • • • » 

mj.d. 

• • •  • 

mj.a. 

• • • • <* 

inj a. 
mj.a. 

• • • » j 

in] .a. 

• • • • m 

lllj.ff. 

mj.a. 

• • • • « 

mj.«. 

mj.a. 

vj.a\ 

  • • m 

mi .a. 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 
inj. a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 



Wadyngton (Waddington). 



Johannes Tempest, Chiualer, 
Henricus Goday k vx 
Johannes del \Vod\ Carpenter, 

k vx 
Thomas Clerkson & vx 
Elias Ryder' k vx 
Ibbota de Totyngton k vx 
Thomas de Wadyngton & vx 
Adam filius Gilberti k vx 



• • • • 1 

mj.a. 

vj.a*. 
mj.a. 

• • • * « 

mj.a. 

• * • • « 

in j .a. 
mj.a. 
mj. a. 



Robertus Conqwer' & vx . iin.a\ 

Robertus Symson k vx . . iii].a\ 

Henricus Juglore k vx . . iiij.a*. 

Ricardus de Brytwesele k vx . iiij.o\ 

Johannes de Wadyngton & vx iiij.o\ 

Johannes filius ejuB k vx . iii].o*. 
Sfn*w>n£'— Robertus de Brydes- 

werth' .... iiij.o\ 

Laurencius de Wadyngton . iiij.a*. 

Magota filia Ade . . . iiij.a'. 

Johannes de Sand ford' . . iiij.a'. 

Cecilia mater ejus . . . iiij.a". 
Summa— xxvj*. ijo*. 



Wyglesworth (Wigglesworth). 



Robertus de Thoresby, Armiger 
Johannes de Hyndele k vx 
Robertus de Mai ton k vx 
Johannes Markson k vx 
Johannes de Bordelay k vx 
Petrus Bell' k vx 
Thomas del Hund' k vx . 
Willelmus Mayson & vx . 
Johannes Milner k vx 
Johannes Hykcorst k vx 
Robertus A damson k vx 
Johannes Elysson k vx 
Johannes Brone k vx 
Thomas Walker' k vx 
Adam Fosti k vx 
Johannes Parker' & vx 
Willelmus de Wytakrefc vx 
Ricardus Scelue k vx 
Ricardus Wyghale & vx . 
Adam Schephyrd' k vx . 
Johannes Pesty k vx 
Edmundus Jonson k vx 
Agnes Wyghall' 
Agnes Tons tall' 
Alicia filia ejus 
Maye de Hyndele 
Agnes Walkerewyf 

Summa — xij.*. 



xl.a\ 

• • w • 4 

mj.a. 

•  •  m 

in j. a. 
mj.a. 
ilij.a\ 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• • • » » 

mj.a. 

 • • • 9 

mj.a. 

 • • • J 

mj.a. 

• • • • * 

nn.a. 
..." * 
mj.a. 

mj.a. 

mj.a. 

mj.a. 

• • •  j 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 
iii].a\ 
mj.a. 

• • • • j 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 



Summa totalis de Stayneclyff' — 
liijii. xix.*. \}.d. m 



• The amount ia erased. 



56 



WAPENTACHIUM DE YUKCROS. 



Austwyk' (Austwick). 



Robertas Sinetheson, Text or, 

& vx 

Walterus de Qwerff 6c vx 
Ricardus del Hall' & vx . 
Johannes Greg son 6c vx 
Willelmus Pece & vx 
Adam Tomson & vx 
Willelmus filius Ade filii 
Nicholai, Chaluwr, 6c vx . 
Johannes filius Ade Wattson 

& vx 

Henricus Dune. Webster, 6c vx 
Ricardus Lam be 6c vx 
Adam Lam be & vx 
Willelmus GronelP 6c vx 
Johannes Colan & vx 
Johannes filius Ade de Clap- 
ham 6c vx 
Johannes filius Thome & vx . 
Johannes Barker', Sutor, 6c vx 
Robertus de Vllerston, Web- 
ster, 6c vx 
Johannes Browne & vx . 
Willelmus de Spaltou Sc vx 
Johannes Cay 6c vv 
Johannes Smeth', Faber, 6c vx 
Robertus filius Thome & vx 
Willelmus de Rowland* & vx 
Johannes fforrester' 6c vx 
Johannes Treppe & vx 
Thomas M arse hall' & vx 
Adam Kmson 6c vx 
Willelmus filius Ade 6c vx 
Willelmus Rayner' 6c vx 
Robertus Suerdson 6c vx 
Johannes filius Roberti 6c vx 
Ricardus Lemeng' 6c vx 
Adam Suerdson & vx 
Adam de Ouerhend' 6c vx 
Willelmus Pece, de Crombak 

6c vx 
Ricardus de Querf 6c vx 
Willelmus de Querf & vx 
Willelmus Gibman 6c vx 
Willelmus Pete (? should be 

u Pece ") & vx . 
Robertson Wyllson 6c vx 
Robertus filius Ricardi 6c vx 
Walterus filius Ricardi 6c vx 
Thomas Ulerkson. Citsor, 6c vx 
Robertus Lemeng', CUsor, 6c vx 
Henricus filius Johannis & vx. 
Johannes filius Thome & vx 
Willelmus Barker' 6c vx 
Thomas J on son & vx 
Johannes Malgat 6c vx 
Willelmus Cowper 6c vx . 



vj.rf. 

• • • • T 

lllj.ff. 

• • • • f 

nii.rf. 
inj,a. 

• • • • « 

nij.fl. 
nij.tf. 

\].d. 

m].d. 
vi J. 

m ft m • t 

nij .a. 

• • • • Y 

lllj.tf. 

 • • • J 

lllj.fl. 

• • ft • « 

111] .A. 

• • • • m 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

\].d. 
v].d. 

ft • ft • T 

nij.tf. 

• •  • « 

mj.rt. 

• • * • f 

in]. a. 
vj.rZ. 

•  * • m 

mj.tf. 

• • • • m 

lilj.rt. 

• • • • f 

nij.rf. 

ft ft B ft * 

lllj.ff. 

ft  • • « 

inj.ff. 

• • • • * 

lllj.ff. 

 • • ft T 

lllj.ff. 

• • ft  » 

lllj.rf. 

ft • ft • V 

Ulj.ff. 

• • • • ^ 

in j .rx. 

• • • • * 

ini.«. 

• •  • t 

nij.rf. 
xij.rf. 

• •  • m 

nij.a. 

• • • • -f 

liij.rf. 

\).d. 

mj.rf. 

• • • • « 

inj. a. 

• • • • « 

nij. a. 

• • • • j 

nij.rf. 

  * • « 

in], a. 
vj.rf. 
vj.rf. 

• • • • T 

lllj.ff. 

ill] .rf. 

• • •  * 

nij.ff. 

• • • • _» 

liij.a. 

 ft • • T 

in]. a. 

• *  • • 

Hij.ff. 



Willelmus Littstre & vx . 
Willelmus Turpyn & vx . 
Thomas filius Walteri 6c vx 
Johannes Armetman 6c vx 
Johannes de Clapham & vx 
Robertus filius Walteri de 

Wode & vx ... 

Ricardus filius Walteri de 

Wode & vx ... 

Johannes de Lawkeland' & vx 
Thomas Malkynson, Webstre, 

& vx 

Seruient' — Johannes filius Ade 

filii Nieholai 
Agnes Smythewyfe 
Alicia filia Simone 
Johannes de Parke . 
Mariona de Parke 
Johannes de Ellale 
Agnes filia Roberti Adkokson 
Johannes Lam be 
Johannes filius Roberti filii 

Thome 
Ricardus Parker* 
Beatrix Malyndoghter' 
Ricardus filius Roberti 
Robertus filius Roberti* 
Robertus Petyson . 

Summa — xxvj.*. vj.d. 



Bentham. 

Thomas de Crosby 6c vx 
Johannes de Water scale 6c vx 
Willelmus Wymarston & vx 
Henricus de Midleton Sc vx 
Gilbertus de Myrewra, Cissor 

& vx 
Johannes filius Stephani 6c vx 
Willelmus Proctour & vx 
Thomas de ffarnelay 6c vx 
Ricardus de ftiat & vx 
Johannes Cowhawe 6c vx 
Johannes de Dowfbygyng 6c vx 
Johannes ffole 6c vx 
Johannes filius Alicie 6c vx 
Thomas de Ellerschawe 6c vx 
Thomas Ward" & vx 
Robertus ffady & vx 
Hugo de Crofft & vx 
Johannes de Bland' 6c vx 
Johannes de Bentham 6c vx 
Johannes Lawpage 6c vx 
Adam de Bland' 6c vx 
Johannes Thomson 6c vx 
Willelmus Daudson 6c vx 



 • •  * 

inj.rf. 

•  a • ■• 

mj.a. 

• • • • m 

Ulj.ff. 

  • • « 

mj.a. 

•  ft • V 

inj. a. 

 • • • « 

in] .a. 

• • • • « 

nij.tf. 

• •  • « 

in] .a. 
vj.rf. 

• « • • m 

in] .a. 

ft ft  ft m 

inj.rf. 

lllj.fl. 

 •  • w 

nij.rf. 

.... m 

mj.a. 

• • • • m 

111] |.». 

• •  • • 

nn.d. 

lllj.rt. 
lllj.ff. 

iiij.rf. 

• • • • • 

in]. a. 

• • * • » 

ill] .a. 

• • •  m 

lllj.ff. 

• • • • * 

ill] .a. 



• • • • « 

nij.a. 

• • • • « 

uij.tf. 
mi .a. 

• • • • m 

inj. a. 
xij./f. 

 • • • m 

\\\\.d. 

• ft ft ft « 

lllj.tf. 

lllj.tf. 

• • • ft -m 

lllj.tf. 

xij.rf. 
xij.rf. 

• • • • « 

iii].«. 

ft  • ft m 

inj .a. 
liii.a. 

• • • ft -m 

m].d. 

• • • • * 

inj .a. 
mj.d. 
xij.rf. 
xij.rf. 

• « •  « 

nij.4. 

  • • * 

nij.a. 

• • • • * 

mj.rf. 

• • • • • 

inj .a. 



57 



Ricardus de Bent ham k vx 
Seruient' — Johanna filia Thome 

de (#ir) 
Emma de M idle ton 
Emma ffrere 

Custancia de Culhauch' . 
Betric' (sic) de Culhauch 
Johannes de Bland' li trill' 
Agnes vx Roberti 
Ellota de Ingleton 
Thomas de Bentham 
Robertus de Ingleton 
Robertus de Doufebyging 
Elizabeths Forsterwyf 

SSumma — xv.*. iiij.o". 



•  • • _» 

mj.a. 

• • • • * 

lllj.A. 

• • • • « 

lllj.a. 

  • • • 

liij.a. 
mi.//, 
mi a. 

•  • • _» 

mj .a. 

• • • # « 

lllj.a. 

mj.a. 
liij.a. 

• • •  * 

ni].a. 

• • • • m 

lllj.rff. 



Burton' (Burton-in-Lonsdale). 



Willelmus Gybson k vx 
Johannes Trace. Onoper, k vx 
Hugo de Thornton k vx 
Johannes de Flasby k vx 
Johannes filius ejusdem k vx 
Adam Cokesoh, Webstre. k vx 
Willelmus Jonkynson k vx 
Gilbertus Smyth', Fabar, k vx 
Ricardus Sybson k vx 
Robertus Beket, Svt<rr % k vx 
Johannes Thomson Dobson &vx 
-Johannes de Holme k vx 
Johannes Mareschall' k vx 
Robertus filius Will el mi k vx 
Thomas de Lond' k vx 
Willelmus de Lond' k vx 
Laurencius Hogonman k vx 
Hugo de Newton k vx 
Johannes de Milne k vx 
Thomas Walker'. \Valhtr\ k vx 
Thomas de Thornton k vx 
Matheus de Crosby k vx 
Willelmus de Westhowse k vx 
Adam de Crawschawe & vx 
Johannes Blomer' k vx 
Willelmus Robinman k vx 
Johannes Schanaldowre k vx 
Willelmus ffetheler' & vx 
Thoirias Banes k vx 
Johannes Thomson k vx 
Rfcardus Gibson k vx 
Johannes Kvtson k vx . 
Willelmus Gyon k vx 
Johannes Gybson k vx 
Oliuerus de Thornton k vx 
Edmundus Jon son k vx 
Agnes filia Thome de Lond' 
Thomas Gybson k vx 
-Johannes Smytheknaue k vx 
•Cecilia que fuit vxor Ricard 
de Rychemond' 



t • f • f 

iiij.a. 

vj.o". 

xij.o*. 

• • • • * 

nrj.a. 

• 9   f 

lllj.ff. 

vj .0*. 
lllj.ff. 

vj.rf. 

• • • • f 

lllj.a. 

vj.o". 
iiij.a. 

• • • • • 

liij.a. 
mj.a. 

lllj.a. 

xij.o". 

• • •  * 

nrj.a. 

9 9 * • * 

lllj.ff. 

• •  • f 

mj.a. 

• • • • « 

ui]//. 
vj.rf. 

• • • • * 

liij.a. 

• • • • m 

Hi]. a. 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 
liij.a. 
liij.a. 

• •  • « 

lllj.a. 

• • • • m 

iiij.a. 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.a. 

•  • • * 

iiij.a. 

lllj.ff. 

•  • • f 

in). a. 

• • • • * 

iiij.a. 

• • • • * 

iiij.a. 

• • • • « 

nn.a. 
liny/, 
mj.a. 
liij.a. 

liij.a. 



Emma de Horton 
Agnes Brownyng' 
Matilda Clerkwvfe 
Agnes Herlyng' 
Alicia Brownwyfe . 
Alicia de Lond' 
Johannes Mellyng' 
Agnes Browndoghter 
Elena filia ejusdem 
Eliot' Eradoghter 
Alicia filia Beatricis 

Summa- xix.*. 



ij.o*. 



Clapham*. 

Robertus filius Alani k vx 
Willelmus de Borgh' k vx 
Johannes de Vhedon k vx 
Ricardus filius Willelmi k vx 
Ricardus le Clarke k vx 
Thomas filius Ricard i k vx 
Willelmus Walker' k vx 
Johan Crokwyf k vx 
Johannes Elysson k vx 
Adam Piper', Webster, k vx 
Johannes filius Ricard i k vx 
Johannes Chalunner, Cfutluncr 

k vx 
Ricard ub Place k vx 
Adam Pece k vx 
Willelmus Taytfc vx 
Johannes de Clapham, Fre 

halder, & vx 
Robertus de Clapham k vx 
Johannes de Parke k vx 
Adam Browne & vx 
Willelmus de Clapham k vx 
Robertus filius Walteri k vx 
Ricardus RauthemeH' & vx 
Robertus Geliot k vx 
Johannes de Ay re ton junior &vx 
Thomas Turpyn k vx 
Robert u 8 Geldhyrd' k vx 
Willelmus Lemyng' & vx 
Henricus Tail Hour, Ctitor, k vx 
Johannes de Somerscalewra 

k vx 
Johannes Alkokson k vx 
Johannes de Somerscale junior 

k vx , 

Willelmus Kyd' & vx 
Johannes Bofferd' Ac vx 
Willelmus Wyldman k vx 
Adam de Schakyngton k vx 
Willelmus Geregson k vx 
Johannes Smythson k vx 
Johannes Scharp k vx 
Johannes Proktur k vx 
Augustinus Mewhyrd' k vx 



• • •  m 
lllj.tf. 

• • • • « 

HI] .A. 

• • • * * 

mi. a. 

• • • • m 

Ulj.0. 

• • • • T 

in], d. 
m].d. 
in), d. 

• 9 • • » 

lllj.rt. 

iiij. a. 
mi d. 

• • • » » 

m].d. 



• • •  * 

Hi]. a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 

• • • • m 

mj.a. 

• • 9 • « 

mj.a. 

lllj.tf. 

mj.a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 

• • • • « 

mj.a. 

mj.a. 

\}.d. 

xxj.d. 

vj.rf. 

• 9 9 m m 

mj.a. 
nii.a. 
mj.a. 

xi].d. 
mj.a. 

• » t • * 

ui] .a. 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 
ill] d. 

m 9 * • f 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 

 • • • « 

mj.a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 
vj.a\ 

mj.a. 

• • • • * 

mj.a. 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• a • * « 

ui] .a. 

• • •  « 

nij.a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • m 

mj.a. 
mj.a. 

• • • • m 

nij.aV 

.... m 

mj.a. 



58 



Hugo Scott & vx . 
Johannes de Kendall' & vx 
Willelmus Smyth' k vx 
Johannes de Midillton k vx 
Johannes de Midilton senior 

k vx .... 
Willelmus Gregson k vx 
Thomas Crokson & vx . 
Henricus Gregson k vx 
Willelmus Austynman k vx 
Cristiana Dewfebygyng' 
Alicia Kyttokmaydyn 
Ricardus Peteson k vx . 
Willelmus Alius Ricardi filii 

Willelmi & vx 
Seruient 1 — Isabella Crokes 

doghter' 
Alicia Crokesdoghter' 
Ricardus filius Johannis de 

Clapham 
Agnes seruiens Johannis del 

Parke 
Johannes filius Roberti . 
Johanna soror ejusdem . 
Willelmus de Rauthmell' 
Robertus Gelietson 
Adam Gelietson 
Johannes de Grenfell' 
Thomas de Midilton 
Mariota Kyd . 

Summa— xxiij.«. vj.d. 



Dent. 

Thomas de Syggleiswyk, Dra 

per, k vx 
Robertus de Burton, Spicer 

k vx 
Robertus Ward', Mareha^nf) 

k vx 
Adam de Crofft, Cissor, k vx 
Thomas Clerke & vx 
Thomas Dykson k vx 
Willelmus Dollyng' k vx 
Johannes de Ellyrgill' k vx 
Rogerus Dullyng' k vv . 
Johannes Copstake k vx 
Rogerus del Marc he k vx 
Robertus Sysson k vx 
Willelmus de Smeretwayt k vx 
Willelmus de Ellyrgill' k vx 
Robertus de Reke & vx 
Willelmus Blad' k vx . 
Rogerus Will son k vx 
Willelmus de Seglewyk k vx 
Robertus Todde k vx 
Johannes Symson k vx 
Johannes Sauthhyrd' k vx 
Willelmus Tomson k vx 



• • • • « 

nij.fl. 

• • • • y 

lllj.fl-. 

a a •  y 

lllj.fl. 

 • • • y 

in] a. 

• • • • i 

ni]. a. 
iiij.fl. 

• • • • y 

inj.fl. 

• • • •  

nij.rf. 

• •  • y 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • y 

mi a. 

• • • • * 

iiij.fl. 

 • • • y 

in], d. 

• • • • y 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • y 

mj.fl. 

• •  • •« 

in] a. 

• • • • m 

m].d. 

• t • • ■» 

nij. a. 
liij.fl. 

 • • • y 

in] .d. 

•  • • y 

111].//. 

mj.rZ. 

• • • • y 

nij.fl. 

• • • • y 

111]. rf. 

• • • • y 

liij.fl. 

• » • • y 

uij. a. 



xij.fl*. 

xij.fl*. 

xij.fl*. 
xij.tf*. 
liij.fl. 

 * • • t 

Hij. a. 
ilij.«". 

• •  • y 

111}.//. 
..." j 
lllj.fl. 

liij.fl. 

• • • • y 

in] a. 
liij.fl. 

• • • • f 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • y 

lllj.fl. 

•   • y 

in] a. 

 • • • * 

liij.fl. 

 « • • y 

in] d. 

m m • • y 

lllj.fl. 

• * • • y 

lllj.fl. 

•  • • y 

nij. d. 

• • • * t 

111J./7. 

• • • • y 

111].//. 



Willelmus filius Willelmi k vx 
Willelmus Mason k vx 
Adam de Smeretwayt k vx 
Robertus ffarman k vx 
Willelmus de Leke k vx 
Thomas filius Thome filii 

Johannis k vx 
Robertus Dykson k vx 
Adam de ffawesyde k vx 
Johannes de Segheswyk & vx 
Willelmus de Vlletwayt k vx 
Johannes Hyldreston k vx 
Rogerus de Baynbryg' k vx 
Thomas de Hylldreston k vx 
Robertus Cowpstake k vx 
Thoma(s) Bryd' & vx 
Johannes filius Ricardi k vx 
Adam Grundolf k vx 
Ricardus Grundolff k vx 
Ricardus Vlltwayt & vx 
Willelmus Chapman k vx 
Adam Diconson k vx 
Johannes Wynterscalle & vx 
Ricardus Ward' k vx 
Henricus de Gate k vx 
Adam de Goldyngton k vx 
Adam Gilson k vx 
Johannes Graunger k vx 
Thomas filius Johannis Daw- 
son & vx 
Willelmus filius Johannis Daw 

son & vx 
Thomas de S mart way t k vx 
Johannes Wyrehorn k vx 
Willelmus de Gawkthorp'& vx 
Johannes Pete (should be 

44 Pece ") k vx 
Nicholaus Styrkland' k vx 
Seruient' — Robertus de Segles- 

»» yk.    • • 

Rogerus de Segleswyk 
Adam filius Thome Clerke 
Emma filia Johannis del Hall' 
Willelmus fillius (tic) Johannis 

del Hall' . 
Willelmus filius Johannis 

Dullyng 
Agnes filia Ricardi . 
Ingrene Caupstake . 
Emma filia Ricardi 
Johannes Blad' 
Alicia de Midleton . 
Johannes Garlede . 
Robertus de Gate 

Sum ma — xxxv.j. viij.// 



lllj.fl- 

 • • * y 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • y 

mi .a.. 

• • • • y 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • 5 

ui] a. 

• ••  y 

mi. d. 

• • • • j 

nij. a. 

• • • • y 

nij. a. 

• • • • y 

lllj.fl. 

« » • • y 

lllj.fl. 

• a • • f 

lllj.fl. 

•  • • y 

lllj.fl. 

a • • • y 

inj.fl. 

• • • » y 

in] a. 

m • • • y 

lllj.fl. 

•  •  y 

111].*/.. 

• • •  y 

111].//. 

•  • m y 

I11J,«\ 

• • • • y 

Hi] a. 

• » • • y 

ill] a. 

• • • • y 

111]. A.. 

 • • • y 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • y 

mi .a., 
nij.fl'. 

• • • • ■» 

mj.fl. 

« t  • y 

lllj.ff.. 

• • • • f 

lllj.ff. 

• • • • y 

nij.a. 
liij.tf. 

• •  X y 

lllj.0. 

• » • • y 

111].//. 

• • • • m 

lllj.ff. 

• • • • 3 

111J./7. 

• • • • y 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • m 

nij. a. 
iilj.rf. 
nii.ff. 

• • •* y 

lll].fl. 

lllj.rf. 

• • t • Y 

lllj.ff. 

• •  • y 

nij.a. 

• t • • _j 

ni].rf. 

• i • • y 

lllj.fl. 

• • • » v 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • y 

lllj.fl. 

• • • * * 

Ulj.fl. 

• • • • J 

lllj.fl^ 



59 



HORTON* 

(Hokton-in-Ribblesdale). 



WillelmuB Palay &vx 
Johannes Pollerd' & vx . 
Robertas Merebek & vx . 
Robertas Browne & vx 
Alanus Alius Willelmi & vx 
Willelmus ffaldschawe & vx 
Edmundus films Laurencii 

& vx 
Willelmus Horseman & vx 
Willelmus de Bygcrofft & vx 
Ricardus Geldhyrd' & vx 
Johannes de More & vx 
Willelmus de Somerscalewra 

& vx 
Adam de Burton & vx 
Johannes Tyrry & vx 
Willelmus de Hundyngdeyn 

& vx • 

Johannes Ward' & vx 
Johannes de Somerscales & vx 
Johannes de Hundyngdeyn 

vx .... 

Adam de More & vx 
Johannes de Ayreton & vx 
Johannes Newehouse & vx 
Johannes de Scartheson & vx 
Willelmus Inman & vx 
Thomas Lely & vx 
Thomas de Staynford' & vx 
Thomas Alius Henrici & vx 
Johannes ffetyss & vx 
Johannes de Swynden & vx 
Johannes Lauson & vx 
Johannes filius Johannis de 

Ayreton & vx 
Robertas Law son & vx . 
Henricus Skerawth' & vx 
Thomas de Laukeland' & vx 
Johannes de Skerawth' & vx 
Johannes de More & vx 
Adam de Crokhay & vx 
Johannes Pratte & vx 
Willelmus de Lede & vx 
Robertas Walmaghe & vx 
Adam filius Thome & vx 
Johannes Elysson & vx 
Agnes vx Roberti 
Agnes vx Rogeri 
Magota Cokheuedwyff 
Seruient'— Adam filius Elene 
Matilda vx Johannis Milner 
Alicia seruient Nele 
Willelmus filius Willelmi Inman 
Thomas Ayretonson 
Johannes filius Ade Crokehay 
Thomas filius Willelmi de 

Somer .... 

Summa— xvij.*. 



 9 • • * 

uij. a. 

• • • » t 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

•   • 7 

in].fl. 
lllj.fl. 

• a • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

•  • • 7 

ui].d. 

• • • • « 

nij.0. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

uij .a. 

• • *  7 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • 1 

ni].fl. 

• • • • 7 

in), a. 

 • « • 7 

nij .a. 

• • * « 7 

mi .a. 
iiij.fl. 

• * • • 7 

in] .a. 

• • • • 7 

inj.fl. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 
mi. a. 

• • • • 7 

liij. a. 

 • • • y 

lllj.fl. 

• *  • •■ 

iiij rf. 

• • • « 7 

ill] .a 

• •• » w 

inj.fl. 

• • • • 7 

ill] .a. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

•  • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

• • m • 7 

lllj.fl. 

•  • • 7 

ill]. a. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • _7 

in]. a. 

• • • • » 

uij. a. 

• • • • # 

inj.fl. 

• • • • « 

mi. a. 

• • • » 7 

mj.a. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

 ft • * 7 

uij. a. 

• • • • 7 

mi. a. 

• • • * 7 

mj.a. 

• •  » 7 

in]. a. 

• • • • 7 

111). rt. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

•  • • 7 

ill]. a. 

 • •  7 

lllj.fl. 

•  •  7 

lllj.fl. 

 m • « 7 

lllj.fl. 



Ingleton'. 



Johannes Shedhyrd' & vx 
Robertas Kyng' & vx 
Robertas de Ouerend & vx 
Johannes de Redmane,Arniatas, 

vj.«. 
Willelmus filius Ricardi, S/ri^r, 

& vx 
Johannes Wetherhyrd', Faber, 

& vx 
Willelmus Grundolf & vx 
Thomas de Ellerbek & vx 
Johannes Page & vx 
Thoma (sic) Browne & vx 
Johannes de Crauen & vx 
Thomas de Skyrhow & vx 
Thomas Kyd' & vx 
Johannes Dawson & vx 
Robertas Chephyrd' & vx 
Willelmus de Cowpland' & vx 
Johannes Morehall' & vx 
Willelmus de Scales & vx 
Johannes filius Willelmi & vx 
Johannes Mort k vx 
Johannes C rawer' &, vx 
Raudulphus Sm\ih\Fabar\&, vx 
Robertas Dykson & vx . 
Gilbertus Baynbryg' & vx 
Johannes filius Nicholai & vx 
Ricardus Scot & vx 
Willelmus Walker' & vx 
Hugo Denysson & vx 
Thomas de Hall' & vx . 
Johannes filius Ellote & vx 
Johannes filius Ricardi & vx 
Hugo de Holme & vx 
Laurencius Tomson & vx 
Johannes de Wod' & vx 
Johannes Husband' & vx 
Thomas Lauson & vx 
Step nanus Hog' & vx 
Johannes Cittson & vx . 
Johannes de Bank & vx 
Willelmus Smeth',^aftflr',&vx 
Johannes de Lese & vx 
ThomaB Benne & vx 
Edmundus filius Thome & vx 
Johannes Cowper & vx . 
Robertas Pynrter' & vx . 
SeTiiimf — Thomas Jon son Wet 

herhird 
Johannes filius Galfridi 
Agnes Kyd' 

Magota de Wynterscale . 
Emma Harwod' 
Agnes vx Ricardi Sariant 
Agnes Schephyrd 
Alicia Cowper' 
Hugo Bateman 
Elena seruient Willelmi . 



• • • • j? 

nij.ff. 

•  • • f 

mi.rf. 

• • •  7 

ill] .a. 

viij.rf. 

xij.d. 

xij.rf. 
in].//. 

• • • • J 

ni].ff. 

• • • • m 

mj .a. 

• • • • 7 

111].*/. 
• • • • j 
mi. a. 

lllj.tf. 

•  « • 7 

ill]. a. 

• • • • 7 

lll].ff. 

• • • * * 

in] a. 

• • • • j 

in] .a. 

• •  • 7 

ll!J.tf. 

• • • » 7 

mj.a. 

•  • • 7 

lllj.tf.- 

• • • • 7 

uij.a. 

• • • • 7 

111]. a. 
vj.rf. 

•  • • J} 

ill] .a.. 

• • •  7 

lllj.rt. 

• • •  7 

nij.a. 

nij.a. 

\).d. 

• • • • jf 

nij.a. 

• * • • 7 

uij. a. 

• • • • 7 

Hi]. a. 

• • • • 7 

nij.a. 

•  • » 7 

lll].tf. 

• • • • 7 

ni].a^ 

t « •  7 

lllj.fl. 

 • • • 7 

llll.rf, 

•  • • 7 

lllj.tf. 

• • • • J 

lllj.fl, 

• • •  7 

ill] .a. 
•• • • * 
ni].ff. 

vi.rf. 

• • • * 7 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

  • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

• « • • 7 

lllj.fl, 
lllj.fl. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

• •  • 7 

lllj.fl. 

« • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

•  • • 7 

111] fl. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 

 • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 
lllj.fl. 

• • • • 7 

lllj.fl. 



60 



Robertas de ffreklyngton . iiij.rf. 

•Galfridus Spenser, de Ingleton iiij.rf. 

Summa — xxvij.*. ij.rf. 



Sadbargh (Sedbergh). 

Adam de Bland'. Hosteler, & vx xij.rf. 
•Johannes Brarntwayt, Walker, 

& vx xij.rf. 

-Johannes filius Ade Jeffrason 

& vx xij.rf. 

Willelmus Henrison & vx . iiij.rf. 

Adam Jonson & vx . . iiij.rf. 

Willelmus de Ellirgyll' & vx . iiij.rf. 

Willelmus ffawsyd'&vx . iiij.rf. 

Thomas Wedoghson & vx . iiij.rf. 

Thomas Wylkynson & vx . iiij.rf. 

Willelmus de Aykryg' & vx . iiij.rf. 

Willelmus de Rydding & vx . iiij.rf. 

•Johannes Gybson, WalJter&vx. vj.rf. 

•Johannes filius Willelmi & vx iiij.rf. 

-Johannes Neleson & vx . iiij.rf. 

Laurencius de York & vx . iiij.rf. 

Thomas filius Henrici & vx . iiij.rf. 

Ricardus filius Willelmi &l vx . iiij.rf. 

Thomas Symson & vx . iiij.rf. 

Adam de ffawsyd' & vx . iiij.rf. 

Henricus Gybson, Walker, & vx vj.rf. 

Adam Spycer' & vx . . iiij.rf. 

Johannes le Wode & vx . . iiij.rf. 

Johannes Spycer' & vx . . iiij.rf. 

Johannes de Rowre & vx . iiij.rf. 

Johannes Mason & vx . iiij.rf. 

Adam Hawlay k vx . iiij.rf. 

Matilda Bland' . . . iiij.rf. 

Johannes Tybey & vx . iiij rf. 

Johannes Jopson & vx . . iiij.rf. 

Johannes de Walden & vx . iiij.rf. 

Ricardus Hebletwayt & vx . iiij.rf. 

Thomas Scharp & vx . . iiij.rf. 

Willelmus de Lay re wat holm 

&vx . . iiij.rf. 

Henricus filius Heurici Nell- 
son & vx . . . iiij.rf. 

Adam Sponer' & vx . . iiij.rf. 

Thomas de Braintwayt & vx . xij.rf. 

Thomas de Lolme & vx . iiij.rf. 

SeruietW — Johannes William- 
son de Fausys . . . iiij.rf. 

Johannes filius Willelmi Henr' 

(? " Henrison ") . . iiij.rf. 

Johannes de Aykryg' . . iiij.rf. 

Johannes Daynell' . . iiij.rf. 

Thomas de Luktu . . iiij rf. 

Agnes de Hebletwayt . . iiij.rf. 

Matilda de Hogyll' . . iiij.rf. 

Summa — xxvij.*. viij.rf. 



Thornton* 
(Thornton-in-Lonsdale), 



Raudulphus Feldhowses & vx 
Willelmus de Hesledeyn & xx 
Thomas Hulson & vx 
Willelmus Dayuyil' & vx 
Willelmus Bllottson & vx 
Robertus Willson & vx . 
Thomas Sybotson & vx . 
Robertus Gudred & vx . 
Robertus Yoy [?>., Joy] & vx 
Thomas de Lupton & vx 
Ricardus Mercer' & vx 
Adam Lullson & vx 
Johannes dc Lund' & vx 
Robertus Yoy junior & vx 
Johannes Batman & vx 
Willelmus Dayuyil' junior &vx 
Adam de Burgh' & vx 
Willelmus Burgh & vx . 
Thomas de Lund' & vx 
Robertus de Bald res ton & vx 
Johannes filius Ade de Burgh' 

& vx 

Johannes do Baldreston & vx 
Johannes de Leke & vx 
Willelmus de Baldreston & vx 
Johannes de Tatam & vx 
Thomas Willson & vx 
Johannes de Cote & vx 
Thomas Carter' & vx 
Adam Wadkynson & vx 
Robertus Ouerend' & vx 
Johannes de Fowscroft & vx 
Husro Hyrd' & vx 
Willelmus Hyrd' &, vx 
Johannes de Aykheued' & vx 
Johannes Willson & vx 
Johannes Neuyll' & vx 
Willelmus Robynson & vx 
Robertus Michelson & vx 
Adam Milnerson & vx 
Johannes de Grene & vx 
Thomas de Tatham & vx 
Thomas de Clapham & vx 
Johannes de Horton & vx 
Willelmus Robynson & vx 
Robertus de Tatham & vx 
Maria »eniwnt ejus 
Alicia $e miens Roberti de Bal 

dreston 
Elena de Birche 
Johanna Gregdoghter' 
Johannes filius Thome de Burgh 
Summa — xvij.j. viij.rf. 



nn.rf. 

• • • • t 

iiij.rf. 
iiij.rf. 

 • • • « 

iiij.rf. 
iiij.rf. 

• • • • i 
lllj.rf. 

mj.rf. 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • <ff 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

• • • • f 

lllj.rf. 

lllj.rf. 

vj.rf. 

lllj.rf. 

lllj.rf. 
vj.rf. 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

• • • • « 

lllj.rf. 

• • • a « 

lllj.rf. 

• • • a * 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

« a a • -f 

lllj.rf. 

xij.rf, 

lllj.rf. 

a • • • -m 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

• a a m -m 

lllj.rf. 

a • B • -* 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

• • • • f 

lllj.rf. 

• a • » m 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

• • • a -• 

lllj.rf. 

a • • • f 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

a • • • m 

lllj.rf. 

• a • • m 

lllj.rf. 

 a • » f 

lllj.rf. 
lllj.rf. 

• • • • « 

lllj.rf. 

• • • • f 

lllj.rf. 

a • a • ^ 

lllj.rf. 
UlJ.rf. 



Summa totalis istius rotuli — 

ix.//.ix.*. viij.rf. (These figures 

cancelled.) 



Gl 




A LIST OF CRAVEN MEN 

WHO FOUGHT AT 

FLODDEN FIELD, A.D. 1513. 

HE Battle of Flodden Field, one of the most decisive events, 
in English history, was fought on the 9th of September, 
1513. The Scots were utterly defeated, and at the close of 
the combat 10,000 of their pierced and bleeding bodies lay 
lifeless on the field, including those of the King (James IV.), his son, 
twelve earls, and fifteen lords and heads of clans, — the flower and gallantry 
of Caledonia ! In the refrain of an old Scottish melody, " The flouirs 
o' the forest were a' wede awa\" The English were led by the veteran 
Earl of Surrey, who, at that time, was Lieut. -General of the northern 
counties of England. There is a manuscript of an old ballad preserved 
in the British Museum (Harl. MSS. No. 3526) which cites the following 
interesting particulars : " Heare is the famous historie or songe, called 
Floodan Field," — says the title of the ballad ; " in it shalbe declared 
how, whyle King Henrie the Eight was in France, the King of Scoots, 
called James, the fowerth of that name, invaded the realme of England ; 
and how he was incountred with all at a place called Branton, on Floodan 
Hill by the Erl of Surry, lieutenant-generall for the Kinge, with the 
helpe of dyvers lords and knights in the North Countrie, as the Lord 
Dakers of the North, the Lord Scrope of Bolton, with that most 
coragious Knighte, Syr Edward Stand ley, who for his prowis and 
valiantness shewed att the said battell, was made Lord Mount Eagle, as 
the sequel declareth." 

The ballad is generally stated (but on questionable authority) to have 
been written by one, Richard Jackson, a schoolmaster at Ingleton, about 
fifty years after the battle. Allusion is made in it to Henry Clifford, 
" the Shepherd Lord," of Barden Tower, who led a goodly array of stout 
Craven yeomen to the sad and bloody conflict, many of whom doubtless 
never came back again. In the words of the ballad : — 

Now like a captain bold he brought 

A band of lusty lads elect, 
Whose curious coats cunningly wrought, 

With dreadful dragons were bedeck t. 



62 



From Penigent to Pendle Hill, 

From Linton to Long Addingham, 
And all that Craven coasts did till 

They with the lusty Clifford came. 

All Staincliffe hundred went with him, 
With striplings strong from Whorledale, 

And all that Hauton-hills did climb, 
With Longstroth eke and Litton dale. 

Whose milk-fed fellows fleshly bred, 
Well hrown'd, with sounding bows upbend, 

All such as Horton fells had fed, 
On Clifford's banners did attend." 

Lord Clifford was given a principal command, and survived the 
battle nearly ten years. The understated list does not comprise the 
names of all his followers, or those who served under him, as only a 
portion of the army-roll has been discovered among the archives at 
Bolton Abbey. Such an important place, for example, as Skipton is 
omitted. The list is abstracted from a volume entitled " The Householde 
Booke of Henry, Lord Clifford," and is dated, " Anno Henr. Octavi 
Secundo," or the 2nd year of Henry VIII. The battle having been 
fought in the 5th year of that monarch, it is most probable that this was 
a part list of Lord Clifford's retainers, liable to be called upon in a time 
of necessity, and therefore most, if not all, of those Craven men who 
were then living and capable would actually join him in so important an 
engagement. The total number of names comprised in the list is 321. 

The places are arranged alpJiabetically. 

Adyngham (Addingham). 



» 



M 



»» 



WilliauiWade,able,horse and harnish'd 

Henry Man, a archer 

Richard Cryer, „ 

Richard Riley, ., 

Richard Lofthouse, a bille 

Thomas Stotte, a archer 
Christopher Swyer, 
Thomas Barker, 
John Greene, 

TJte above hors'd and harmtk'd at 
the toioC* cost. 



Appletrewyck (Appleteewick). 

Henry Young, bow, able, horse, &c. 

William Wat, a bowe 

William Hog, a bille 

Thomas Preston, a bowe 

Robert Elston, „ 

Cuthbt. Wynterb'n „ 

Henry Young, bille & bowe 



Arnecliffe (Arncliffe). 

John Knolle, able, horse and harnish'd 

Oliver Knolle, a bowe 

Robert Tylson, a bill 

William Firth, bowe 

Richard Clebenger, bille 

Peter Prass, „ 

John Carlyll, „ 

Richard Atkinson, bowe 
John Wilson, 
John Atkinson, 



»» 



?» 



BEA.M8LEY. 

John Holmes, bow, able, horse, &c. 
Thomas Frankland, a bowe 

Richard Shyers, a bille 

Thos. Kendal, bill, able, horse, &c. 



63 



BOLTON-IN-BoLLAND. 



William Stott, bow, able, 


horse. &c. 


Henry Garnett, 
Robert Caley, 
Thomas Pele, 


a bowe 
bille 


Humphrey Pickard, 
Thomas Pykhard, 
John Wyglesworth, 
John Garrett, 


bowe 
bille 


Richard Calmers, 


bowe 


Thomas Foot, 


11 


Robert Walbank, 


• • 


William Knott, 


bille 


Willian Catley, 


bowe 


Bradley. 





William Smith, bow, able, horse, &c. 
Thomas Slys, bowe 

Thomas Greenwood, „ 

Xrist. Smyth, ., 



Carlton. 

Robert Tempest, bowe, able, horse, &c. 

Robert Dawtree, bowe 

John Thompson, 

Henry Wattkynson, 

Richard Kcarburgth, 

Richard Stapylton, 

John Smith, 

William Throp, 

Thomas Midybrok, 

James Smith, 

John Rycroft, 



•i 



V 



11 



»» 



Ceollyng (Cowling). 

Pers. Tyllotson. a bow, able, horse, &c. 
Xrofer Lakok, a bowe 

Nicoles Starburg, ,, 

Henry Waller, ., 



E MBS AY AND ESTBY (EMBSAY 
AND EASTBY). 

Thomas A 1 cock, bow, able, horse, &c. 
Thomas Croft, a bowe 

William Cate, of Estby. a bille 

John Pety, do. a bowe 

ESHETON (ESHTON), 

Thos. Marton, a bow, able, horse, &c. 



Farnhyll (Fa rn hill)). 

Henry Currer, bowe, able, horse, &c. 
Edward Sally, a bowe 

Robert Bradley 
William Wylson, 



»» 



Flasby. 

William Hessfell'd. a man, horse and 

harnish'd 
Richard Lister, a bille 

William Blackborne, ,, 

Stephen Proctor, a man, hors'd, &c. 
Rauflfe Proctor, a man, hori'd, &c. 
Rodger Proctor, a bill 

Lyonel Whitfield, „ 

Robt. Snelle, hors'd and harnish'd 



Gersynton (Grassington). 

John Clerk, a bow, able, horse and 

harnish'd 
John Wilkinson, a bowe 

George Knolle, 
Lennard Hibotson, 






*» 



GlGRESWYCK (GlGGLESWICK). 

Robert Stakhouse, bow, able, horse, &c. 

John Webster, a bowe 

Thomas Palay, 

James Carr, 

Thomas Browne, 

Jack Stack house, a bowe 

Richard Bray shay, bowe 

Richard Wilson, 

Robert Burron, 

John Brayshay, 

Thomas Tayleyor, 

Thomas Preston, 

John Stakhouse, 

Willian Ryley, 

Thomas Armested, 

John Taleyor, 

Henry Tayleor, 

Thomas Ne who use, 

Oliver Stakhouse, 

Henry Armested, 

Gloseborne (Gldsburn). 

William Mayncoud, bowe, able, horse, 

&c. 
Robert Summerscale, bowe 



Halton. 

Robert Burley, a bowe, able, horse, &c. 
Francis Shyers, a bowe 

William West, 



a bille 



bille 
bowe 



»> 

bowe 

»? 






64 



Hawkswyk (Hawkbwick). 

William Calvard, a bow, able, horse 

and harnish'd 
Athur Redyman, a bow, able, horse 

and harnish'd 



Helifeld and Nkwton 
(Hellifield and Newton). 

John Carr, bowe, able, horse, &c. 

John Clark, a by He 

John Hardaker, a bowe 

Thomas Badsby, „ 

Thomas Wray, bowe 

Henry Carr, „ 

William Forte, bylle 

Thos. Hardaker, „ 

Roger Hardaker, bowe 



KlLDWICK. 

John Garford, bow, able, horse, &c. 
Edward Garford, bowe 

Richard Herreson, a bille 



KlGHELEY (KEIGHLEY). 

John Rawson, bow, able-body 

&c. 
Thomas Sowden, 
Willian Butterfield 
Xrofer Ruddyng, 
John Shaw, 
John Brijtg, 
John Stott, 
Thomas Lakok 
John Cockrofte, 
Robert Wright, 
Robert Wright, junr., 
Willian Hartley 
Willian Estburn, 
Law' Ambler, bow, able-body, 

&c. 
Richd. Try Hyll, 
Robert Hudson, 
John Sugden, 
Richard Sharpe, 
John Widdoppe, 
Ellis Hall, 
John Butterfield, 
Richard Rycroft, 
John Nether wood, 



horse, 

bille 
bow 

bille 
bowe 

bille 
bowe 

>» 

bille 
horse, 

bowe 

»» 
»» 

!» 
»l 
>» 



bill 






Edward Rawson, 
Robert Bottomley, 
Richard Shaw, 
Thomas Stotte, 
Richard Jenkinson, 
Willian Den by, 
Willian Sugden. 
John Clough, 
William Smith, 
Robert Lupton, 
Ellis Wadsworth, 
William Roper, 
William Farnill, 
Robert Stelle, 
William Jackson, 
John Hanson, 
Robert Rawson, 
Edward More, 
Richard Shackylton, 
James Procter, 
Robert Sugden, 
John Oldfield, 
John Wed dope, 
Henry Beneland, 



bowe- 



»» 
>» 



bille 



*• 
•i 
•> 
?» 

V 



bowe- 



»• 

»» 



Langclyff (Langcliffe). 

Richard Brown, bow, able, horse, &c. 

Rogr. Yveson, a bowe 

Henry Pacock, a bille 

Robert Kydson, bille 
Richard Kvng, 
Robert Kydd, 
William Yveson, 

John Stakhouse, „ 

Roger Browne, bowe 



»> 



»» 



« 



a 



bowe 



Langstrothdale. 

Richard Tenant, a bow, able, horse, &c. 

Geoffery Tenant, a bowe 

John Tenant, 

Thomas Slinger, 

Lenard Jake, 

William Tenant, 

Rauffe Tenant, 

James Parker, 

William Langstroth, 

Geffery Walker, 

Thomas Tenant, 

Adam Wilkynson, 

John Faldshaw, 

Xrofer Hogg, 

Richard Smyth, 

James Case, 

Xrofer Slyng, 



M 



bille 
bowe 



»i 

>l 

bille 



65 



Lyttondale (Litton dale). 

John Knolle, able, horse and harnish'd 

Abraham Knolle, bille 

Richard Franklin, bo we 

Richard Fawcytt, 

John Franklin, 

Jaek Tylson, 

Adam Langstroth. 

James Knolle, 

Rauffe Knowle, 

Matthew Knolle, 

William Thorneton 

Jak Ellison, 

Roger Franklin, 

Robert Stoneford, 

Henry Bullok, 

Henry Franklyn, 

John Walker, 

Rodger Tenant, 

Thomas Wederheide, 

Jakob Tenant, 

Henry Tylson, 

John Coward, 



» 

»> 
a bille 

»» 

>» 
j» 

11 

11 

bowe 
bille 

»» 
bowe 

*i 
ii 

bille 

bowe 

bille 



MABTON FOB M08TEB3. 

William Marton, a bow, horse, and 

harnish 
Nickolas Synson, a bowe, horse, and 

harnish 
Thomas Stockdale, a bille, horse, and 

harnish 
John Roberts, a bowe 

Richard Arnald, „ 

John Tomlynson, able person and 

bille 
Richard Bulcock, able person and bille 
Robert Rossendale, a bill 

To be hors'd and harnish'd at the 
town?* cost. 

Thomas Midopp. able person, horse 

and harnish'd 
John Mai ham, able person, horse and 

harnish'd 
Xrofer Styrke, able person, horse and 

harnish'd 
John Swyer, junr., able person 
Wm. Robert, able person 



Mobton Banks. 

John Rogerson. a bow, able, horse, &c. 

Richard Holymake, a bowe 

William Butterfield, 

W T illiara Rogerson, bowe 

John Fuller, bill 

Willian Leche, 

John Leche, 



Willian Sharppe, bowe 

William Adamson, bill 

Kdmond Dobson, „ 

Adam Wodde, „ 



Ryminoton (Rimington). 
Henry Burelay, bow, able, horse, &c. 



Henry Arthynton, 
James Oddy, 
John Ray, 
Robert Calmley, 
Robert Tattersall, 
Richard Hoghton, 
Thomas Walar, 
Robert Calmley, junr., 
William Carr, 
Gyles Lodge, 
Robert Forte, 
Christr. Pykhard, 
Thomas Land, 
Roger Land, 
Robert Dansar, 
Christr. Hornby, 
Richard Walar, 



bowe 



»» 

ii 



bylle 
bowe 
"bylle 
bowe 

ii 
ii 
ii 

bille 

»> 
bowe 

bylle 



Settyll (Settle). 
Richard Brown, a bow, able, horse, &c 



n 



ii 



William Tayler, 
Oliver Foster, 
Richard Coke son, 
William Knolle, 
Adam Brown, 
Rogr. Yveson, 
Rawlyn Lawson, 
Allen Procter, 
Henry Hoelson, 
Richard Carr, 
Richard Tenant, 
Alan Proctor, 
Edward Lawson, 
Adam Browne, 
Oliver Taleyor, 
Thomas Summerscale, 
William Symson, 
Robert Taleyor, 
John Watkynson, 
William Lawson, 
William Carr, 
Robert Midoppe, 
Richard Lund, 
Richard Jackson, 
Roger Carr, 
Hugh Carr, 
William Taleyor, 
Gyles Cokeson, 
George Hokison, 
John Holson, 
Richard Lawson, 



a bowe 



ii 

ii 
a bille 
a bowe 

ii 
a bille 
bow 

bille 

ii 

it 
bowe 

bille 

»» 
»» 
>» 
» 
ii 
ii 
bowe 

»» 
ii 
ii 
ii 
ii 
ii 

!> 
11 



E 



Stbbtok. 

Richard Garford,abow,able, horse, kc. 

John Garford, a bowe 

John Parkinson, a bille 

John Whetaker'a, a bowe 
William Smith, 

William Kastburn, a bills 

Stephen Tyllotson, bow, able, horse, 



Roger Swaynson, 


bo we 


Richard Palay, 




James Armeeted, 


bille 


John Hake son. 




Oliver Arm 6 ted, 




Henry Lawk land, 




William Foster, 


''bill 


John Yveeon, 




Roger Yveaon, 


" 



Thou. Smyth, junr , 






Stosefobd (Staikfobth). 

James Foster, bowe, able, horse, kc. 

Adam Palay, bowe 

Robert Twistleton, „ 

Richard Franklyn „ 

Richard Chew, „ 

James A r minted, bille 

Adam Valay, „ 

Soger Law do n, „ 



bow, able, horae, im. 



Wm. Brochden, 
Robert Burgess, 
Thomas Bacock. 



GlGOLESlVICK. 



67 



CRAVEN HIGHLANDS. 



PART I.-WESTERN DIVISION. 



CHAPTER I. 



GlGGLESWICK. 

4 

Introduction — Character of Craven and the North- Western Dales — Land of 
mountain and cataract— A paradise of wild flowers and ferns — History and 
Antiquities — Hotel and house accommodation — Craven diet — Longevity — 
Unrivalled Air-Cures— Comparison with the Black Forest and Switzerland 
— Giggleswick — An old British town — Domesday — Author's correspondence 
with Continental authorities — A reference to German charters of the 8th 
century, shewing the origin and meaning of Giggleswick — The lost Tarn 
Ebbing and Flowing Well— Other English "tidal" wells— The British canoe 
— First mention of the church — Some early charters — Old families — 
Archdeacon Paley — Amusing Anecdotes — Recent discoveries in the church 
— " Strainge Parsons " — Account of the Market Cross — The Grammar School 
— The Museum and its contents. 

N commencing our survey of the Craven Highlands, Giggleswick, 
with Settle, has the first claim to consideration as the capital 
centre. This, it should be understood, is adopted for the 
sake of greater convenience of the whole area treated upon. With the 
Lowlands (if such a term be admissible) of Craven the present work 
does not profess to deal. Strictly speaking, the parish of Kirkby 
Malham is the most central in the T)eanerv of Craven. This ancient 
ecclesiastical division is almost co-extensive with, yet larger than, the 
almost equally ancient Wapentake of Staiucliffe ; the latter excluding 
the parishes of Bingley, Ilkley, and Horton-in-Ribblesdale. Craven, 
properly, extends from Bingley and Ilkley on the west, to Slaidburn and 
Bolland on the east, and from the foot of Boulsworth southwards, to 




68 

Langstrothdale northwards ; an area comprising a little over 600 square 
miles, or roughly, 400,000 acres. In Domesday the district is surveyed 
as Crave', ' which is probably a contracted form of Craig Vae?i> or Land 
of Crags, — a derivative that can be clearly traced back to the earliest 
foreign invasion of the Goidelic Celts, who were the first possessing 
conquerors of our Yorkshire Highlands, then occupied by the aboriginal 
pre-Celtic race. To these primitive Goidels or Gaels (now represented 
by the Gaels of Scotland and Ireland) Craven, then, apparently owes its 
name. But as some objection, perhaps, may be raised to the final 
compound, I may observe that in Teutonic and Anglo-Saxon ven or veen 
has the meaning of a shallow lake, or marsh, whence our English word 
Fen. But as Craven was undoubtedly so called long before the Teutonic 
Conquest there can, I think, be no just ground for assuming this to 
form part of its derivation. 

The two Midland stations, — about a mile apart — at Giggleswick 
on the Lancaster line, and at Settle on the Carlisle line, have 
made this locality accessible by railway from all the chief centres 
of population in the country. But the great north line which traverses 
the wild mountain region from Settle to Carlisle is the only one which 
intersects the landscape to the west of Ripon and Pafceley — a distance, as 
the crow flies, of nearly 30 miles — and may be likened, perhaps, to a 
huge whip-stock; while the metals that come up southwards from 
Skipton, from Colne, and from Whalley to Hellifield, may be said to 
form the several lashes, keeping at a distance, apparently, any further 
intrusion of the steam demon into these upper dales. To the north 
and east of this iron boundary there extends a region several hundred 
square miles in extent, where the railway whistle is never heard, where 
the only sounds audible are the oleatings of mountain Bheep, the cries 
of moor-birds, the roar of cataracts, the murmur of rock-girt streams, 
ruffled often by rude storms, or kissed into sweetest music by amorous 
summer winds — a region, moreover, of such varied and absorbing 
interest that it is questionable whether in the whole of England there 
can be found its equal in any similar tract. 

Historically too, and in monuments of far-distant times, belonging to 
the earliest records of human activity in this country, and in temples and 
relics of later ages, there will be found matters and objects of no ordinary 
importance and concern, each and all of which will be dealt with at 
length in the text. Scenically, while the district is mainly built up of 
limestone there is a great variety of both older and newer strata, and 
these formations traversed by the several branches of the famous Craven 
Fault, one of the grandest and most astonishing rock-fractures in the 
whole country, the geologist, or student of scenery, has here a rare and 
attractive field of interest. Botanically also, no district has a richer 



69 

calendar, many of the flowering plants, mosses, and lichens have, owing 
to the exceptionally favourable conditions of habitat, maintained an 
uninterrupted existence from a vastly remote period, when sea and ice 
have alternately filled the dales or receded from the mountain tops. But 
these also form subjects of enquiry which we shall discuss more fully in 
our rambles about. 

The country presents a surface at once bold and picturesque, a 
combination, aesthetically, we might term it, of the sublime and beautiful, 
— great rugged scars clothed with a profusion of native trees and shrubs ; 
high mountain masses isolated or in ranges, about whose summits lie 
lonely tarns, the haunts of many rare birds ; wide sweeps of purple 
moorland ; deep romantic gills or beck-courses, which, wearing deeper 
and deeper, have fissured numbers of great gulfs in the limestone, " pot- 
holes" as they are called, and caverns and chasms of various and 
unknown depth. Though the mountains do not attain quite the same 
altitude as those in the neighbouring Lake Country, yet to the explorer 
a-foot, they are usually more accessible by reason of their lesser acclivities, 
rising in a succession of plateaux or terraces formed by the weathering of 
the horizontal beds of rock, and commanding from their summits 
prospects often of surprising extent. The air, naturally, in a country 
almost entirely free from manufactories, is very pure, and where the 
limestone prevails, is dry, bracing, and tonic. The hills give rise to 
innumerable running springs of excellent water, which rarely or never 
fail in their supply. The inns, though generally small, are clean and 
comfortable, and whether the visitor elect to stay at these or any of. the 
private houses or farms in the district, accustomed to receiving visitors, 
he may reckon on homely comforts and considerate treatment. The 
native dietary if plain is wholesome. Fresh home-grown vegetables, 
the primest and sweetest of home-fed hams, (which have indeed a world- 
wide fame), a plentiful supply of rich new milk and butter, fine fresh 
eggs, and with these and the proverbially excellent quality of the 
Yorkshire-made bread, many a Craven housewife need never be ashamed 
of making up a meal or a dish fit to set before a king. 

With improved drainage and sanitary arrangements recent statistics 
shew how healthful the district has become, whilst the records of 
longevity prove that amongst the dales-folk long life is rather the rule 
than the exception ; the average length of human life in Craven 
probably, we might almost say positively, exceeding that of any other 
district in the universe. Moreover, lying for the most part remote from 
any large towns or cities, undisturbed by the vagaries of modern ways, the 
customs, manners, and pastoral habits of the people have remained in 
great measure unchanged. Therefore, having regard to the pure air, 
wholesome diet, and vitalising surroundings, what our Teutonic friends 



70 

on the Continent denominate Luft-Kur Orte, is just as applicable to thig 
great Highland sanatorium, which being so well circumstanced is 
becoming increasingly popular as a centre of unrivalled Air-Cures. 
Compared with the English Lake District our Yorkshire Highlands bear 
pretty much the same relation to each other as Switzerland does to the 
adjoining Black Forest at the present day, — the former bustling, noisy, 
and in season overcrowded, with its grand hotels, steamers and coaches, 
and system of circular tours ; in the latter there are few pretensions of 
this kind, life is altogether quieter, the face of Nature even looks more 
restful, and if the eye be not daily feasted with' the sight of mountains 
quite so elevated, you have the satisfaction of knowing that your lodging 
bill is proportionately less lofty ! 

But now let us return to Giggleswick. This ancient and extensive 
parish, which includes an area of 18,500 acres, and is almost wholly 
grazing land, comprises the townships of Giggleswick, Settle, Stainforth, 
and Rathmell. Prior to 1851 Langcliffe was also included in the parish. 
Bach of the last four mentioned places has a modern church ; the livings 
being perpetual curacies. 

With respect to the nomenclature of Giggleswick, it is generally 
conceded, on the authority of Whitaker, to be the wick, or village, of 
Gtkel, a Saxon personal name. But I am of opinion that long before 
the Saxons had settled here the village lay some little distance to the 
north of its present site. There was in fact in British and Roman times 
a pretty extensive stationary population grouped around the shores of 
the old Giggleswick Tarn, and close to that mysterious spring, the 
ebbing and flowing well. The ancient British fishing-boat found in the 
bed of the dried-up tarn thirty years ago affords unmistakable proof of 
this. When the Saxons arrived there is little doubt that this curious 
and unique spring played an important part in local religious rites — as 
it had done, most probably, in the days of the early Britons too, who we 
know, consecrated groves, rocks, lakes, springs, or any remarkable 
natural object to their deities and superstitions. It was undoubtedly a 
holy well, yet to what saint in Saxon times it was dedicated the record 
is silent ; but, probably, like the church, to Saint Alkelda, whose 
martyrdom has been perpetuated by the Saxons at only one other place 
in Yorkshire, viz., at the church and well at Middleham. In fact the 
" tidal " well at Giggleswick would, I think, if active, be of sufficient 
note to give rise to the name of the place. Dr. Whitaker hints as much 
by supposing the initial word to come from the A.S. gugglian, in allusion 
to the ebbing and flowing well. In several early charters the name is 
suggestively written Giclisvic, Guglesvic, Guckilswic, Gukleswick, and 
the like. The Normans, however, who made some sad hashes of Saxon 
place-names, spall it in Domesday Ghigelesvvic. 



71 

Dr. August Prinzinger, of Salzburg, Austria, one of our most 
distinguished continental authorities, with whom I have exchanged some 
correspondence, agrees with me in attributing the name to the old well. 
There are, it seems, scores of places in Saxony, Bavaria, and other parts 
of Germany and Austria, whose names are compounded with Kick, Keck, 
Kickel, Gigg, Giggl, Gigl, and Quick, all being variations of one and the 
same root ; the initial G and K being frequently reversed, and the 
double g substituted for ck y as in Brugg, Brugge, Briicke ; Egg, Ecke, 
&c. The words Kick or Keck are still used to denote flowing or surface 
springs in contradistinction to artificial or pump-wells. The name Keck 
or Kickbrun, (Brunkick) says Dr. Prinzinger, occurs in German and 
Austrian charters, as Quecpruno and Kekpruno, as early as the 8th and 
9th centuries, and appears also in the form of Kickl, Giggl, to extend into 
Saxon territory, as Kickaberg, on the Elbe, and Gigglhain ; also in Lower 
Saxony is Quickborne,tffa Kickbrun, Brunfluss ; in Bavaria, Giggenhausen 
and Guggenthal (or the valley of bubbling springs) ; and in Wurtemberg 
(circle Neckar) the small town of Guglingen. There are in Bavaria 
alone at least half-a-hundred places spelled with the various affixes of 
Kick, Kickl, Giggl, &c. It is impossible that these can have all been 
the property or home of Gikel or Kikel, the supposed Saxon chieftain 
before the English Conquest. It is also noteworthy that these places 
occur principally in hilly but rather low-lying districts, where springs are 
not too abundant, but sufficiently so to warrant the allocations. In the 
higher parts of the country, and in the Alps, springs are so numerous that 
such names are rare.* 

But the question not unnaturally arises, Has the Giggleswick well 
maintained its "tidal" character since Saxon times, or is it of more 
recent origin ? There are good grounds for ascribing a high antiquity 
to it, although the first actual mention of it appears to be by Drayton in 
the beginning of the 17th century. The old chartographer, John Speed, 
has also the following quaint reference to it in his " England and Wales 
described," (1627), — "At Giggleswicke, about a mile from Settle (a 
Market-Towne) there are certaine small springs not distant a quaits cast 
from one another ; the middlemost of which doth at every quarter of an 
houre [?] ebbe and flowe about the height of a quarter of a yard when 
it is highest, and at the ebbe falleth so lowe that it be not an inch deepe 
with water. 1 ' — But such regularity in its ebb and flow as is here insinuated 
has probably never existed.f 

* See Vol. 5 of the ''Topog. Stat. Handbuch des Konigreichs Baiem," 
(Ortslexicon) ; also Raffelsberger's " Geog. Stat. Lexicon des Kaiserthums 
Oesterreich." 

f There are two or three other similar " tidal " springs in England, the most 
noted, perhaps, being that between Chapel-le-Frith and Tideswell in Derbyshire. 



72 

The ancient tribes living in the neighbourhood of the tarn, and on 
the adjoining scars, have left some very remarkable evidences of their 
presence here, which will be more fully exemplified in our accounts of 
district rambles. While hunting and fishing, and the making of roads 
and paths, occupied a large part of their regular avocations, some time 
was also devoted to the manufacture of domestic and other implements 
of warfare and the chase. In winter, the skins which had been previously 
dried and cured were fashioned into various articles of clothing. 
Frequently when the snow had accumulated in sufficient quantity, they 
would abandon for a time their stone and turf dwellings, which were not 
always of the best construction and impervious to the bitter elements, 
and live in snow huts, arranged in groups, bee-hive fashion, or like huge 
snow-balls. Sometimes in winter they took to the caves, when these were 
habitable or accessible, from which often the wild beasts had to be driven 
and kept at bay by fires kindled at night. When the waters were frozen, 
such places as the tarn were the frequent resorts of skaters; the old 
Britons, like the Romans who followed them, being adepts at every form 
of athletic exercise, including running, jumping, wrestling, <fce. If iron 
was obtainable, the skates were made of this material, otherwise the 
shank-bone of a sheep or deer, about a foot in length, would be used for 
the purpose. Single skaters would sometimes use a long shaft of wood 
spiked with bone or iron, with which they pushed themselves along the 
ice. But it was the fashion then, as it always has been, to run in couples, 
and may we not therefore picture many a happy love-match made between 
British youth and maiden, as, wonderfully painted and skin-clad, they 
skimmed over the moon-bright surface of Giggleswick Tarn ! It is to 
be hoped that some day this interesting ancient feature will be restored 
to its place in Nature, as the appearance of a lake winding for nearly a 
mile beneath the magnificent range of scars, which forms its eastern 
boundary, would so far enhance the prospect as to make it one of the 
finest in Yorkshire. The scheme is admitted to be practicable, but it 
should not be spoiled with too much Art. Nicely planted, the spot 
would be very attractive. 

An ebbing and flowing well also formerly existed at Tideswell, from which there is 
little doubt the place derived its name. It is now choked up, and no person at 
present alive seems to retain a certain recollection of its ebbing and flowing, 
although water sometimes accumulates around the rubbish. In 1729 it was visited 
by Mr. J. Martyn, who states in the Philosophical Transactions of that period, 
that its tides were then very far from being regular. Sir A. Cockayne, in 1C58, 
mentions it in the following rhyme, 

* ; Here also is a well, whose waters do excel , 
All waters thereabout, both being in and out/* 

See Glover's " History and Gazetteer of the County of Derby. 



73 

Daring the Saxon occupation mnch of the land appears to have 
been in a good state of cultivation. There is no mention of waste in 
the Domesday record. The following is the extract relating to this 
district : 

Tebba Rogkrii Pictavensis. (Land of Roger of Poictou). 

Manor. In Ghigeleavvic Fech had four carucates to be taxed. In Stainforde 
three carucates. In Rodemele (Rathmell) two carucates. In Chirchebi (Kirkby 
Malham) two carucates. In Litone six carucates. These berewicks belong to the 
above mentioned manor. Roger of Poictou now has them. 

Manor. In Anele (Anley) Burun had three carucates of land to be taxed. 
In Setel three carucates to be taxed. • 

Manor. In Lanclif (Langcliffe) Fech had three carucates to be taxed. 

Manor. In Stacuse (Stackhouse) Archil had three carucates to be taxed.* 

It may be observed that Anley, then evidently a place of some note, 
consists now of a single house. Giggleswick, being the capital viil of 
the parish, had, there is every reason to believe, a church long anterior 
to the Norman invasion. It is known that there were scores of churches 
in existence at the time of the Conquest, many of them in ruins and 
rendered valueless by the Danes, and of which no mention is made in the 
Domesday survey. The earliest authentic references to a church here are 
contained in an attestation of one "Laurentius, Persona de Guckilswic," 
to a charter of William de Percy, in the reign of Stephen, and in the 
following charter of Matilda, Countess of Warwick, daughter of William 
de Percy, the date being about a.d. 1160 : 

" Sciant &c. me ded' et cone* Henrico de Puccaio, et cui assignari voluerit, et 
he' dibus, villain meam de Setel, cum pertinentiis suis, et servicium de Gikleswic 
cum advocations ecclesie pro xv marc, de argent et 1 palfr." 

This Henry de Pudsay, to whom and his heirs and assigns, the town 
of Settle and the rents of Giggleswick, with the advowson of the church 
there, were thus granted, was one of the sons of Hugh de Pudsay, the 
celebrated Bishop of Durham from a.d. 1153 to 1196, and Lord Chief 
Justice of England. 

* In the Domesday survey of the northern shires two phrases occur in the account of almost 
every manor. These are the carucata ad gddum, the " geldable carucate," which was the fiscal 
unit for purposes of taxation ; and the terra ad unam carucam, the " arable carucate," which was 
the unit for agricultural purposes. This arable carucate is that which is so often mentioned in 
contemporary documents, the geldable carucate being used chiefly in Domesday, which was a 
record for fiscal purposes. Naturally these two measures of land have been confused. Fleta, a 
writer on English Agriculture, who lived in the reign of Edward I., only two hundred years after 
Domesday, gives an account of the carucate which is the key to the Domesday mensuration. He 
■ays that if the land lay in three arable fields,— that is, if a three-year shift were adopted, the 
whole carucate consisted of one hundred and eighty acres, sixty acres in one field for Winter 
tillage, sixty acres in another for Lent tillage, and sixty acres in a third for fallow ; whereas in a 
two-year shift, when the land lay in two fields, the carucate consisted of one hundred and sixty 
acres, eighty for tillage, and eighty for fallow.— Canon Isaac Taylor. 



74 

The next important charter is from the said Henry de Pudsay, 
concerning the churches of "Wicton and Giggleswick, of which the 
following is a translation : 

" To all the sons of the Holy Mother Church whom this letter shall reach, Henry 
de Pud Bey [Henricusde Puteacho*] sends his sincere greeting. Let your community 
know that I have granted and given, and in this my present deed confirmed 
with a view to my reverence to God, and the safety of the soul of my father, and 
my mother, and my own, and that of Dionysia my wife, and those of all my 
ancestors, to God and the blessed Mary, and the blessed Cuthbert and St. Godric, 
and to the Monks of Durham who minister to God, and the blessed Mary and the 
blessed Cuthbert and St. Godric at Finchale, the Church of Wicton with all things 
pertaining to it, and the Church of Giggleswick with all things pertaining to it, 
for a pure and perpetual charitable bequest, free and secure from all secular service 
and exaction, with all liberties and free customs whichsoever at any time the 
aforesaid churches of Wicton and Giggleswick more freely, honourably, or securely 
have held and possessed ; that is to say, in villa, or out of villa, with tofts, and 
croft*, in wood, in the open, in highways, in footpaths, in moors and marshes, in 
waters, in miltstreams and lakes, in meadows, in pastures, and in all other easements 
pertaining to the aforesaid churches. These persons are witnesses, Master Henry, 
the chamberlain, Master Allen de Richmond, Robert de Hadigton, Master William 
de Blais, Master Richard de Haiton, Master Walter de Durham, Master Walter de 
Hadigton, William de Besewill, and many others." 

By this charter, which was confirmed by "William de Percy, as Lord 
of the Percy Fee, the church of Giggleswick, with all its appurtenances, 
became vested in the Benedictine Priory of Finchale, situated on the 
banks of the Wear, and the Prior and Convent of Durham, as patrons 
of that monastery, exercised the right of presenting to the vicarage of 
Giggleswick up to the dissolution of religious houses in 1538, when the 
patronage fell to the Crown. 

About the year 1 600 the advowson was granted out, and for several 
generations past the living has been in the alternate presentation of the 
Hartley and Coulthurst families. 

The church, which is at present undergoing a thorough and much- 
needed restoration, occupies a warm and sheltered situation in the centre 
of the village, surrounded by many picturesque dated houses of the 
17th and 18th centuries. But in previous editions of the " Encyclopaedia 
Britannica," the church is described as standing on the top of a limestone 
rock 300 feet high, to which the ascent is by steps cut in the face of the 
rock ! The topographer has evidently got mixed up with Castleberg, the 
lofty limestone crag which overhangs the town of Settle. By whom the 
church was originally built we have, as stated, no record. It is 
dedicated, like that of Middleham, (which was also a possession of the 
Priory of Finchale) to the Saxon Saint Alkelda, a Christian princess who 

* There are half-a-hundred legalised forms of spelling this name. In Domesday, the town of 
Pudsey, near Leeds, is written Podechesaie. 



75 

is believed to have been put to death by the Danes on account of her 
religion. Her martyrdom may be seen depicted in an old window of 
stained glass in the church at Middleham. The present building, which is 
in the Perpendicular style of the early or middle part of the 16th century, 
has a spacious interior — its extreme length being 132 feet — consisting of 
nave of four bays, with clerestory ; chancel, with east window of six 
lights ; north and south aisles to both nave and chancel, square embattled 
western tower, and south porch. The porch was rebuilt in 1815, and is 
repairable by the owners of Close House. Faculties were obtained in the 
years 1738, 1742, and 1785 for the erection of galleries, which cannot 
be said to have improved the interior aspect of the building. Under the 
tower is a painting of the Koyal Arms, of the date 1716. In the south 
aisle is a carved wood alms-box bearing the quaint inscription, u 1684, 
Remember the Pore." But the most curious and remarkable object in 
the church is the old carved oak pulpit (with sounding board) and 
reading desk. The panels of the pulpit are handsomely and deftly 
wrought with the names and badges of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, 
(which are also depicted on the huge Royal Arms in the church), 
represented as follows : Revbin, waves (" unstable as water ") Sim., stvord 
(" instruments of cruelty ") Lev., a scroll, GAj) y flagofbattU (" He shall 
overcome") Naph., a hind let loose, Ash., cup ("royal dainties,") 
Judah, a rampant lion, Zeb., a ship, Isaac, an ass, Dan, a coiled serpent, 
Joseph, an ox, Ben., a horse with cloven foot. 

In front of the reading desk is cut, " Hear is the Standabdes qp 
the Israelites when the to Canan cam agenest the Cananites," 
and on the sides the initials L L (Lawrence Lawson) ; R C (Robert 
Carr) ; T C (Thomas Clapham) ; and W K (William Knipe), which 
indicate the churchwardens for the year 1680. Amongst the many 
monumental inscriptions in the church, one of the oldest reads : 

Antonius Lister, A.M., hujus ecclesiae 

Vicariua spe beatre resurrectionis 
Hie quiescit. Vixit annos 69, incubuit 47. 

Obiit 19 Februarii, A.D., 1685. 

As vicar of Giggleswick for 47 years he must have been inducted at 
the early age of 22, a practice, however, not unusual during the system 
of preferment preceding the Act of Uniformity. In the south aisle 
there is a monument in plaster, (dated 1698), to the Rev. Richard 
Prankland, of Rathmell, and which has evidently been cast in the same 
mould as that to the memory of General Lambert's son in Kirkby 
Malham church. 

The font was erected to the memory of the Rev. Rowland 
Ingram, M.A. (1840), and to the east of it is the family vault of the 
Paleys, where lie the remains of the parents of the celebrated Archdeacon 



76 

Paley. The brass reads : Here lie interred the Rev. William Paley, B.A., 
fifty-four years master of the Free School, who died September 29, 1799, 
aged 88 years ; also Elizabeth, the wife of the Rev. William Paley, who 
died March 9, 1796, aged 83 years. The Paleys evidently took their 
name from the hamlet or locality lying some two miles to the west of 
Giggleswick. Their name occurs as witnesses in the oldest local charters* 
In the time of Queen Elizabeth, the principal branch of the family 
appears to have been settled at Knight Stainforth, now called Little 
Stainforth. Some of the family went to Leeds. Mr. Richard Paley, of 
that town, was one of the original partners in the old-established firm of 
ironworks at Bowling, near Bradford, and his nephew, Mr. John Green 
Paley, son of Thomas Paley, of Langcliffe, was Chairman of the Bowling 
Iron Co. from the year 1825 until shortly before his death in I860.* 
Dr. Wm. Paley, Archdeacon of Carlisle, was born at Peterborough in 
July, 1743, and died in 1805. His father, who held a minor canonry in- 
the cathedral of that city, having in the year 1745 been appointed head 
master of the Grammar School at Giggleswick, removed with his family 
into this part of Craven, which, as stated above, had been the home of 
his ancestors for many centuries. As the author of " Moral and Political 
Philosophy," " Horae Paulinae," " Evidences of Christianity," and 
" Natural Theology," Dr. Paley has bequeathed an imperishable legacy 
to literature, and the influence of his noble work has spread to wherever 
Christian men and women have gathered together. Every anecdote of 
this great man, observes the learned Dr. Whitaker, will be interesting to 
posterity. The following story, therefore, though not perhaps quite as- 
classical as the Dr. himself would have quoted, at any rate serves to shew 
the humour of the man. The Archdeacon, being naturally of a meditative 
turn, was on one occasion observed by a friend gazing intently up the 
valley from Settle bridge, and being asked what attracted his attention,, 
turned quietly round, — " I was thinking," said he, " how like Penyghent 
is to a raised pie !" Another story of a similar character may be related 
of him. A party of students at Cambridge were once warmly arguing 
what constituted the greatest happiness of human life, when Paley, who 
had been patiently listening, suddenly interrupted the discussion with 
his version of the blisses of life. Said he : " I differ from you all. The 
greatest happiness in life consists in reading * Tristram Shandy ; 1 in 
blowing with a pair of bellows into your shoes in hot weather, and in 
roasting potatoes under the grate in cold weather." 

Before the Reformation there were in or adjoining to this church 
three chantries, viz. : that of Our Lady called the Stainford Chantry, 
founded by Robert de Stainford, who was buried here 16 March, 1391, 
and of the annual value of £4 ; Tempest's Chantry, on the north side, 

* See Cudworth's " Historv of Bowling." 



77 

founded by Sir Richard Tempest, Kt., valued at £4 13s. 4d. ; and the 
Roode Chantry, founded by James Carr, priest, valued at £6 Is. By 
Act passed 1st Edward VI. (1547) these chantries were abolished, and 
their revenues forfeited to the Crown. Whitaker remarks that there 
were within memory, two cumbent statues, undoubtedly of the 
Stainfords, which were foolishly or ignorantly removed to make way for 
modern pews. Whither they were removed, or what had become of 
either of them, remained unknown until last year (1891). During the 
progress of restoration, whilst excavating in the choir, one of these 
statues, sculptured in the habit of a knight, was discovered at a depth 
of 18 in. below the surface. Two mutilated images of pre-Reformation 
priests, as well as several ancient sepulchral slabs, were also found. It 
looks as if the effigies had been concealed during the disturbed time of 
Charles and the Commonwealth, and not ignorantly removed as our 
Craven historian conjectured. It is noteworthy, by the way, that the 
Registers of the church, which commence in 1558, are missing during 
this unsettled period, viz. : from the end of March, 1626-7 to the end 
of September, 1653, or an interval of 26£ years. As regards the Roode 
Chantry, above mentioned, ifr is supposed to have been without the 
church, in the old school-house adjoining, but Whitaker presumes that 
this house may have been built by Carr for all the chantry-priests serving 
at the different altars in the church, and their clerks. On the front 
wall of the building there was an ornamental niche for two effigies, 
ieneath which was an inscription in old characters : 

Alma Dei Mater defende malis Jacobum Carr 
Presbyteris quoq. clericulis hoc do in us fit. In anno 
Mil. quint cent, d'no D'e J. H. N. Pater misere 
Senes cum juvenibus laudate nomen Dei. 

Mr. Thomas Brayshaw, of Settle, to whose careful and exhaustive 
gleanings from local records I am much indebted, says that there was 
a peculiar custom at Giggleswick of paying any clergymen who came to 
preach there the sum of one shilling. In the parish book these payments 
are kept distinct from others, and headed, " An Account of the Strainge 
Parsons," in which the date is entered with the name of the preacher 
and that of the churchwarden who made the payment. How or when 
this payment originated does not transpire. The last entries appear to 
have been about the year 1846. 

The churchyard is entered by an old lych-gate, in the shadow of 
stately elms, and opposite is a remarkable ancient stone cross raised on 
three steps, and close by are the remains of the parish stocks. The 
original purpose of this cross seems never to have been clearly ascertained. 
In all probability it has served as a Market Cross in monkish times. 



78 

The following interesting communication to the Oentlemati's Magazine 

upwards of a century ago, shews that like many another pleasing relic of 

antiquity it has had a chequered existence : 

Settle, July 28th, 1784. 

Mb. Urban,— Emboldened by the general and ready admission you give to all 
the branches of useful correspondence, I once more send an account of some 
trivial antiquities in this neighbourhood, and which I apprehend have never yet 
been noticed by any author, they lying too remote from the road, and I hope they 
will meet with the approbation of the literati. The first is a curious antique cross, 
now standing near the church in the town of Giggleswick, but of what sera is left 
to the learned to determine, however its antiquity is undoubted, being U6ed many 
years before its erection as a threshold in an old house, and its beautiful Gothic 
head walled in. The house itself was ancient and is now pulled down. It might 
probably belong to some monastery, (though neither author nor tradition informs 
us of any being here), or might perhaps be set up in days of monastic splendour, 
amongst the numerous ones at those times in being. 

Tradition, through the channel of the inhabitants of Settle, informs us that 
some of the Giggleswick residents stole it from the base of the old cross at Settle, 
in order to prejudice the trial concerning the antiquity of the market, but this is 
partial, and as it is an interested tale the inhabitants of Giggleswick deny the 
assertion. This pillar is about five yards high, two yards are stuck in the ground 
and walled up as a pedestal. I dare not assert whether it is Saxon or not. The 
other figure is a coin, I suppose also inedited, the legends and characters are very 
much defaced, however, it appears to be of the Edwards [Edw. IV.] An explanation 
as to the age, antiquity, <fcc, of the above articles, will oblige, yours, W. F. 

The old Grammar School at Giggleswick is now one of the most 
flourishing and opulent institutions of the kind in the kingdom, having 
been within the last thirty years entirely rebuilt and remodelled to meet 
the provisions of the late Act. For upwards of three centuries it gave 
a free education to all comers, having been founded in 1512 by James 
Carr, and endowed in 1558 on the petition of the Kev. John Nowell, 
vicar of Giggleswick, who was then Chaplain to King Edward VI. 
The endowments consisted of lands, with the appropriations of the tithes 
of the collegiate church of St. Andrew the apostle, at Nether Acaster, 
lying at North Cave, Brampton, South and North Kelthorp, &c. Also 
the appropriation of the lands belonging to the chantry of our Lady in 
the parish church of Rise and Aldborough, in Yorkshire. The revenues, 
which at the foundation were returned as of the annual value of £28 3s., 
amounted in 1844 to £1071 14s. 4d., and these have since considerably 
increased ; while several valuable exhibitions and free scholarships also 
have been added. There are at present upwards of 200 pupils in the 
school, which is organised as a First Grade Modern School, and conducted 
by a principal and seventeen masters. A large and convenient boarding 
house or hostel adjoins the premises, while an additional boarding house 
for younger boys only has been provided at Bankwell. There are also 
swimming baths, sanatorium, gymnasia, a covered play-ground, and a 



79 

playing-field of 15 acres. There is an excellent library in the school 
containing more than 3000 volumes. A portion of the old school has 
been converted into a joiner's shop, where the pupils are taught wood- 
turning and the like useful handicrafts. The whole of the premises have 
been constructed on the most approved principles, and adapted to the 
requirements of a first-rate modern school. That a wonderful change 
has taken place since the early years of the century will be gathered from 
the following interesting communication from Mr. J. S. Nicholson, of 
Liverpool, a native of the district and an old pupil of the school. At 
that time there were only about 50 pupils. 

" The following facts and anecdotes," says Mr. Nicholson, " I had 
from an old scholar of the school, and they relate to a period seventy odd 
years ago*" 

The school was then divided into two distinct portions, viz. : the High and Low 
Schools, the upper story of the building being used for the former and the lower 
for the latter. Boys were sent to the former who required only an English education, 
whilst the latter was frequented by those who desired a classical education to fit 
them for higher spheres in life. On certain days, however, the Low School boys 
had to betake themselves upstairs, in order that the High School master could teach 
them mathematics. The English or High School master (or writing and accounts 
master, as he was then styled), was a Mr. 8 tack house, a man well qualified for the 
post as regards ability, but who did not take that interest in his students (especially 
of the High School) as he ought to have done, as the following little story will 
show : — The late Mr. Marmaduke Arm i stead, of Stainforth, then a young man and 
one of the head students of the Low School, one day having gone up stairs, thus 
addressed the master — •* Mr. S.," he said, " why don't you teach your boys grammar ?'' 
" Teach my boys grammar," replied the master, " what do my lads want with 
grammar, think'st thou 1 My lads will only be either shoemakers or tailors." 
" Oh," said the student, " that's nothing to do with it ; you can't tell what they may 
be, and you ought to do your duty by them." This master was a very easy-going 
man, and allowed the lads under his charge to take many a liberty, nothing 
delighting him better than a good yarn by one of the lads. My informant was 
one day being examined by a neighbouring squire as to his bad spelling, and being 
asked what school he went to, on being informed, inquired if he was not taught 
spelling. The lad replied that one lesson a week was given in the school. The 
gentleman then asked if they (the boys) were not taught grammar. The lad was 
nonplussed, not knowing what grammar meant ; and on its being explained to him 
and the question at the same time put, " Were there no grammars in the school ?" 
the lad assured him, to his knowledge, he had never seen one. I myself know that 
in more recent times the teaching of English grammar was more or less neglected." 

Since 1512 the school has been several times rebuilt and enlarged, 
and in a part of the old premises, (erected in 1834), in what was the 
library room, is now arranged the interesting collection of remains from 
the Victoria Cave, &c. The doorway of the building was erected by the 
late Dean Howson and his brothers, to the memory of their mother. 
One of the brothers, William Howson, was author of a short and now 
scarce Guide to Craven, published by Wildman, of Settle, in 1850. 



There is also at Settle, a good National School, which was principally 
endowed by the Rev. John Clapham, M.A., who was instituted Vicar of 
Giggleswick in 1782, and died in 1889. It is now controlled by a 
governing body of twelve members, and conducted by a head master, 
two assistant masters, and two mistresses. 

As the Giggleswick Museum contains one of the most valuable 
collections of ancient remains preserved in the country, as well as 
numerotis other objects of interest, an epitome of its contents will not 
be out of place here : 

Collection presented by the Victoria Cave Committee, 1869 — 78. Stones 
Introduced by Man, and many of them used by him an whetstones and hammer 
stones, and for grinding and polishing. Pottery, Bronze and silver Coins of 
the Roman occupation. Worked bones and ivory, forming pins, needles, spoon- 
brooches, sword, and dagger handles, &c, some with incised patterns. Beads and 
fragments of ancient glass. 

Animal remains from the Victoria Cave, which include remarkably fine skulls 
of male and female Grisly IBears, DIna of Cave Bear, Radius of Stag, bones of 
Deer, Reindeer, Bison, Woolly Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus, and Hyenas ; milk-teeth 
of young ElepliHs Antiquus ; a hamperful of complete skeleton water-rats ; a cast 
of the " Bone of Contention," or Human Fibula, supposed pre-glacial. 

Ancient Stone Celt found In a rabbit-bole at Neals Ing. Several glaciated 
stones. Burial Urn found near Hellifield. Old Quern and Armour presented by 
W. Morrison, Esq.. M.P. A collection of beautifully- mounted local and other 
birds presented by T. R. Clapham, Esq., of Austwick Halt. 

Case of Carboniferous fossils from Settle, Malham Moor, Clitheroe, fcc, including 
Bucciniuvi imbricat, Jivnamplattu Dionyti, Pleurotemaria oridea, Orthoeenu 
Hitdiilata, Qoniatitei mutaiUU, ProdMctm, (several good species) Ctenodvnta, 
Cladi'dvn, Helodvl, Atnplervi. Syrkngopora, etc. 

The key of the Museum is kept by Mr. Brown, whose house adjoins 
the school. 



81 



CHAPTER II. 




Settle. 

Old Settle — The post-town of the parish — Unique sun-dial— Castleberg and its 
watch-tower —Charter of market— Visits of old topographers — Coiners and 
filers— Craven Bank— Mediaeval aspects of Settle — Saxon medal found within 
the market-cross — The church — Old inns— Trade-tokens — Settle during the 
Civil Wars -Letter from General Lambert— The *• Folly "—Proctor, the 
sculptor— Some men of note — Longevity at Settle — Quality of the land— 
Rainfall — Snow Castle— Modern institutions — Farms and gardens — Statistics 
of trade. * 

jNVIRONED by scenery of very varied and romantic interest 
the old town of Settle is uncommonly well placed. Rural 
highways and by-ways, field paths and mountain paths, 
converge upon the town from all directions, making it 
undoubtedly one of the best and pleasantest centres of exploration in 
the district. Although in spiritual affairs it has always been an 
appendage of Griggleswick, yet in temporal concerns, as the market and 
post-town of the parish, it has long held precedence. Its market dates 
from about a.d. 1250, while that of Giggleswick was probably anterior, 
but of its origin nothing is known. The precipitous scar which rises 
behind the town to a height of three hundred feet gives to the place a 
distinguishing and picturesque appearance, and in any view of it from 
the south and west the hanging wood and rocky top of Castleberg form 
a prominent and characteristic background. The slopes of this 
miniature mountain, says Whitaker, once formed the gnomon of a rude 
but magnificent sun-dial, the shadow of which, passing over some gray 
self -stones upon its side, marked the progress of time to the inhabitants 
of the town beneath ; an instrument more ancient than the dial of 
Ahaz. When this remarkable flag-stone dial ceased to exist there is 
apparently no record. The stones were certainly not there when the 
crag was planted, nor when the winding path was made to the top a 
century ago. 

It is more than probable that there have been habitations on this site 
from the earliest period of recorded history ; and, indeed, long before 
then, as I have already pointed out, the old Celtic invaders had fixed 

F 



88 

themselves by the side of Giggleswick Scars, while the stone circle near 
Anley, and the discovery there of two burial urns, are almost conclusive 
proof of a permanent settlement in this vicinity, whose very name 
even, is lost in the darkness of antiquity. Here the situation being 
sheltered and commanding, so favourable a spot would not, for defensive 
reasons, be overlooked by any tribes who were driven to these wilds by 
stress of conquest. As houses fell to decay others were built on their sites, 
but as civilisation advanced habitations descended, and gradually spread 
themselves over the reclaimed lands below. Moreover, it is no mere picture 
of the fancy to call up the time when the echoes of old Castleberg were 
roused by the Roman horns, as the conquering legions ascended the old 
road over High Side and Malham Moor, which runs towards Grassington. 
Quarries for the making and repair of these roads have been worked in 
the district from the earliest times. By the Romans too, it is pretty certain, 
for in the year 1788, in one of these old quarries was found, lodged in a 
crevice between two masses of rock, which the delvers were about to 
remove, a large quantity of Roman coins, chiefly of the two Constantines. 
There is but little doubt, too, that in the latter days of the empire, 
Settle was a Roman station, or at least, it had mansiones, or inns, where 
travellers could be accommodated and horses changed, before mounting 
the steep hills behind the town. On the top of Castleberg, there would 
be a fort and watch-tower, and there is a local belief current that at 
some early time such was the case. Traces of Roman camps and 
fortifications still abound on the high ground above Castleberg, and relics 
of the same period have been found in the neighbouring caves. When 
the Saxons came here they called the place, appropriately enough, Setl, 
(A.S. a seat or settlement), and at the Norman Conquest it was constituted, 
with Anley, a "separate manor of Giggleswick, which latter place the 
Saxons had fixed upon as the head quarters of the parish. Doubtless 
the parish church was located there then as it is now. 

As a market-town Settle has had several charters granted to it, the 
earliest extant being of the time of Henry III. But the following grant, 
dated 24th May, 1708, may be quoted, as its terms are those on which, 
for now nearly two centuries, the town has continued uninterruptedly to 
hold its markets. 

"A Confirmation to Richard, Earl of Burlington, and his heirs, of anantient 
Weekly Market on Tuesday, and a Fair yearly held for three days on the Vigil, 
upon the day and on the morrow of St. Lawrence within the manor of Setel in the 
County of York. And also a grant to him and his heires of severall other new 
ffaires to "be held yearly within the town of Setel in the said county on the days 
following, vizt. — One ffair on the Tuesday next before Palm Sunday for the buying 
and selling all sorts of cattle, goods, wares, and merchandizes. Another on the 
15th of April for sheep, another on Tuesday next after Whitsunday, for all sorts 
of cattle, goods, wares, and merchandizes, another on the 2Srd June for lambs, 



84 

another on the 12th October for sheep, another on the Tuesday next after the 16th 
day of October for all sorts of cattle, goods, wares, and merchandizes, and another 
on Fryday in every other weeke during three months successively, yearly, to begin 
on ffryday before Easter, for buying and selling all sorts of cattle. 

According to Her Majestie's pleasure signified by Warrant, under Her Royal 

Signe Manual, countersigned by Mr. Secretary Boyle, subscribed by Mr. Solicitor 

Generall. 

John Tench, Deputy to Thomas Gosling Esq.* 

In the autumn of 1769 the poet Gray visited Settle, where, attracted 
by the *' neatness and civility " of his landlady, he remained over two 
nights. His remarks, however, do not flatter the aspects of the town at 
that period. " It is a small market-town," he says, " standing directly 
under a rocky fell ; there are not in it above a dozen good-looking 
houses ; the rest are old and low, with little wooden porticos in front." 
Ten years later the Rev. J. Hutton made a tour through the district, and 
he says, " Settle is irregularly built, has a large and spacious market- 
place, but not many good houses in it. Though by no means an 
inconsiderable town either for trade, riches, or number of inhabitants, 
it has no church or chapel. The church is at Giggleswick, about a mile 
off, which appeared to be the court end of the parish." Again, in 1778, 
the famous antiquarian and topographer, Thomas Pennant, came into 
the town, and his record is this, — "At the foot of a monstrous lime-stone 
rock, called Castleberg, that threatens destruction, lies Settle, a small 
town in a little vale, exactly resembling a shabby French town with a 
* place ' in the middle. Numbers of coiners and filers lived about the 
place, at this time entirely out of work, by reason of the salutary law 
respecting the weight of gold." 

It is amusing how alarmingly the old writers speak of the rugged 
and abrupt approaches to the town from the east, which gives one the ' 
impression that a foot descent into it were indeed a perilous undertaking, 
and had been best made by the aid of ropes, or even by balloon. 
The roads at this end are certainly steep, and are hardly to be recommended 
to the cyclist, but to the pedestrian who is not stinted to time, a walk 
up these breezy heights will be more than recompensed by inhaling the 
invigorating air, and enjoying the glorious view that opens out when 
once the summit is gained. From the top of Castleberg, where seats 
have been placed, the prospect northwards and westwards is exceedingly 
fine, embracing a vast expanse of rich agricultural country southwards 
to Burn Moor and Pendle Hill, with the long flat ridge of Whelpstone 
Crag standing out conspicuously to the west, and beyond is Croasdale 
Fell, like a miniature Ingleborough ; while looking up the romantic 

* The reader may remark that the signatories to this charter, Tench and Gosling, in conjunction 
with Mr. Secretary Doyk, seem not inappropriate appendices to the belongings of a market I 



85 

valley of the Kibble the cone-like top of Smearaide, with Swarth Moor, 
Moughton Fell, and Penyghent, are prominent. The beautifully wooded 
slopes above Giggleswick rise opposite to us, and deep below nestles 
compactly the little town of Settle ; its old, narrow streets, and odd. 
complex buildings of two and three stories, jutting npon each other at 
all angles, with the high-pitched roof and bell- turret of its well-built 
Town Hall apparent, and many good new houses rivenvards, all combining 
to form an attractive scene. This grand old rock was for many years 
figured on the paper money of the Craven Bank, which was first 
established at Settle in 1791. But from 1817 a picture of the well- 
known Craven Heifer was substituted for that of Castleberg. 

The shabby French look attributed to it by Pennant cannot be said 
to belong to the town now, for although there is much that is quaint and 
old remaining, yet re-building and improvements in various directions 
have done much to modernise its general appearance. The little wooden 



Market Place, Settle. 

porticos referred to by Gray have long since disappeared ; the last having 
been removed about the year 1833, when the Town Hall was built. But 
it would assuredly be a great pity to eradicate every ancient feature of 
the place, a proceeding happily not likely to occur, as many of the oldest 
houses, erected between two and three centuries ago, have been soundly 
and substantially built, and are, in consequence, not likely to be removed. 
Indeed it is pleasing to note that a laudable movement has recently been 
promoted for the purpose of watching over such objecta of antiquity in 
the town as are worthy to be preserved. Had every ancient town such a 



86 

guardian society, our knowledge of past history and events, and especially 
of the inner life of the people, as shewn by the domestic architecture, 
would be much more complete than it is. Thousands of cottages, houses, 
and public buildings illustrative of vanished eras, or of the circumstances 
under which they were built, have been " improved away " within quite 
recent times, and thus, destroyed often without record, authentic and most 
valuable sources of history have been irretrievably lost. The home life of 
a people is revealed largely in local architecture, and if this be allowed to 
pass out of remembrance, the knowledge we have gained from experience 
is partially lost, and history becomes patched. The Settle association 
inaugurated its existence by the purchase of that very interesting and 
picturesque block of buildings known as the Shambles, which lends such 
an air of genuine antiquity to the big market square. No one seems to 
know how long it has stood here, but so familiar has this time-honoured 
fabric become to the generations of buyers and sellers who have assembled 
before it, that without the old Shambles Settle would hardly be Settle. 
The old building has lately undergone a mild restoration, but without 
any infringement of its original features. 

In the year of Her Majesty's accession a church was built at Settle. 
It is in the Early English style, and comprises a chancel, nave, and 
embattled tower at the west end. It has a neat interior, but a peculiarity 
in the construction of the church is that it stands north and south. In 
the year of the Queen's Jubilee, a peal of six bells, cast by Warner, of 
London, and hung by the Yorkshire firm of Mallaby Bros., was added, 
and in the belfry a brass plate records : " This peal of bells was raised 
by subscription in 1887, the fiftieth year of the reign of Queen Victoria, 
and dedicated to the glory of God, and the welfare of His Church. 
Jackson Mason (Vicar), Thomas Clark, John Handby (Churchwardens). " 
When the church was built, the old bridge over the Ribble was widened, 
the eastern or older portion shewing three arched " ribs " of single blocks 
of grit, fashioned in a similar style to the Devil's Bridge at Kirkby 
Lonsdale, while the western or new half of the bridge has ordinary flat 
masonry. The new road to Giggleswick, which now passes under the 
monster viaduct of the Carlisle line, was made at the same time. Formerly 
the road to Giggleswick left the Market Place by way of Kirkgate, one of 
the oldest thoroughfares in Settle. The ancient Toll Booth was removed 
in 1832. It occupied the site of the present Town Hall, and near to it 
stood the Market Cross. It is stated by a writer in the Gentleman's 
Magazine for 1785, (the same whose letter I have quoted on the 
Giggleswick Cross), that the old Settle Cross having become ruinous about 
that time was taken down, and in the inside was the appearance of another 
cross or pillar, rudely designed, upon which were found two or three silver 
coins, (unhappily lost), along with a small circular medal about an inch 



87 

in diameter, incised with a carious scroll-pattern and five rings or cavities, 
along the edges, with the device of a wheel in the centre. It is conjectured 
to be Saxon, and was " carried to be shewn at an honourable court, when 
a great cause was depending to prove the antiquity of Settle as a market 
town." The old Jail, or Black Hole, was a wretched underground 
dungeon entered by a flight of steps at the foot of the cross, and which 
thirty odd years ago, stood between the present Fountain and the Town 
Hall. It was then filled up and the road macadamised, so that its presence 
is not now discernible. The old cross now forms the top of the Fountain 
a few yards off. Close to the steps of the cross stood the stocks, which 
were entirely of wood, and, according to Mr. Brayshaw, the honour of 
having been the last person to occupy them involuntarily lies between 
" Tal Bradley " and " Jimmy Carr." " Tal " was a fruit hawker, and 
it is said used to sell more oranges whilst in durance than at any other 
time. The stocks are now kept in the Court House. 

In Upper Settle the old Cattle Pound may still be seen, where lost or 
stray animals were kept until claimed by their rightful owner. This 
was effected in a curious way. The pindar — or pound keeper — broke a 
piece of stick in two, giving one part to the finder and retaining the 
other himself, so that when the cattle were redeemed and the reward was 
made, this could only be done upon production of the stick, as a means 
of identification. A very happy and original "promissory" in days before 
School Boards ! 

About the Market Place are several very old inns, one of which exhibits 
a stone figure of a naked man or boy, holding a shield inscribed I C 1663. 
Signs of the Naked Man, Boy, and Woman, though not common, are 
still to be met with in various places, but many have been discontinued 
or other titles substituted for them. Their meaning has puzzled many 
antiquaries, but there can be no doubt they originated as a satire upon 
the whims of our ancestors in the matter of dress. In the days of the 
"Merry Monarch," fashion was so capricious, that many tailors and 
drapers adopted these signs as a jeu tfesprit upon the ever-changing 
fashions of the time. In the " Comedy of Errors," (Act iv., Sc. 3), 
Shakespeare evidently alludes to the sign of the Naked Man, where 
Dromio exclaims : " What, have you got the picture of old Adam new 
apparelled ? — Not that Adam that keeps the Paradise, but that Adam 
that keeps the Prison ; he that goes in the calf s-skin that was killed for 
the prodigal." At Moorfields, in Middlesex, a tailor's sign portrayed a 
naked boy, with the couplet : 

" So fickle is our English nation, 
I would be clothed if I knew the fashion.' 1 

At Langcliffe, near Settle, was an inn called the Naked Woman, the 
stone effigy of which still remains in front of the house. 



88 

When there was a scarcity of copper coinage in England in the time 
of Charles II., several Settle tradesmen issued their own pence and 
half -pence ; trade-tokens as they were called. They were first issued in 
the year 1648-9, and continued in use until 1672, when they were 
superseded by copper money from the Royal Mint. One of these local 
coins shews the arms of the Drapers' Company in the field, with the 
inscription : " William Taylor, in Setle," and on the reverse, " I will 
exchaing my penny, 1668." No doubt the said Wm. Taylor would reap 
a rich harvest by these vagaries of fashion, for the inhabitants of Settle 
and district, and especially the fair sex of this rich agricultural country, 
would be, we may be sure, attired " up to date." Taylor was one of 
four who held the then important office of churchwarden for the parish 
of Giggleswick in 1662. 

It must be observed, however, that during the Civil War of Cromwell's 
time, the district had suffered disastrously from the prevalent disorder 
and insecurity, as also from the actual depredations of the troops which 
overran Craven for a number of years. Among papers preserved at 
Browsholme Hall, is an interesting but piteous account of various losses 
which the Parker family, of that house, sustained from the pillage of 
the soldiers " which lay at Thornton and Gisburne at several times." 
General Lambert, of Calton Hall, who was early in the field, was appealed 
to, and with that sense of firm justice and magnanimity which seems always 
to have guided him, issued the following Letter of Protection, 

" To all Captaines, Lieutenants, and all other Officers and Souldiers 
w'thin the liberties of Craven " : 

'• Thei^e are to Charge and require you and everie of you that you forbear to 
enter the house of Edward Parker of Brouseholme. Esqr., by night, or to take anie 
horses or other goods from him, eyther w'thin the house, or w'hout the house, 
Eyther by day or by night, w'thout speciall command from mee : as you and everie 
of you will answer the Contrarie at yo'r p'ills [perils]. 

Given at Gigleswick, under my hand the Nyneteenth daie of December, 1643. 

John Lambert." 

While Lambert was stationed at Giggleswick no doubt the church 
was garrisoned with his troops. Local records of the campaign, however, 
are but slight, as the parish documents for a long period (1627 — 1653) 
were either secretly removed and have not been restored, or they were 
maliciously destroyed. Many of the soldiers would be billetted at the 
inns and private houses in the two villages, but these houses were not, with 
few exceptions, the same as are now existing. Most of the present 
buildings were erected after the Restoration, when the country was 
beginning to recover from the effects of the war. That Settle and the 
neighbouring villages were not slow in regaining their old prestige, is 



89 

evident from the large proportion of houses that were built about this 
time. Failing local records, we find in the Skipton parish registers this 
entry : 

11 1642, Dec. 23, Edward Waddington, sonne of Richd. Waddington, of Horton, 
who was slayne in Settle." 

Two years after the death of Charles L, the Craven men were again 
up in arms, for his son, afterwards Charles II., had been declared with 
mock pomp King of his late father's dominions. Charles was on his 
way south from Scotland, and had encountered some rather awkward 
surprises from the Parliamentary army during his progress toward the 
royal town of Lancaster. In August, 1651, we find the army of 
Lambert encamped at Settle, and on the 11th of that month the General 
addressed this communication to the Council of State : 

*' Through the mercie of God we have now reached the enemy, being as near 
you as they are. We are this night with five of our best regiments of horse 
quartered at Settle-in-Craven, one hundred and forty miles from St. Johnston, 
where we were on Sunday seven-night. The enemie as we hear are quartered about 
Lancaster. They have not above 4,000 horse and dragoons and 8,000 foot, and 
these are very sickly and drop off daily." 

Little more than a fortnight afterwards the finale of this sad broil 
was played out, as everyone knows, on the field at Worcester, when 
the Royalists were hopelessly routed. During the heat of the battle, it is 
worth while noting, the horse which Lambert rode was shot under him, 
and had it not been for the marked coolness which he displayed amid the 
excitement of the occasion, there is little doubt the great commander 
would have been killed. For his distinguished services he was granted 
lands in Scotland of the annual value of one thousand pounds.* But 
these he was not privileged to enjoy very long. At the Restoration in 
1660 he lost all, and died a recluse in the island of Guernsey some thirty 
years later. Such, alack ! are the fortunes of history and of its great 
leaders ! 

The " bone and sinew " of Craven has ever been conspicuous in the 
British ranks, when England has had hi duty " abroad. The old pluck 
and endurance of the Craven " lads " arej proverbial, and around Settle 
a willingness to uphold the honour of England , has been perhaps more 
notable than elsewhere. At the Field of Flodden in 1513, for example, 
out of a muster roll of 321 from 31 Craven villages, Giggleswick sent 
24 and Settle 34 men, or together one sixth of the entire number. 

* Also, some years later, after the death of Cromwell, his signal defeat of Sir 
George Booth, at Northwich, earned for him the thanks of Parliament, along with 
a present of a rare jewel, of the value of £1000. — What, pray, has become of this 
interesting trophy ? 



90 

Again, during the threatened invasion of our country at the end of last 
century, a meeting to consider the position of affairs was held at Settle, 
on August 21st, 1794. A company of Volunteers was at once formed, and 
this heroic proceeding evoked the ardour of the Muse in the shape of a 
spirited and curious poem, writ by one Robert Kidd, a master of the 
Grammar School at that time. The tract was printed by Troughton of 
Settle, and is now scarce. A few energetic lines may be quoted : 

" All Hail ye Gents ! all hail this festive Day, 
Success attend it, with propitious Ray ; 
May loyal Meetings your Importance spread, 
You guard the Nation, and the King's your head I 
****** 

Permit me, Gents, a Question here to ask, 
1*11 give the Answer, and save you the Task ; 
What is't that prompts your valiant Souls to move ? 
'Tib manly Courage, and your country's Love. 

He might have added in the same fervent key : 

An honest soldier never is forgot, 
Whether he die by musket or by pot. 

While mentioning the old inns and houses at Settle, I must not omit 
one known as the " Folly." It is a large incomplete mansion built by a 
family of the name of Preston, but as the means wherewith to finish 
it was not forthcoming, the house carries a tell-tale name. It has a fine 
seventeenth century front, in the domestic style of the Stuart period, and 
some notable oak work inside, including a spacious staircase and wains- 
cotted room with secret passage, and large open fireplaces. The interior 
is now altered into cottages. Over the main entrance are the initials, 
(apparently) R T P and the date, says Whitaker, is 1675, but the carving is 
nearly effaced. In the list of churchwardens collated by Mr. Brayshaw, 
I find the names of Robt. Preston (Settle) for 1651 ; Richd. Preston 
(Giggleswick) for 1653 ; Richd. Preston (Settle) for 1661 ; Wm. Preston 
(Giggleswick) for 1662 ; Wm. Preston (Settle) for 1666 ; and Richd. 
Preston (Settle) for 1683. In coaching days there were more inns in 
the town than there are now, and one of these which dropped out of 
existence some thirty years ago, possesses a special interest in its being 
the birth-place of one of the most notable men of his time. This was 
the Spread Eagle, a good three-story house, situated at the back of the 
present Ashfield hotel, and here in 1753, the famous sculptor, Thomas 
Proctor, was bom. In his 25th year he was admitted a student of the 
Royal Academy, and in 1782 and 1783 he obtained silver medals, and the 
gold medal in 1784, but in 1794 he died at the early age of 41, while 
preparing a visit to Rome, at the instance of Benjamin West. His two 
best works, which received high praise from many eminent artists, and 



91 

are undoubtedly masterpieces in execution, are " Ixion on the Wheel, 1 ' and 
"Diomed devoured by his Horses." They were in the possession of 
Sir A. Hume in 1838. Some rough sketches of the sculptor's early years- 
were, until lately, to be seen in the dairy of his old home. As a peculiar 
interest attaches to a name it may be mentioned that another house of 
like sign, — the Spread Eagle, in Bread Street, London, was the birth-place 
of one of England's most gifted scholars, that " mighty orb of song," as 
Wordsworth calls him, — John Milton, the author of Paradise Lost, &c. 

Other good and useful men are closely associated, either by reason of 
birth or family ties, with the past history of Settle. Such are Dr. George 
Birkbeck, the founder of Mechanics' Institutes, who died in 1841, and 
whose monument, with an inscription by his friend Lord Brougham, 
adorns the old Mechanics' in the town ; the Rev. William Ermystead or 
Armistead, founder of the Skipton Free Grammar School in 1548, who was 
Canon Residentiary of St. Paul's, London, and Chaplain to Queen Mary ; 
the Shutes, to whom old Fuller pays a just and feeling tribute, the Listers, 
Dawsons, Paleys, and others connected with the Giggleswick School. 

I may remark here that the family name of Settle occurs locally in 
charters as old as Henry III. 

Among the residents at Settle in the last century was the Countess of 
Gyllenborg, daughter of a former Ambassador and Prime Minister of 
Sweden. She was a very accomplished lady, and had a pension both from 
Sweden and Hesse Cassel, and for several years resided in London. In the 
latter part of her life she took up her residence in Settle, where she died 
in January, 1766. She became the wife of his Excellency Baron Sparre, 
(who served under Charles XII. in all his campaigns, and was taken 
prisoner with him at the battle of Pultowa), by whom she left issue an 
only daughter, the Hon. Amelia Wilhelmina Melifina Sparre, born in 
1733, to whom Frederick, Prince of Wales, was godfather, and who died 
unmarried at Thirsk, in Yorkshire, October 5th, 1778.* 

As a place of residence, or of temporary sojourn, the crisp and 
appetising limestone air of this neighbourhood has been frequently 
extolled. So numerous are the instances of longevity that we might fill 
several pages with records of natives who have lived from eighty to one 
hundred years and upwards, and who had never been ten miles from 
home. In fact we have heard it stated, but it certainly requires proof, 
that no stranger invalid has ever been known to die at Settle ! There 
is, assuredly, no equal area in England where doctors are fewer and 
farther apart. In looking over the Settle and Giggleswick churchyards 
some time ago, partly to test the above statement, I noticed in the former 
a neat headstone to the memory of a native of Holyhead, in Wales, whose 

* See Gentleman's Magazine for 1766 and 1781. 



92 

death here at Settle in 1873 is recorded at the age of 19. It seems, however, 
that this young man was engaged on the Settle and Carlisle line, and was 
killed by the fall of a crane. He appears to have been very much 
respected, for a very large concourse of people assembled at the funeral, 
and his tombstone, bearing a Welsh epitaph, was erected by public 
subscription. " Tommy " Twistleton, late of Winskill, made the incident 
the subject of a touching little poem. 

Rain, though falling heavier here than at most places, is quickly 
absorbed by the porous nature of the underlying rock, and the paths and 
roads soon become dry. In summer the effects of heat are felt sometimes 
intensely, owing to the open character of the country, and the common 
absence of trees. These, however, are often more numerous than appears 
from the large extent of country comprised in the coup (Tail. About 
Malham, for instance, Mr. Morrison, of the Tarn Hall, has planted very 
nearly a million trees within the last thirty years, but, as I have heard 
it remarked, you can hardly see a single one for rocks ! In winter snow 
falls in certain places to a great depth, necessitating spade work on the 
roads frequent. An unusual and pretty scene was witnessed in the town 
in February, 1888, when about one hundred children were entertained to 
tea, &c, in an immense snow castle, erected in Kirkgate after a heavy fall. 

In an interesting Government Report on the state of Agriculture in 
the Kingdom in 1793, we gather that, "The nature of the soil in the 
neighbourhood of Settle is what is called a hazel mould, incumbent upon 
a dry bottom. The farms are generally small, and the occupiers seldom 
have leases. Great part of the higher grounds are still common, and 
consequently unimproved ; they are pastured with sheep and Scots cattle, 
which are afterwards fed off upon the lower grounds. The sheep bred 
here are called the Malham breed, and we receive favourable accounts of 
them. Considering the great quantity of waste ground, it is surprising 
the proprietors have not turned their attention more to planting, as we 
received great complaints of the scarcity of wood, [see above']. Coals are 
likewise scarce which it was thought might be remedied, if proprietors 
were disposed to hold out rewards or favourable leases to those who 
discovered them." The following abstract from the same report, on the 
prices of labour and provisions at that time, offers some interesting 
contrasts with the present. Thus a century ago : " A man servant gets 
about ten guineas per year, with board and washing in his master's 
house ; a woman about five guineas, with the same ; day labourers in 
husbandry about 2s. or 2s. 6d. per day, finding their own victuals ; 
about ten years ago Is. or Is. 2d. was the common price ; the advance 
owing to the introduction of the cotton manufactory into a country so 
little populous. They work from six to six in summer, and from eight to 
dark in winter. Provisions : beef, mutton, veal, and pork, about 4^d. per 



98 

pound of 16 oz8. ; butter about Is. or Is. Id. per pound of 22 ozb. ; wheat 
about 8s. per Winchester bushel ; oats 28s. or 80s. per quarter." The 
parish was then (1798) estimated to contain 14,685 acres in grass,. 
815 acres arable, 150 acres waste, 800 acres in oats, and 15 acres in 
barley. In 1798 the population of the parish was 2200 ; at present 
(excluding Langcliffe) it is about 4000. 

Settle is now the centre of a large Poor Law Union, which includes 
thirty townships, and extends east and west from Arncliffe to Bentham 
and Ingleton, and north and south from Horton-in-Ribblesdale to 
Otterbum and Wigglesworth, an area of about 200 square miles. The 
population of the Union ill 1891 was 14,071, or an increase of 271 on 
the last census. The town, which is now lighted with gas, is well 
provided with institutions and clubs for the social and educational wants 
of the people. The Institute holds the library of about 10,000 volumes 
of the Settle Literary Society, which is one of the oldest circulating 
libraries in the provinces, and includes among its literary treasures many 
first editions and rare works. Besides the two churches mentioned at 
Giggleswick and Settle, there are in Settle a Eoman Catholic Chapel, 
re-built in 1888, a Wesleyan Chapel dating from 1809, an Independent 
Chapel built in 1816, and one for the Primitive Methodists erected in 
1841. The Friends were established here soon after the earliest 
ministrations of Fox in Craven, over two centuries ago, and still have a 
small Meeting-house in the town. The earlier members endured many 
losses and privations in the days of State intolerance. One Samuel 
Watson, of Knight Stainforth, a leading member of the persuasion, 
appears on his own statement to have had his head badly " punshed " and 
to have suffered repeated penalties and imprisonment, rather than submit 
to the doctrines of the Establishment. His memoirs for 1659 tell of his- 
coming to speak "in the Steeple House at Giggleswick, when he was 
pulled down, and his head broke against the seats, and was afterwards 
haled out, and thrown upon the ice." In the old Quaker journal of 
Thomas Story, of Kendal, are also several references to Settle and 
neighbourhood. Under date October 2nd, 1728, he tells us that he 
visited Skipton, and the next day went " to a ministring Friends' Meeting 
at Settle ; and the day following was at another, being a monthly meeting 
at the same place, and lodged at William Burbeck's." The Freemasons 
appear to have been in united fellowship here over a century ago, for 
there was a " Black Bull " Lodge constituted at Settle under die Atholl 
Masons, June 7th, 1774, as No. 188, which for about fifteen years wa& 
the Masonic centre of the Craven District. In 1875 the Order was 
revived, and a warrant signed by His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, 
Grand Master, was issued, authorising the formation of the "Castleberg" 
Lodge, No. 2091. The " Independent Order of Rechabites," said to be 



94 



the oldest, largest, and wealthiest Temperance Friendly Society in 
existence, has a " Tent " at Settle, the members of which meet every 
fourth Monday in the Mechanics' Hall. The " Friendly United Order 
of Mechanics," and the " Loyal Triumphant Lodge of Oddfellows," are 
also established here, with large members' rolls. 

The farming and gardening interests of the district are strongly 
and influentially represented by the "North Ribblesdale Agricultural 
Association," and the "North Craven Horticultural Society," which 
annually hold their Shows at Settle. 

The various trades of the district comprise cotton spinning, leather 
tanning, a paper mill, saw mill, and several limestone quarries. The 
cotton industry, which is of old standing in this neighbourhood, is 
now chiefly carried on at the works of Mr. Hector Christie, at Langcliffe. 
These mills are very pleasantly and fortunately situated, (having an 
excellent water supply) in the dale about a mile from Settle. They 
formerly belonged to a Mr. Clayton, then to a family named Bashall, 
and about thirty years ago came into the possession of Mr. Christie, who 
has since run them, and who has done much to promote the general 
welfare of the district. Mr. Christie is the County Councillor for the 
Settle division of the West Riding. 

The subjoined abstract is from Baines' "History of the Cotton 
Manufacture " (1885) and shews the relative importance of this industry 
among some of the Craven towns : 



Towns. 


No, of Mills. 


Horse Power. 
Steam. Water. 


Total number 
of people 
employed. 


Settle ... 


... o • 


.. 30 


• • « 


47 


... oud 


Grassington 


... o 


— 


• •  


27 


130 


Kettlewell 


•> 

... £d 


— 


 • i 


11 


... oo 


Skipton... 


... b • 


.. 90 


• • i 


61 


605 


Gargrave 


4 


6 


• • t 


54 


149 


Addingham 


o 

... £i 


— 


• • 


65 


... 2Joo 


Haworth 


•2 

... u 


— 


• • i 


32 


65 


Colne ... 


11 


. . 149 


• • 


186 


... 1677 


Barnoldswick 


... t) 


... 20 


• • i 


24 


172 


Sedbergh 


... £i 


— 


• • i 


50 


198 


Ingleton 


... o < 


... 20 


• • « 


40 


186 



'I 



OATTEKrcE Force. 



95 



CHAPTER III. 



GlGGLESWICK, StACKHOUSE, LOCKS. 

" Pray pardon me, if now I raise 
A stave or two to sound the praise 

Of Craven's hills and caves ; 
Of fertile daals, an' flowin' brooks, 
Of watter-faus an* shady nooks, 

Whar t' fir an' t* hazel waves'. 
Whar cliffs uprear their shaggy waus, 
And down below a streamlet flows, 

Wi' rough an' blusterin' din ; 
While masses of projectin' rock 
Owerhing as if the slightest shook 

Wad send 'em thunderin' in." — Tom Twigtleton. 

Giggleswick— The Mid Craven Fault— Plague Stone— Bell Hill and Pagan Fires- 
Settle Bridge and Penyghent— Stackhouse — Lovely Residences — Brayshaw 
and Carr Families — Locks— Return Walk. 

|T is not a simple matter in the ragged and semi-trackless 
country I am about to describe, where much that is curious 
and interesting lies off the beaten routes, to plan our walks 
so systematically that everything can be visited without much deviation, 
and in the least time. As most people, however, arrive by either of the 
two railway stations before mentioned, we will commence our rambles 
from the one at Giggleswick, and in so doing I commend the visitor's 
attention to the old stone walls which run forward to that village and to 
Settle. Composed of a remarkably coarse grit, so inordinately full of 
white quartz pebbles, they have almost the appearance after rain of 
having been snowed upon. This grit-stone is quarried at the base of 
the carboniferous limestone which forms the fine scars of the Mid Craven 
Fault, and should in the natural sequence of strata overlie the limestone, 
but owing to this tremendous fracture has been thrown down hundreds 
of feet below it, but we shall have more to say about this later on. 
Before the railway was made, this now broad and well-kept high-road 
was only a narrow lane, with openings for carts to pass, and went by the 
present station on to the main road for Lancaster. 




96 

About fifty yards from the station, and built into the wall on the 
right, is a large roughly-squared block with a shallow cavity in the centre. 
This is believed to be the socket of an ancient cross, and to have done 
duty for a boundary stone, a holy-well, and a plague-stone. During the 
plagues which ravaged Craven, and Yorkshire generally, in the 16th and 
17th centuries, such stones were to be found in the neighbourhoods of 
the infected villages, and there appear to have been several on the roads 
around Settle. The inhabitants were forbidden to come beyond a certain 
radius of the village in which they lived, and orders for goods and 
provisions were communicated to the vendors by written requests 
deposited on these stones with the money in payment, which was then 
disinfected by the recipients in the basin or cavity of the stone, usually 
containing lime water or vinegar, and the goods left in exchange. In 
some of the worst districts, as at Eyam in Derbyshire, there were cordons 
of militia stationed round the infected villages, in the interests of the 
public safety, but it must be pleaded, greatly to the credit of these places, 
that during this sad and perilous time the people behaved most heroically, 
and indeed with marvellous self-sacrifice, and there were but few attempts 
to escape. 

Ob arriving at the pretty village of Giggleswick, described in our 
first chapter, the visitor should inspect the fine old Church and interesting 
Museum. This village, by the way, is not, as a local innkeeper once 
tried to persuade the writer, " within a stone's throw of the station," at 
least if it is, the man who threw the stone is greatly to be admired, — he 
would carry all before him at every athletic contest of the kind in the 
kingdom. It is a good ten minutes 1 walk. 

But now let us climb Bell Hill, as that part of the road between 
Giggleswick and the Ribble bridge, on the way to Settle, is called. 
There is a low, picturesque old house at the foot of the hill, at present 
occupied by the curate, which at one time was the residence of the family 
of the celebrated Archdeacon Paley. Bel or Bell Hill, is usually written 
Belle, but this, I think, is wrong. It has nothing to do with the French 
word for beautiful, but is derived, as so many others are of like appellation 
in this part of England, from the Celtic bel, a ford, or heal or baal, a 
feast-fire of the primitive inhabitants, still kept up in some parts of 
Ireland and France at the present day. In hilly districts such named 
places, when connected with high ground are more likely to carry with 
them the latter meaning, for they are invariably found in proximity to 
pre-historic Celtic settlements and their attendant remains. I have 
already shown that Giggleswick was an important British station, and 
there is no doubt that the bel fires were kindled on the anniversaries of 
their feasts. Dr. Whitaker says that the custom of lighting fires on the 
adjacent hills lingered here until within the memory of those then living, 



97 

which would be a little over a century from now, but that in these later 
times they were known as Kennel fires, — doubtless a survival of the ancient 
bel fires. I cannot do better than quote what he says : " In this parish 
was an immemorial custom, continued within the memory of many 
persons yet alive, of kindling fires on the tops of the surrounding hills 
on St. Lawrence's Eve, the 9th of August. This night was called the 
Kennel, or Kennelk Night ; and the tradition of the place is, that the 
fires were intended as a memorial of the beacons kindled by the Saxons 
to alarm their countrymen on the sudden approach of the Danes. 
Perhaps the origin of the practice may be referred to a later period, 
namely some of the irruptions of the Scots. But the tradition sufficiently 
accounts for the name, which, I think, is clearly to be derived from 



Settle from the West. 

Kbnne, to descry. Another etymology might be offered from A.S. Cene, 
acer, and Mlrd, ignis, the brisk fire, but I prefer the former, as more 
appropriate." Had onr historian described the ceremonies which, 
doubtless, attended the lighting of these summer fires, a more certain 
clue to their origin or design would have been obtained than is possible 
from the mere name or tradition. 

In descending towards the Ribble bridge there is a delightful old 
lane, in season filled with honeysuckle and roses, that goes off to the left 
to Stackhouse and Stainforth, or you can follow the road down to the 
bridge, as shown in the accompanying engraving, and take the field path 



98 

on the west side of the river, which leads into the same road near 
Stackhouse. The latter is the shorter way from Settle. From this bridge 
the huge, detached bulk of Penyghent forms a noble outline ; its whole 
amplitude being finely emphasised by the contrast of its dark, grit-rock 
summit with the white scars and green pastures in front, especially when 
the evening light of a clear sky is thrown behind the mountain. 

On gaining the road near Stackhouse one of the prettiest little 
mansions which the visitor is likely to find in all .Craven is passed on the 
left. For many generations it has been the home and possession of the 
Brayshaw family, now represented by Thomas Brayshaw, Esq., Solicitor, 
Settle. The family sprang from a place of the same name in the 
township of Rathmell, about four miles south-west of Settle, but which 
is now reduced to a cluster of farm-houses. They were located at 
Stainforth in the same parish (Giggleswick) according to the Poll Tax 
of a.d. 1379, and seem to have been the only family of that name then 
living in Yorkshire. Two of the family appear as tenants of Lord 
Clifford, at Giggleswick, in a.d. 1510, and it is very likely that these 
were the same two who fought with the English as bowmen under the 
banner of the " Shepherd Lord " at Flodden three years later.* For five 
centuries at any rate the Brayshaws have been continuously resident in 
this locality, and the parish registers shew that the family is connected 
by marriage with nearly all the other old local families, such as the 
Paleys, Carrs, Prestons, &c. One small portion of the churchyard at 
Giggleswick, to the east of the porch, is almost entirely occupied as the 
burial-place of the family. It is not very certain when their house here 
was built, but as appears by a date over one of the doors it was enlarged 
during the last century. Some of the inner walls are from two to three 
feet thick. The snug mansion is most beautifully placed at an angle of 
a sheltering wood, its green level lawn, smooth as velvet, rich, well-kept 
flower beds, and cosy rustic arbour, make up a picture so truly bewitching 
that Oliver Goldsmith might have been here when he wrote : 

" blest retirement, friend to life's decline, 
Retreat from care that never must be mine, 
How blest is he who crowns, in shades like these, 
A youth of labour with an age of ease ; 
Who quits a world where strong temptations try, 
And, since 'tis hard to combat, learns to fly ! 
And, all his prospects brightening to the last, 
His heaven commences ere the world be past !" 

Stackhouse was quite a blossoming and populous place as far back as 
the Norman Conquest, for there is a tax upon three carucates of land 

* Shortly after thiB date they appear as property owners at Malham. In 1660 
Rowland Brayshaw held the watermill at Malham. 



99 

here (probably not less than 400 acres) in the Domesday Survey. These 
afterwards became part of the possessions of Furness Abbey. 

The Carre are a very old Northumbrian family, but resident at 
Stackhouse many centuries ; their name first appearing here as lessees of 
glebe and tithe in Giggleswick under Finchale Priory in the time of 
Richard III. But before then a Ricardus de Carr et ux' occurs among 
the taxpayers at Langcliffe in a.d. 1379. Also six local members of 
this family are entered in the Clifford army-roll at Flodden, a.d. 1513. 
It was James Carr who founded the Giggleswick Grammar School in 
1512.* The family built the present Scale House at Stackhouse, which 
bears their initials and the date, 1695. In Durham Cathedral there is a 
monument to the memory of the Rev. John Carr, of Stackhouse, who 
shortly before his death in 1883 was appointed Professor of Mathematics 
in the newly-founded University of Durham. He was a Fellow of 
Trinity College, Cambridge, and second wrangler in 1807. 

From Stackhouse the road may be followed to Stainforth (lj mile) 
for a view of the Falls of the Ribble, and the return to Settle or 
Giggleswick made through Langcliffe or Locks. At Stackhouse a lane 
diverges to the right, direct to the plank-bridge, (about 90 feet long), 
over the Ribble to the little hamlet of Locks, where the river falls over 
noisy dam-stones, and is turned off by a " lock " into an artificial lake 
used for supplying the adjoining Langcliffe Mill. There is a very sweet 
view down this stretch of water with an embowered hill in the 
background. Ascending, a turn is made to the right, along the road 
past Langcliffe and the old Hall, and then shortly by the lodge entrance 
ito Mr. Christie's house, whence we come to a divergence of the road, 
the lower one emerging near Settle Bridge, and the upper one at the 
Market place in Settle. 

* The Will of James Carr, proved 29 July, 1628. " To be bur. in the churche 
-of Gigleswike of the holie and blissed Virgyn Sancte Alkild. To our Ladie gilde, 
if it go forward, vjs. viijd. To our Ladie howse of Appilby xijd. Richard, my 
flon, 5s. land at Settell. Thos. Car, my eon. Res. to son Richard, he exr., and 
Dane Chr. Car, my son, supervisor. The title of my farm eh old e to Thos. my sone." 

"July 20, 1549. Thomas Carr, of Staykus. Bur. church of Gygleswek. I 
-will every prest beyn at my bereall and prayng for my souli, etc., have iiijd. a 
peysh and theyr denar at Saylbanke wyffe's or in Sr Thomas chamer, wt ij or iij 
honest men wt theym, yff they pleysh. Ranold Karr my unkyll son. I wyll yt 
Chr. Thornton and Adam, my son, shall have my brother's chyldren and ye 
farmhold at Langschawe. To Adam, my son, my lands in Hold Wenyngton, 
Lawkland, and in Gygleswek and Settyll. Son Jamys Carr a house at Wold in 
.Sutton and a tent, in Staykus. I wyll yt ye mazer and iiij sylver spones remayn 
heyr (lomes) sty 11, and Adam not to mell wt theym, and yf Jamys wyll schyffan 
arke and a almerye, then shall he have all other husbandrey stoyffe yt is heyre wt 
Arke and almery. Res. wife Kath. and son Adam." (From a copy of the original 
in possession of Mr. Wm. Carr. of Gomersall.) Vide Pub. Surtees Soc. Vol. 79 p. 
219- (1884). 



100 



CHAPTER IV. 




Giggleswick Scabs. 

" Thence to Giggleswick most sterile, 
Hemm'd with rocks and shelves of peril." — " Drunlwn J}ar»aby" 

Giggleswick Scars— The Tarn — Ancient Canoe — Staircase and Dangerous Caves — 
Ebbing and Flowing Well — Its construction and action explained — A 
laughable incident— An old custom— A legend of the Well — Miraculous, 
appearance of a lake — Feizor -Its curious name— Clapham family — Splendid 
echoes — Scar top — The Schoolboy's Tower. 

HE modern Alpineer accustomed to dangle at the end of ropes, 
over Swiss precipices would hardly be tempted to seek 
adventure among the Giggleswick Scars, but to those who. 
are fond of scrambling, these majestic slopes and beetling cliffs offer 
some " prize bits " even to the skilful cragsman. They are moreover 
beautifully adorned with flowers and ferns in great variety. Among the 
Scar plants hereabout may be especially mentioned the rare Blood 
Cranesbill ; the delicious Fragrant Orchis, one of the very few varieties, 
of this remarkable genus that is really sweet-smelling ; the Helleborine 
(E. latifolia) and Wood Bedstraw (Q. sylvestre.) Likewise the 
Buckthorn ( R. cartiiarticus ) is not uncommon here. Although this, 
interesting tree is a native of Britain, it is much more abundant, and of 
larger growth, in Siberia and some parts of central and southern Europe 
and north Africa, than with us. In the spring, when in flower, it does not. 
make much of a show, but in autumn and winter, when profusely covered 
with glossy black berries, it is a very pretty sight. 

The pleasant road from Giggleswick or Settle passes Catteral Hall 
(W. Hartley, Esq.), and a little beyond, where a road to Giggleswick 
branches down to the left, was the southern boundary of an ancient lake, 
known in recent times as Giggleswick Tarn, possibly a relic of the Great 
Ice Age. It was drained in 1837, and is now good fertile pasture. Its. 
former shore line may be readily traced northward to a short distance 
past the Ebbing and Flowing Well, where before the present highway 
was laid it was crossed by a ford, from the old road now existing a little- 



101 

below the Well. Its length was about three-quarters of a mile, and at 
its widest part upwards of one hundred yards. In the middle was an 
island called Gretna Green, bnt how this matrimonially-suggestive name 
originated has never transpired. Normally the lake, which was supplied 
by several streams, must have been ten or twelve feet deep in the middle, 
and abounding in various fish. That fish was plentiful in the tarn at a 
very remote period is evident from the discovery in June 1863, of a very 
fine old British canoe (now in the Leeds Museum) dug up five feet below 
the surface by some workmen, while draining near the present barn at 
the south end. The boat, which had undoubtedly been used by the 
primitive natives more than 2000 years ago for fishing purposes, is 
hollowed out of the trunk of a single oak, and i 



Gigglkswick Scabs. 

in length, 1 foot 9 inches inside breadth, and 1 foot 2 inches inside 
depth. On each side of the boat is a washboard 8 inches wide and held 
by round plugs of wood, while a small round hole at the stem end of the 
canoe had probably been used for steering with, though this was fonnd 
plugged up with a conical piece of wood. Lying near it were two iron 
crooks, each about 18 inches long, fastened together with a ring of iron, 
and having the appearance of a rude anchor. Were there no other 
evidence in the locality, the presence of this primitive fishing-boat would 
be sufficient to establish proof of a settled early British community 
here. 



102 

The overlooking western cliffs would afford to these ancient people 
safe, convenient, and sheltered habitations. Their plan seems to have 
been to construct rude huts of limestone at convenient angles of the 
cliffs, which were then roofed over with turf and shielded with trees. 
The caves in the Scars were also occupied. There are two caves high up 
above the present road, known as Staircase and Dangerous Caves, which 
have been so tenanted. The entrance to the former may be plainly seen 
from the road, about a hundred yards before the Ebbing and Flowing 
Well is reached, and it may be ascended from the wall on the right 
opposite three thorn trees. The mouth of the cave is somewhat 
triangular in shape, about three feet wide and six high, and forms a 
straight fissure about sixty feet in depth, up a series of natural steps, 
covered in places with a slippery encrustation, rather difficult to mount. 
The narrow grotto in the middle of the cavern goes up to a height of 
thirty feet, and here there is a clear, shallow spring in the limestone 
about two yards across. At the entrance to the cave there is a round 
natural cavity in the wall not unlike a piscina or holy water-basin. 
The grotto must have been rather small and wet for a regular abode, 
and in early neolithic times it was very probably a bear den. Dangerous 
Cave is some little distance higher up, and bad to get to. It forms a 
winding passage which opens into a great "hall," containing many 
curious petrifactions, but the descent into it is steep, and as its name 
implies, not without danger. 

Coming now to the Ebbing and Flowing Well, which is close to the 
Clapham road side, about 1 J miles from Settle, the visitor will be curious 
to witness the effects of this famous and unique spring. Although it 
has been a familiar object of wonder to unnumbered generations of the 
inhabitants of this district, no attempt to explain the cause of its sudden 
rise and fall was made until about sixty years ago, when the late 
Mr. Thomas Hargreaves, of Settle, propounded a satisfactory theory, 
which has been since generally accepted. No one seems to have guessed 
before how it occurred. Two-and-a-half centuries ago old Dick 
Braithwaite, or " Drunken Barnaby," came this way, and he tells us, 

" Neither know the learned that travel 
What procures it, salt or gravel." 

These lines containing a suggestion of some mysterious connection with 
the distant tides. Dr. Watts, science master at Giggleswick School,, 
some years ago constructed an ingenious model of the Well, showing the 
supposed method of its working, and a similar but " single-siphon "" 
contrivance has also been made by Mr. Timothy Green, horticulturist, 
of Settle. These indicate that in the hill behind the well there is a 



103 

large upper cavity (a) as shewn in the annexed diagram, connected with 
a lower and smaller one (c) bj several inclined channels (f.g). The 
centre channel (b) is curved in the manner of a siphon towards the lower 
basin (c), and from the latter a second and larger siphon (d) runs 
downwards to the well (k). In 
ordinary weather when there is a 
medium supply of rain the water 
gradually fills the lower basin, and 
when it has reached the summit of 
the lower siphon, the latter being of 
larger dimensions than the upper one, 
quickly draws off the water before 
the narrower upper channel has time 
to re-fill the basin. In flood all the 
channels and basins are kept con- 
tinuously full and so the "ebb and 
flow " does not take place, and 
similarly in dry weather a long 
channel, supposed to run beneath the basins, carries off the water evenly to 
the well. It looks as if the continuous passage of water along the several 
cavities would have in time materially disturbed this phenomenal flow 
by the decomposition of the limestone. Such may to some extent be the 
case, but it is evident, if these theories be correct, that their relative 
dimensions remain unaltered. When the water begins to ebb there may 
occasionally be observed what is locally called the " silver cord," a thin 
silvery line like a wisp of straw stretching across the well below the 
gratings. It lasts but for u moment, suddenly breaking in the middle 
and disappearing at each end. Although it is in reality only a slender 
current of air caused bv the rapid and even descent of the water, yet it is 
considered a portent of good lnck to those who witness this additional 
phenomenon. In spite of very many visits that I have made to this well, 
only once have I baen favoured with a sight of the " silver cord." It was a 
summer noon, and there had been no rain for about thirty hours 
previous, when a heavy shower had fallen in the early morning preceding 
the visit. The water at noon rose 8 inches in 4 minutes, and would 
have registered double that quantity in the time had the trough been 
deep enough, whereas it rushed over the sides into the road, and then 
rapidly sank to the level of the lower boles, the time taken from the 
trough edge to this point being 1^ minutes. The well was then watched 
for over an hour without any indication of a rise. Sometimes, however, 
the water will ebb and flow a few inches three times in five minutes. 
There seems no proper accounting for these remarkable variations, which 
do not appear to be regulated by the state of the weather. 



104 

A good story is related of a South country gentleman unacquainted 
with the erratic movements of this singular spring, who some few years 
ago chanced to ride this way from Kendal upon a valuable horse. The 
dav being hot he pulled up his horse at the well, which at that moment 
was full. Having for a brief space his attention diverted to some 
other object, a sudden movement of the horse caused him to look down, 
when to his great astonishment, and no less alarm, he found that the 
horse had literally " drunk the well dry." Believing that some calamity 
might befall the animal with such a large accession of the cold element 
upon its heated stomach, he at once dismounted and cautiously led the 
horse by its bridle into town. Here he waited upon a well-known Vet., 
to whom the circumstances were minutely explained. The surgeon 
perceiving at once the cause of the gentleman's discomfiture, confidently 
prescribed some harmless remedy, drew a double fee, on the strength of 
his assurances, and heard shortly afterwards that the horse had speedily 
recovered ! 

A very old custom belonging to this well is one which appertains to 
Easter Sunday, when troops of children visit it and make "Spanish- 
juice " with its ice-cold waters, carrying off the black decoction in bottles 
— a relic no doubt of some forgotten mode of ancient well-worship. As 
previously observed, it is certain that in far back unscientific ages such 
a spot would be looked upon with superstitious awe, and the mysterious 
movements of the waters attributed to some supernatural power. Quaint 
old Drayton in his Polyolbton, published in 1612, tells us in one of his 
rhymes of a tradition that obtained in his day regarding the cause of 
this singular phenomenon. He says that once on a time there was a 
beautiful but shy nymph who dwelled 

— in the mountains high 
of Craven, whose blue heads for caps put on the sky, 

and that one fine day, happening to stray further from her home than 
was her wont, she was espied by a dreadful old satyr, who forthwith gave 
her chase, and away they both went over Giggieswick Scars, until the 
fair creature became so terribly alarmed and faint, and growing 
" wondrous scant of breath " by the hot and unexpected pursuit, she 
prayed the gods to turn her into a spring, and this they did to her 
intense relief, just as the wicked satyr was about to seize her " flowing 
silver hair." He thus got the " cold shoulder " most smartly for his 
pains, and perished, let us hope, with the gods' disfavour, while she- 
sweet thing ! gained immortality, for it is believed the delicious water's 
ebb and flow is the visible panting of the sylph's heart ! 

Was it a later thank-offering of this fair enchantress that caused the 
miraculous appearance of a small lake on the hill above, about a mile 



105 

from the well ? For as if by magic there suddenly arose in the summer 
or autumn of 1791 a sheet of water on what had always before been 
regarded as dry and firm ground. No special observation had previously 
been made of the site, and it is not known that any collection of hidden 
springs was the cause of its sudden appearance. The ground near it is 
remarkably dry, and surrounded on all sides with limestone rock. Some 
two or three years after its discovery the pool was measured after a 
drought of two months and found to be 250 feet in circumference, and 
from 7^ feet to 9 feet 5 inches in depth. It was for a long time useful 
in furnishing water to a large number of cattle, but has now, like the 
nymph of the well, ebbed from sight. 

Ascending Buckhaw Brow past the Well, in a few minutes you reach 
the highest point (815 feet) of the main high road between the eastern 
and western seas, and on the right of the road a small cave is passed 
in the scar. Here you may take a road to the right which goes by 
Brunton House to Feizor, whence it is a nice walk of about two miles 
over the scars to Stainforth or Stackhouse. Feizor is a retired little 
hamlet consisting of a few scattered and picturesque houses, in one of 
which the late Mr. William Byles, proprietor of the Bradford Observer, 
resided some years before his death in June, 1891. Mr. Byles was a 
well-known and familiar figure in this district, to which he was greatly 
attached, and at Austwick as well as at Feizor, where he had his own 
houses, he was a constant resident in the intervals of business, for nearly 
forty years. 

The first mention of Feizor which I have discovered appears in a 
charter of Fountains Abbey, wherein John, the Abbot, receives the 
homage of Robert de Feghers, or Feser, in a.d. 1229. This family, 
however, held lands at Scosthrop, Calton, and Feizor, in the previous 
century, but how, or the precise date when they were acquired does not 
transpire. In Kirkby's " Inquest," (a.d. 1284), Johannes de Feyser is 
declared to hold two carucates of land at Calton, and it seems, therefore, 
not improbable that some member of this family had obtained either by 
marriage, or by some other arrangement, this inheritance from the heirs 
of Calton before the confirmation of the grant to John de Hamerton, 
husband of Alice de Calton, in the 10th Richard I., a.d. 1200, as stated 
by Whitaker. 

The name of this place is curious, and rivals indeed in the variety 
of its spelling as well as in the obscurity of its meaning, the much- 
disputed etymon of Puteaco, or Pudsay. From various sources I have 
gathered upwards of a score different renderings of the name, and all 
contained in documents anterior to the 16th century, but the name, 
I may observe, does not occur in Domesday. It may be useful to 
recite them thus : — Feghers, Feserghe, Feysergh, Fesser, Fegsar, 



106 

Feyser, Fesar, Phesar, Phesyer, Feysarg, Feysar, Feazer, Pheiser, Fesor, 
Feisser, Fesargh, Pheser, Fessor, Feisar, FeyBor, Feiser. 

In a Compotus of Sallay Abbey for a.d. 1881, there is an entry of 
43s. 4d. paid to Jo' Fesar, carpentario. I am inclined to think that the 
root of the word is to be found in the Latin fagus, a beech-tree, although 
there are no beeches there now ; the only native tree being the ash. The 
local pronunciation is Feyzor, the ey being sounded as in hey. 

The village of Feizor, which is partly in the parish of Clapham and 
partly in that of Giggles wick, formerly belonged to the Yorke family, 
who held the manor of Austwick, as elsewhere explained, in the time of 
Queen Elizabeth. A branch of the family of Clapham, of Clapham, have 
been seated there for upwards of two centuries, and which is now 
represented by Thomas Richard Clapham, Esq., F.R.A.S., of Austwick 
Hall, to which house the family removed in 1847.* 

But we must leave this delightful little place, and resume our journey. 
There are some capital echoes obtainable at several places on the routes 
before named, at one of which a short distance from the track between 
Stainforth and Stackhouse a scar rising above a low coppice will produce 
a repetition of five or six echoes. I remember once hearing a lively 
conversation at a Settle hotel between two travelled gentlemen, one of 
whom was a foreigner, familiar evidently with many famous echo-making 
spots on the continent. He amused his friend by remarking that at 
some place in the Pyrenees there is a very wonderful echo, where as soon 
as you have spoken aloud, say on the French side, you hear distinctly the 
voice leap from rock to rock, from gorge to gorge, and from precipice to 
precipice, but no sooner has it passed the frontier than the echo assumes a 
Spanish accent ! This is certainly miraculous, and calls to mind an 
" echo " I was once induced to try at the invitation of an Irishman at 
the far-famed Lakes of Killarney. The man bade me call out, " Paddy, 
how are you ?" and the answer quickly came from an opposite island, 
" Still dry, your Honour," but whether it was Echo that produced this 
strange response the reader is left to draw his own conclusions. Our 
Craven echoes, surely, are more modest. 

But to continue. If you are not afraid of the climb, the top of the Scar 
can be reached from the Well by ascending the depression on this side of 
the Staircase Cave, described on p. 102, and upon an elevated point of 
the ferny pavement there is a lofty cairn of stones called the Schoolboys* 
Tower, which with the aid of a glass can be descried from Pendle Hill 
and other eminences a long distance off. It was formerly a custom at 
the Giggleswick School for every new comer to climb up here and add a 
stone to this huge cairn. And if every stone represents a scholar there 
can be no doubt of the flourishing state of the old academy ! 

* For a Pedigree of this family, tee Turner's Yorkshire GeneaXogirt (1888), p. 189. 



107 



CHAPTER V. 




Abound Smeabside. 

An archaeological ramble — Ancient barrow with skeleton — Dead Man's Cave — 
Remains of Celtic Walls— Smearside— Splendid prospect— Roman Watch-tower 
— Roman Camp - Ice-travelled stones. 

SHALL now indicate what is, from an archaeological standpoint 
one of the most interesting short tours in the district. From 
Settle Bridge you may take the field-path, or the before- 
mentioned rustic lane to Stackhouse, and where the road divides just 
beyond Mr. Priestley's pretty house you wind beneath the wood behind 
Scale House to a gate and stile on the left. Here ascend the field 
between two large trees, and at the top go over a stile, whence a path leads 
up the field a good half-mile to a gate which opens into what our remote 
Celtic ancestors would have reverentially called the " Field of the Dead,"' 
for within this enclosure are traces and remains of human graves which 
carry us back to the far dim ages of unwritten history. Following the 
grassy cart-road a short distance you will see on the left a large circular 
mound thrown up about 30 feet on the south side, and about 10 feet on 
the north or higher side. There are other mounds of Bimilar and smaller 
dimensions within the same area, some of which have been examined, but 
others do not appear to have been disturbed. Many of the barrows* 
or " raises," have at some time or other been carelessly dug into in the 
hope of finding valuables, and as doubtless in most cases nothing was- 
found but rude chests or coffins, containing bones, these were tossed aside 
and no record of them deemed worthy of preservation. Numberless are 
the instances of these despoiled barrows, cairns, &c, in Craven, an exact 
account of which would have helped to clear up much that is obscure 
regarding the manners and rites of our remote ancestors, of whom our 
knowledge is still very imperfect. The largest of these existing raises- 
has happily been described by a writer who signs himself " W. F." in 
the Gentleman's Magazine for 1784 and 1785. Although his account fills- 
several pages it is obviously defective in many particulars. We are told 
that the circumference of the base of the mound is 210 feet, and that its- 
height is 9 or 10 yards, and that the casing is composed of stones " so» 



108 

small that a soldier could carry them," while the inside is made up of 
earth and stones, some of the latter being "much larger than the 
external coating." In form it was circular, or rather orbicular, and the 
diameter of the summit was 45 feet. The barrow he tells us was opened 
many years ago, but some old people in the neighbourhood remember it 
being entirely complete, and having a very flat top. 

The barrow is locally known as the u Apronf ul of Stones," from a 
tradition, similar to that appertaining to the " Four Stones " on Burn 
Moor, that his Satanic Majesty in haste to complete the bridge bearing 
his evil name near Eirkby Lonsdale, tripped and his apron-string broke 
which let drop this immense heap. Upon examining it in its former 
state the writer discovered several human bones scattered about the 
rock and soil, among them the patellae of the knee, the vertebrae of 
the spine, part of the jaw and several teeth. In the centre of the mound 
was a cavity containing a chest composed of four upright stones and a 
lid 6 feet 9 inches long and 3 feet broad. The chest was in partitions, 
in the edges of which were a kind of hole with a rude mould. The 
writer, under date, Settle, Nov. 23rd 1784, next informs us that " Not 
many weeks ago the curiosity of some of the neighbourhood was excited 
to investigate this stupendous work of art, and 'accordingly labourers 
were hired, when upon searching a day (yet not half the work done) a 
human skeleton was found, in due proportion, and in a fine state of 
preservation, excepting the skull and one of the limbs, which were moved 
out of their place by the workmen's tools. A small circular piece of 
ivory, and the tusk of an unknown beast, supposed to be of the hog 
genus, were also found ; but no ashes, urns, coins, or instruments were 
discovered. There is a tradition (if mere tradition can be relied upon) 
that this was raised over the body of some of the Danes slain in the 
general massacre of that nation." 

We are not told in what position the body or relics were found, what 
was the size or character of the body, and what, if anything, was 
discovered in the partitions of the chest, or how many partitions there 
were, and their dimensions. The fact, however, that the body was 
interred entire and not cremated, would point to a date subsequent to the 
evacuation of the country by the Romans, but whether late Celtic, Saxon, 
or Danish, there does not appear sufficient evidence upon which to 
establish its identity. But the position of these tumuli certainly has the 
appearance of belonging to the earlier race, when the native tribes were 
driven to these hills by their more powerful invaders, and continued to 
eke out a scant existence until united with the colony of foreign 
immigrants at Settle and Giggleswick.* 

* In other respects there is soqae resemblance to the so-called Giants' Gravel 
(supposed Danish) under Penyghent 



109 

Having surveyed these remarkable stony mounds yon follow the 
grassy cart-road to the gate, and turn left about thirty yards to another 
gate, which opens into a field, whence at a distance of about 300 yards 
an old lime-kiln will be observed at the foot of the scar. Ascend the 



■car on the left of the kiln and climb the wall at the top. Under the 
wall in this field is an opening in the limestone called Dead Man's 
Gave. The entrance is large enough to admit the height of a man, and 
the cavern is accessible for a length of about 80 yards. No discoveries 
have been made in it within present recollection. From the wall you 



110 

turn left to a conspicuous gap, and proceed in a northerly direction some 
distance, when the detached remains of two Ancient Walls, said to be 
Celtic, appear on the open ground in front. The rocky top of Smearside 
is seen directly opposite. These remarkable constructions are extremely 
interesting, and, so far as I know, are unique in Yorkshire. They are of 
such proportions and strength as to be altogether beyond the requirements 
of a civilised age. Of the larger wall there remains a length of 66 feet, 
and it is 5£ feet high, 4$ to 5 feet thick at the base, and from 3£ to 4 feet 
at the top, running north and south upon natural and slightly raised 
ground, at an altitude of 1000 feet above sea level. The stones 
composing it are of various sizes, roughly hewn, and some are very large, 
being at a yard or more from the ground a foot in thickness, from two 
to four feet long, and one to one and a half wide. The stones are 
admirably laid, usually wedge-fashion, the whole forming without 
any kind of cement one compact and well-arranged mass. The other 
wall is of like thickness, but neither so long nor so high, only about 15 
yards remaining. Although apparently continuous with the larger 
fragment it has evidently not been so, for the low ground separating the 
< two walls has been denuded of stones for building with, which otherwise 
would have afforded good foundations in situ. They appear to have 
been parts of separate enclosures, but for what purpose intended the 
remains left afford no clue. There are indications to the west of the 
foundations of other walls, and it does not seem unlikely that they were 
erected as a rampart or protection to a community of dwellings built by 
the hardy natives after the Teutonic Conquest, fifteen centuries ago, in 
fact of like age as the neighbouring tumuli above described.* 

From the top of Smearside these singular constructions are well seen, 
and as we are here we may as well make for the highest or east summit 
of this fine large hill, which stands out conspicuously a little way to the 
north of the Celtic walls. Arrived here (1192 feet) the view on all 
hands is superb. Smearside from some points looks like a huge cone, 
its northern face going down with a long, even surface into the valley, 
as if it had been planed or smoothed by the passage of ice. This 
characteristic probably gave the moumtain its name, and there is no 
doubt that enormous masses of ice have passed over it, for scratchings 
are found upon the rocks, and some of the erratics are as fantastically 
stranded as you see them at Norber, while many lie deep buried in turf. 
Upon the summit of Smearside are indications of an ancient watch- 
tower, which may be as old as the Romans, as there are below 
appearances of a large Roman encampment. The view embraces the 
whole of the Ingleborough range, Chapel-le-Dale, with the distant 

* See the account of the foundation walls, &c, on the summit of Ingleborough. 



Ill 

railway-line over Blea Moor, and the fine mural scars of Moughton 
intervening. To the north-east the whole of Penyghent is seen towering 
beyond the peaty lake-like hollow about Helwith Bridge, with the long, 
unbroken outline of Fountain's Fell stretching away to the south to meet 
other wildernesses of rock and moor. Settle appears southward under 
its guardian crags, and fifteen miles further south again the massive 
form of Pendle is reared upon the horizon, with Cold Weather Fell and 
the yet more distant Lancashire moors. Coming westward we have the 
peculiar elevation of Whelpstone Crag, and the pleasant vales of 
Wenning and Lune fading away to the silver light upon the Irish Sea. 
The prospect from this wild and lonesome height is, if only moderately 
clear, well worth the effort necessary to enjoy it, and should the excursion 
be accompanied with sunshine and refreshing breezes, a very pleasant 
and profitable half hour may be passed. 

A descent may be made in a south-easterly direction to the hollow 
across which extend the earthworks of the supposed Roman Camp, above 
alluded to. These comprise a number of rectangular fortifications, the 
largest of which is about eighty yards long and fifty wide, divided into 
three portions, and separated from two other smaller earthen ramparts 
on the north by a long open space, which may have been the principia, 
or division of the general's from the soldiers' camp. These works do 
not conform to the usual plan of a standing or permanent camp, and if 
of Roman origin may have been thrown up for temporary service only. 
They would hardly hold more than a single cohort, or about 500 to 600 
men. It is noteworthy that a Roman military way went near here by 
way of Cross Streets to the south of Aust wick and Clapham to Lancaster, 
and was doubtless connected with the branch road by Ebor Gate from 
Malham to the Roman camp on High Hill above Settle. The road from 
Bentham was, no doubt, similarly connected with the camp at Ingleton, 
whence an excellent military highway traversed the wild mountainous 
country by Ribblehead, and over Cam Fell to Bainbridge in Wensleydale. 
The road from Lancaster went by Tatham Church, to the west of 
Bentham, and thence to the great camp at Overborough, but a more 
precise account of the various military and public ways laid down during 
the Roman sway here I hope to give in connection with the description 
of that important station, — the old Braboniac of the native Brythons, 
if not of the Goidelic Druids — seized by Agricola, according to the 
narrative of Tacitus, in the time of Vespasian. 

In making for a conspicuous barn near some large trees you will 
pass a large field on the left, where broken limestone crops out at one 
corner, and hereabouts are several " calliard " erratics or ice-borne 
boulders. One of these is finely grooved, the lines of striation trending 
south-east or transversely to the planes of weathering. At the barn a 



112 

narrow lane leads into the main road a half-mile from Little Stainforth 
for Settle or Giggleswtck. 

The whole of this very interesting round can be done comfortably 
in three to four hours, allowing for a good rest on the top of Smeareide, 
and if a fine evening be privileged for the return journey, the setting 
sun casting a rosy flush upon the white scars on the eastern side of the 
valley makes an enchanting scene. The high rugged scars look 
singularly grand beneath the warm light of the sun, while the old 
walls in the distance glow for a little while like great chains of knotted 
gold upon the greeu vests of the hills. 

Bright amber clouds, high o'er the distant hills, % 

Sail peacefully along the western sky ; 
And music from the neighbouring moorland rills, 

In silvery strains, by zephyrs borne, float by. 

The golden day-streaka gently fade away ; 

The shades and dews of eve as gently fall ; 
The summer moon sheds down her mellow ray 

Upon the scene, and throws a charm o'er all. 



113 



CHAPTER VI. 




Langcliffe. Catterick Glen. 

A trip to Catterick— Langcli fife Hall — The Dawsons — Memorials of Sir Isaac 
Newton — Langcli ffe Village — Its former site — The Naked Woman Inn — 
Win ski 11 — " Lang Tom," the poet — The open Moor— Catterick Force and 
Glen— Lovely Scenery. 

VERY delightful «trip is that to Catterick Force, in situation 
and aspect, perhaps, the most romantic in Craven. There 
are various ways of " dropping " into the ravine, but in 
doing so you must be careful not to fall into the clutches of a swarthy, 
unmentionable personage, who is said to haunt this retired glen ! 
The shortest route, however, is by Langcliffe and the Cat Steps, about 
three miles from Settle. The road to Langcliife (1 mile) is direct, 
passing the old Hall, which stands on the right of the road just before 
entering the village. But it is not seen from the road, and its privacy 
is secured by the high wall which conceals it. 

The house was formerly the property of the Swale family, of Enfield, 
near Long Preston, and was bought by the late Miss Dawson, of Settle, 
in whose family it had been for nearly two centuries from the time of 
the Commonwealth. This lady enlarged the house, and improved and 
remodelled the grounds about the year 1865, and upon her decease the 
property was bequeathed to her relative, Mr. W. Mosley Perfect, who 
assumed the name of Dawson, and the hall has now for some years been 
the residence of his sisters, the Misses Perfect. The first of the family 
of Dawson who lived here was Christopher Dawson, who married a 
daughter of Sir Thomas Craven, of Appletreewick, who died April 15th, 
1682. He was the son of Kobert Craven, of Appletreewick, first-cousin 
to Sir William Craven, who was once a poor lad at Burnsall, and afterwards 
a draper's assistant, but rising to wealth and honour was in 1611 made 
Lord Mayor of London. He was father of the celebrated William, Earl 
of Craven, who married a sister of King Charles First. William Dawson, 
who married in 1705 the heiress of the Pudsays of Bolton-by-Bolland, was 
the son of the above Christopher Dawson, and a Major of the Militia 
and J.P. for the West Riding. He was a man of high classical 



114 

attainments, and, it is averred, was one of the very few persons living at 
that time who could comprehend Sir Isaac Newton's " Principia 
Philosophae," an erudite and once much-talked-of work, which unfolds 
various mathematical principles of philosophy, the chief novelty or 
discovery being that of the principle of universal gravitation, as deduced 
from the motion of the moon. This important book was published 
in 1687. 

The great philosopher is said to have been an occasional visitor of 
Major Dawson at Langcliffe, who had an arbour purposely constructed 
in the garden for him, wherein he is said to have passed many hours in 
solitary meditation, and also not unfrequently in learned converse with 
his friend over a mutual pipe. Before the re-arrangement of the gardens 
and outbuildings there was a rookery and a small orchard at the north 
side of the house, where the kitchen garden now stands, and two old 
apple-trees yet remain. It is here where Newton's arbour stood, and the 
two fruit trees are credited with having sprung from cuttings derived 
from an old tree planted by the Major to commemorate the philosopher's 
great discovery of the law of gravitation, from the well-known story of 
his watching an apple fall while sitting alone in his home garden at 
Woolsthorpe, in Lincolnshire. There is no memorial of Sir Isaac 
preserved within the house. A portrait of the Major hangs in the hall, 
which is also finely adorned with old black oak. Over the west or 
original main entrance there is a shield of arms with initials and date, 
1602. # 

Langcliffe was part of the extensive possessions of Sallay Abbey, 
and some time after the Dissolution, namely by Inquisition of the 1st 
and 3rd Elizabeth, it was found to belong to Henry, son and heir of Sir 
Arthur D'Arcy, Kt. The village in Norman times is said to have stood 
a little to the north of its present site, in a field, now enclosed, called 
Pesbers on the left of the lane going to Winskill. According to a 
tradition very happily preserved in a Latin poem wTitten in 1690 by the 
above Major Dawson, it was razed by the Scots during one of their 
destructive incursions after Bannockburn. Langcliffe lay on the old 
pack-horse routes out of Wharfedale and Malliam to Clapham and 

* In the Carr chapel, situated at the south-east corner of Giggleswick Church, 
are two hatchments bearing the arms of the Dawson and Pud say families. 
Christopher Dawson, father of the famous Major, must himself have been a very 
remarkable man, as the following curious epitaph in the chancel shews : " Both 
parts of Christopher Dawson have returned whence they came, his soul upwards, his 
body downward?. He was a pious, upright, tender-hearted, and generous man, 
endowed with a liberal education and high mental culture, as well as legal skill. 
Always opposed himself to quarrelling, he used to make friends out of enemies, 
and voluntarily to reconcile wranglers. He died much lamented on the 5th of 
April, in the 1695th year of the Christian Salvation, in the 46th year of his life." 



115 

Settle, and one of these, long disused, may be traced behind the church 
and up beneath the scar on to the Stockdale bridle-road for Malham. 
About forty years ago, after the passing of the Beer-licensing Act, there 
was quite a rush for licenses in this district, and at that time there were 
four or five inns, or rather beer-houses in the village. The oldest inn, 
whose sign of the Naked Woman I have already explained on page 87, 
was pulled down about thirty years ago, but long before then its place 
as the principal inn was taken by another known as A Bird in the Hand, 
which has also disappeared. The original stone effigy of the Naked 
Womxn has, however, been preserved, and is built into the front of the 
house on its site opposite the post-office. The figure bears a shield with 
the initials and date LS 1660 MS, doubtless those of the Swainson 
family ; a Lawrence Swainson being churchwarden for Langcliffe and 
Rathmell in 1663, and again in 1689. There is also a brass of the date 
1773 to one of the same name in Giggleswick church. One of the 
oldest houses remaining here is that in which for very many years the 
family of the distinguished Archdeacon Paley resided. 

At one time Langcliffe partook of the reputation which Settle has 
long held for the good quality of its leather. There were several tan-pits 
close to the village, but any knowledge of the industry is now almost 
forgotten. One of the last " characters " who worked thereat in the 
early part of the present century was a well-known local Methodist 
preacher, who went by the descriptive sobriquet of "White-lock 
Tommy," in allusion to the venerable shade of his hair. Many a time 
he might have been seen scraping hides, &c, to the hum of some 
familiar tune, close to the village green, or when fine leading an open-air 
service beneath the spreading plane-tree that graces its centre. On one 
occasion " Tommy " had been preaching, and at the close of his sermon 
was about to give out a hymn, when his "specs" accidentally fell. 
Then he turned to the throng saying, " My specs hev fallen and I cannot 
see," but the congregation undismayed by the incident left him to pick 
up and adjust his glasses while they with one accord started a hymn for 
themselves. " Tommy," it is said, had " cat-eyes " and could see as 
well, or better, by dark than by daylight. Some strange tales are 
related of his younger days, and it is said that whenever he went into 
any of the neighbouring caves he required no light ! 

From Langcliffe you turn round by the vicarage and follow the lane 
which leads into the fields direct to the Cat Steps. It is up-hill work, 
but heeding the sage advice of the sly old rogue in the " Winter's Tale," 

" Jog on, jog on, the foot-path way, 
And merrily hent the stile-a ; 
A merry heart goes all the day, 
Your ead tires in a mile-a." 



116 

Up the Cat Steps then you must go, a rather steep climb, but at the top 
you may " rest and be thankful " for the lovely, wide view there is 
behind. From the top you keep on a little and then bear to the left, 
when the solitary farm-house at Winskill will be noticed. This was the 
early home of another famous " Tommy," who was a " preacher " also, 
yet he never mounted a pulpit, but delivered his sermons in retirement, 
inspired by rocks and books, and the loveliness of Nature, animate and 
inanimate, writ in his " native twang." He was a poet, and a poet, too, 
who has had no small run of popularity. In 1867 was published his 
first " Splinters struck off Winskill Rock," which rapidly went into a 
second edition ; and a third edition, which included non-dialect poems 
by his brother, Mr. H. L. Twisleton, appeared in 1876. " Lang Tom 
fra 1 Winskill," as he used generally to subscribe himself (his father being 
the well-known Craven giant), was an ardent temperance advocate, fond 
of the quiet of Nature, and never married. The two last idiosyncrasies 
perhaps explain one another. Tom, however, like the properly 
discriminating minstrel that he is, never tired of singing the charms and 
true poetical qualities of bucolic milkmaids, or of the sprightly, buxom, 
genuine-hearted Craven lasses (none of your dawdling, awfully effective 
man- wheedling machines), although strangely enough he always stopped 
short at the courting,— of the muse and the maid ! He tells us in one 
of his homely ditties : — 

" I envy not the boisterous joys 
Of them who love to raise a noise 

Whar drunkards sip their glass ; 
But when nay day's wark I hev done, 
I love to ramble wi' my gun, 

Or cooart some bonnv lass." 

But Tom has left this old mountain nest, and has been living now. 
I believe, some time at the pretty village of Burnsall, in Wharfedale. 

But it is time we left Winskill and got up to the head of the glen. 
Into this expansive region of old sea-crag and morass you had better 
come well shod, and provided against the wonders of meteorology, for if 
it be wet above-board you will, in plain Yorkshire, " catch it." Great 
wild open moors sweep around you for miles, and far over them the 
moor-birds, mayhap, are winging lazily, looking in the distance hardly 
larger than butterflies. Away there, too, where the sun goes down on 
summer nights looms the monster Ingleborough ; while northwards, 
breaking the sluggishness of the peaty plain, towers the majestic front of 
Penyghent ! But, indeed, you cannot go far in Craven without meeting 
a mountain. 

Deep down on your left is the partly wooded defile in which runs the 
turbulent beck that riots among the wild rocks and cliffs of Catterick. 



117 

Follow the glen up along the top until there are signs of it* disappearance 
among the tracts of heather. A little below this point you will come to 
the highest and grandest of the waterfalls, which, after a flood, makes a 
sublime sight, hardly to be matched in Yorkshire, and that is saying a 
great deal. The water comes down a lofty ravine, thickly clothed with 
trees and flowering shrubs, (amongst the latter the giant rose-bay, the 
finest of the willow-herbs, gives an effective colour), and falls in two 
magnificent leaps into a shadowy pool below, running then onward 
among immense boulders to fall again and again in lesser but still 
beautiful cascades. It will be better to cross to the opposite or north 
side of the stream and follow it down a good mile, there being a rough 
track to the fields, whence the path improves into the lane for Stainforth, 
whence to Settle it is 2j miles by the plain road. 

If after this varied and invigorating half-day's walk you have no 
appetite it will not, I trow, be the fault of the air or the scenery. 
Society, said one who knew, is composed of two great classes —those 
who have more appetite than dinner, and those who have more dinner 
than appetite. May you represent both ! 

At Settle yon will get excellent accommodation. There is the 
Ashfttld, one of the largest and best houses in the dale country, the 
spacious and comfortable Lion,— the old coach ing-house— and many 
other inns, temperance hotels and private lodgings where every 
comfort and attention may be relied on by those contemplating a longer 
or shorter sojourn at this pleasant old town under the scars. 



118 



CHAPTER VII. 




All about the Victoria Cave. 

Up in the hills again — " Sauiso&'s Toe " — The Scars and their primitive inhabitants 
All about the Victoria Cave — Its treasures and what they tell — Its curious 
discovery and history of the exploration — Night incident — A hyaena den — 
Pre -glacial remains — Sketch of mammoth by pre-glacial man — Age of deposits 
— Other local caves and discoveries — Attermire, not the outer water — Its 
meaning explained — Historic deductions — Old lake — Rare plants—The cave 
and its remains — Occupation of caves during recent war-panics — Roman Camp 
at High Hill — Scaleber Force. 

OW for a grand out ! Mountain paths, mountain breezes, 
mountain waterfalls, mountain caves, — every thing, in fact, 
that combines to make exercise interesting, profitable, and 

recreative. To-day we shall make for the uplands again, starting 

betimes, 

When from the opening chambers of the east 
The morning springs, in thousand liveries drest. 

The early sky may augur a cloudless day, and then the fiery orb 
spreading his heat over the shelterless scars will make a Tartar of your 
skin ! And perchance you are a lady, — yes, wearing for the nonce a face 
as red as the proverbial hep, yet what matters this ruddy Arabian tan so 
long as you do not wholly lose the tender cuticle, and are recognisable ? 
We did once hear of a Craven young lady who, somewhat sun-browned, 
happened to ask a well-known Settle wag, with respect to the best 
remedy for a " tickling feeling about the cheeks and mouth," consequent, 
she affirmed, on exposure to the summer rays. But the fellow looked 
suspicious, and smiling complacently, whispered into her ear, Make him 
get shaved more often ! That was really too ridiculous, and especially so 
when the pretty creature innocently looked up and asked him how he 
knew. Why, of course, he didn't know ; it was simply a lawyer-like 
way of getting at the truth. Yet, after all, 

What is beautv ? Not the show 
Of stately limbs and features ! No,— 
'Tis the stainless soul within 
That outshine* the fairest skin ! 



119 

Away then you go, heedless of the pungent darts, through old 
Langcliffe again, climbing the Capon Hall, or Malham Tarn road, a 
good mile until the level is reached, nearly a mile due south of the 
Winskill farm-house, mentioned in the last chapter. There is but a short 
distance from our road, on the way to this lonely mountain abode, a 
conspicuous boulder, locally known as Samson's Toe. It is a dark, 
massive piece of gritstone left stranded by ice thousands of years ago, 
when the great frozen mass, deflected from Ribblesdaie, moved slowly 
onward from the north-west to the south-east, precisely in the direction 
of the longer lie of the rock. You have a good view from it, looking 
this way, up the old Silurian depression extending by Swarth Moor, 
between the two divisions of the North Craven Fault. This stone is 
somewhat oval in shape and measures 10 feet by 6 feet. It is much 
weathered and grooved, and owing to this circumstance a couple of large 
" corns," too heavy to lift, have dropped from the " Toe " on to the 
ground beside it. 

You are now in front of a range of magnificent limestone scars, 
which forms one of the escarpments of the great Craven Fault. A track 
runs south close to the foot of the scars, and by following, this about 
half-a-mile you arrive at the famous Victoria Cave, the entrance to which 
is up a steep slope of clay and limestone debris, partly natural, and partly 
artificial caused by excavations. This cave, with three or four others in 
its vicinity, is in the township of Langcliffe, while Brent Scar and 
Attermire Cave, a little to the south, are in the township of Settle. The 
Victoria Cave must have existed a hundred thousand years at least, and 
over a goodly portion of that period is proved to have been an abode of 
life and activity, yet its presence (concealed for centuries) in latter times 
was only made known some fifty-five years ago. The discovery was made 
by Mr. Joseph Jackson, of Settle, in the year (not the day as is often 
stated) of Her Majesty's Coronation, whence the name of the cave. 

Its discovery was quite accidental. Mr. Jackson was out walking with 
his dog, when the animal was seen to disappear through a small opening 
in the rock, and then beginning to bark, it sounded as if there was a 
large hollow behind. In the course of a minute or two the animal emerged 
from another hole. Curiosity being aroused, part of the debris was 
removed for some distance along the face of the cliff, and unmistakable 
evidence of what looked like an extensive cavern was revealed. The dog 
seemed equally interested with his master, and on all subsequent visits 
was his constant companion. All praise then to the dog, for if it had not 
been prompted by such active powers of investigation, in the prosecution 
of scientific research ! this, in biological interest, one of the most 
remarkable discoveries of our time, would possibly have been unknown 
still ! " The entrance," says Mr. Jackson, " was nearly filled up with 



120 

rubbish and overgrown with nettles. After removing these obstructions, 
I was obliged to lie down at full length to get in. The first appearance 
that struck me on entering was the large quantity of clay and earth, 
which seemed as if washed in from without, and presented to the view 
round pieces like balls of different sizes. The roof of the cave was 
beautifully hung with stalactites in various forms, and as white as snow.* 
Mr. Jackson did not proclaim the discovery for some little time, but 
continued his visits, and frequently spent whole nights in the cave. On 
one occasion, accompanied by his dog, he had blown out his light, and was 
composing himself for a few hours' rest, when he was suddenly aroused 
by the approach of some animal close to where he lay. At once striking 



Entrance to the Victoria Cave. 

a light his dog bounded up, and they were just in time to discover the 
brush of a fox, — poor renard having been evidently drawn upon a 
nocturnal visit to the shrine of his long departed ancestors ! 

Many of the relics, including coins, pottery, bone and bronze 
implements and ornaments, found in the cave by the late discoverer are 
now in the possession of liis daughter. Miss Jackson, of Settle. The 
bulk, however, are carefully preserved in the Giggleswick Museum, 
described on page 80. Some are also in the British Museum. The coins 
* Sec " Culleolanen Antiqua," Vol. 1, No. 5, pp. 67-70. 



121 

found are of silver and copper and mostly of the three Constantines, 
but it is the received opinion that they are not Roman, but rude 
imitations of current Roman coins made by the British hordes who were 
partly beholden to, but unwilling to submit to the rule of the 
conquerors. 

The cave, which is situate 1 450 feet above the sea, has undoubtedly 
been the channel of a pretty large current of water which had its outlet 
at a lower level than the present mouth : the relative elevation of the 
valley and the cave having, of course, become modified in the lapse of 
time. The position of the cave in the high scar is shewn in the centre 
of our illustration. 

The existing entrance is about 100 feet wide, and 32 feet high. 
There are three main chambers accessible by different galleries or 
passages, and one of them, on the left had originally a very deep pool of 
water, which was cleared out during the excavations, and yielded many 
relics. This gallery goes on some forty to fifty yards and then narrowing 
branches again. As the cave some distance in is usually very wet and 
dirty, explorers should be provided accordingly. Upon a vertical 
examination of the contents of the principal opening it was discovered 
that the stratified deposits extend downwards to a great depth, and in 
which remains, accumulating from pre-glacial to historic times, were 
found. This represents a period so vast that civilisation seems but a 
thing of yesterday in comparison with the time when this cave first 
began to gather in its wonderful and varied stores, the invisible hand of 
Time at last locking up its grim portals for remote future revelation ! 
The range of scars has a westerly aspect, and at the earliest period stood 
much nearer the edge of the valley than now, and consequently the 
entrance to the cave must have been in a different and more prominent 
position. Before the cave was opened out in 1870, under the auspices of 
the British Association, the entrance was by a crevice on the left of the 
present opening, but at a much higher level. The thick, long slope of 
screes which choked up the mouth of the cave, seems to have been 
deposited wholly by the weathering back of the cliff since the last Ice 
Age. It is composed of angular fragments of limestone, detached from 
the cliff, and concealing beneath it boulders of Silurian slate and grit, 
as well as of carboniferous limestone and grit, many of which display 
the usual characteristics of friction by ice. These do not occur among 
the broken fragments, but under them, and were therefore left where 
they are now found when the glaciers retreated. The ice, it is evident, 
completely filled this upland valley, being in fact an arm or divergence 
of the mighty mass which ploughed Ribblesdale, and its direction can be 
clearly traced for many miles by the line of boulders that yet remain 
more or less plentifully on its track. The position of some of the larger 



122 

stones indicate their morainic character, and prove that the scars have 
weathered back since the last ice-flow. Many geologists have imagined 
that these boulders, or a portion of them, have fallen over the cliff from 
above, but this is not probable, for (unlike the tumbled erratics at Norber) 
there are no such boulders up there now, nor within a good half-mile of 
the edge, at any rate, nor are there any important deposits of glacial drift. 

The lowest deposits in the cave consist of two beds of a limey cave- 
loam of a reddish-grey colour, separated by a varying thickness of 
laminated clay, and which extends some five and twenty yards in from 
the entrance. It is a very fine unctuous sediment, laid in thin even 
layers, that may almost be separated like the leaves of a book, and 
has been evidently formed by a long-continued and gentle flow of water, 
containing sand, mud, and ground matter in suspension, derived from a 
pool or stream either in contact with, or proximity to a glacier. This 
peculiar substance has undergone examination for organisms at the 
practised hands of the Rev. W. H. Crosskey, who affirms that it is 
identical in all respects (except that it contains no foraminifera) with 
the laminated glacial clays of the west of Scotland. 

There were bones of the mammoth, hippopotamus, and cave-hyaena, 
found in the lowest bed, which indicate a kind of climate totally different 
from that which prevailed when the second or uppermost bed of cave- 
earth was deposited. Mixed with the latter were bones of an arctic or 
inter-arctic class of animals, including the reindeer, bear, bison, fox, 
arctic hare, &c. What an enormous distance of time these two epochs 
reveal ! The first calling up a picture very similar to that which we may 
see in the wildernesses of Brazil and Africa at the present day, saving 
that many of the animals infesting the jungles and tepid waters of the 
Craven Highlands are now wholly extinct. Then the upper 
mammaliferous layer tells of an altered state of things,— of a climate 
graduating from a tropical or sub-tropical to an arctic character.* 

In the pre-glacial bed was found a single bone which Professor Busk 
at first identified as pirt of a human fibula. He has, however, since 
come to the conclusion, along with other eminent biologists, that the 

* I am aware that Prof. Boyd Dawkins contests these views of the remains 
found denoting any remarkable change of climate (see Jourl. Anthr. hist.. Nov., 
1877). But it is hardly credible that the bones of tropical animals can have been^ 
washed in by ice-flows from any great distance. It is, however, noteworthy that 
the cave variety of the spotted hyama (hyaena spclcea') seems to have lingered on 
until a comparatively mild, if not cold, period set in, for bones of the later fauna, 
cracked and gnawed by this animal, were found in great abundance, and which 
animals had evidently been dragged in by the hyrenas and killed by them for food. 
Seasonal migrations may account for the presence of son e of the animal remains. 
All our evidence, however, points to the animals I have named as pre-glacial, and 
such as the mammoth as the survivors of a period long anterior to the Ice Age. 



123 

bone in question may be that of one of the lower animals. Indeed, at 
the Belfast meeting of the British Association in 1878, Professor Boyd 
Dawkins playfully remarked that the fibula had become a fabula % and 
that Yorkshiremen would have to cede the idea of tracing their pedigree 
back to that pre-glacial marrow-bone ! 

The absence of implements in the lowest beds of the cave is counter 
testimony to its occupation by man in pre-glacial times. While 
palaeolithic implements are found in various parts of England, these 
seldom occur off the chalk districts, where flint abounds. There would 
seem to have been no traffic in flint at that era, each community looking 
after itself, and having no more thought or care for its neighbours than 
the wild beasts upon which they preyed. In such districts where there 
was no flint, stone would be the common article of service, but these 
districts, which included the whole of the north-west of England, were 
sparsely peopled, and over wide areas not inhabited at all. For ages the 
Victoria Cave, and other caves I shall speak of, were probably only wild 
beasts' lairs. It would, indeed, have been a grand discovery had we been 
able to establish beyond doubt man's existence in this district before the 
great Ice Age. His remains have been turned up in some places, but 
chiefly in fissures and caverns on the continent. A few skulls have been 
unearthed in German and Swiss caves, and it is interesting to ascertain 
from these rare specimens that our palaeolithic ancestors were as nearly 
allied as could be in feature and in habit to the " intelligent gorilla " of 
present times. His forehead is described as " villainously low and 
retreating," and more ape-like than the most brutish of medern savages. 
His jaws were ponderous, and armed with huge canine teeth, and his- 
limbs and back far hairier than is the case now. His body, indeed, was 
only partially covered with the skins of various animals, and during the 
summer heat these were discarded entirely. He followed no species 
of agriculture and was consolidated into no form of nation or tribe, 
carried on no wars, knew nothing of intellectual or social supremacy, but 
lived wholly in caves and hollow trees, defending himself and attacking 
his prey with weapons of stone, wood, bone, or rudely chipped flint. 

But whatever his outw r ard aspects and habits may have been, there was 
that divine and secret impulse within him which animated an eagerness 
for improvement, awoke the consciousness of his abject condition, begot in 
him a desire for clothing and adornment, and stirred up his sense of the 
beautiful, and consternation at the grand, in Nature. Long had he been 
accustomed to look upon the sun and the other heavenly bodies with an 
inexplicable awe, but bye and bye that feeling rose into piety, and daily 
then did he bend the knee of supplication, and worship in his own 
strange way the mysterious Giver of life and light ! Yet forsooth, 
miserable enough must have been "the real condition of the aboriginal 



124 

savage, who," writes the clothes philosopher, "glaring fiercely from under 
his fleece of hair, which with the beard, reached down to his loins, and 
hung about him like a matted cloak, the rest of his body sheeted in its 
thick natural felt." Still, as I have said, we find these barbarous people 
unquestionably instinct with ideas of comeliness and beauty, decorating 
themselves in diverse fashions, and variously exercising their skill as 
craftsmen in art. In this respect the marvellous relics obtained thirty 
years ago from the famous rock shelter of Perigorde, in La Madeleine, 
France, are perhaps the most notable hitherto discovered.* They 
•comprise outline sketches of several animals drawn upon tusks and pieces 
of ivory, and with no inconsiderable artistic skill. The most remarkable, 
however, is the figure of a mammoth engraved upon a fragment of its 
own tusk, and shewing by the representation of its long, shaggy mane, 
and the peculiar, long, recurved tusk, — characteristics which do not now 
belong to any living elephant, — that the original was familiar to the eye 
of the artist. As this is the only contemporary portrait of that extinct 
•creature now in existence, and is the undoubted production of a 
palaeolithic subject, who lived probably not less than 40,000 years ago, 
it is, perhaps, the greatest pictorial curiosity in the world. Imprints of 
it appear in several French and English works. About fifty years ago, 
I may add, a similarly engraved antler was found in the well-known 
Kent's Hole, near Torquay Thus, if any proof were wanted, these 
discoveries clearly shew that in pleistocene times England was united to 
the continent, and that the mammoth and other extinct land mammalia 
once browsed in the fertile plains and vast forests of the German Ocean. 
As the glacial epoch is computed to have subsided in this country 
25-30,000 years ago, some idea of the lapse of time can be gathered 
between these and the upper deposits in the Victoria cave. Beneath six 
feet of roughly cemented fragments of limestone, fastened by the trickling 
of water among the stones, being the actual debris of the cave, were 
found remains vastly different from the preceding. These included 
relics of the presence of man, amongst them a curious fish-harpoon, four 
inches in length, having two barbs on each side, and of a type which has 
not elsewhere been found. There was also a sculptured perfect bone-bead, 
and some rude flint flakes, and along with these bones of the brown bear, 
«tag, horse, dog, and Celtic shorthorn .t All these belong to the neolithic 

* A large piece of brecciated floor, along with casts of human skulls and bones, 
from the Perigorde cave may be seen in the Leeds Public Museum. The breccia 
consists of a mass of calcareous sinter containing many flint knives, arrow-points, 
implements and spent charcoal, mingled with bones and teeth of various wild 
animals, birds, fishes, &c. It is an excellently-got and most interesting fragment. 

f Subsequently a stone adze of a variety of greenstone was found which bears 
a striking resemblance to the stone adzes used by the South Sea Islanders, and 



125 

period, and represent a time when a rude commerce was established, 
agriculture was dominant, and some progress had been made in the arts. 
It may have been 4 — 5000 years ago, certainly not less. In the 
uppermost bed, only two feet from the surface, an old floor was come 
upon, where were traces of charcoal fires, also burnt bones of domestic 
animals, and of the smaller rodentia and carnivore, broken pottery, 
Roman-Celtic coins, a Roman key, bone pins, amber and glass beads, 
silver and gold-plated bronze brooches, finger-rings, and other ornaments 
of great beauty, all proving the cave to have been a comparatively recent 
habitation. In fact the date of its evacuation can be fixed pretty 
accurately, say, 15 centuries ago, for amongst the coins found were some 
rude imitations of bronze money coined about a.d. 400. Others date 
from the reign of Trajan, a.d. 98, to that of Constans, a.d. 359, and 
the presence of these seem to indicate that the cave was occupied by 
some influential British families, or unconquered bands, during the 
Roman possession of Britain. 

Having now, I think, told everything about this truly royal wonder, 
let us move onward, still keeping the range of scars on our left. But 
before proceeding I should mention a second and smaller bone-cave in 
King's Scar, which is situated 500 yards in a direction N. 15° W. from 
the Victoria Cave. This hole was investigated by the Exploration 
Committee at the same time (in 1871), and amongst the remains found 
were bones of the Celtic shorthorn, stag, horse, and goat ; also proof of 
human occupation was discovered in the shape of a rude flint scraper 
and a whetstone. Some time afterwards Prof. R. H. Tiddeman, of 
H.M. Geological Survey, dug up a human femur, while exploring the 
cave in company with Mr. John Birkbeck, junr., the secretary of the 
committee. These remains are shewn to be neolithic, or of like age as those 
found in the Victoria Cave. Again, at the top of King's Scar, about 
150 yards from the Victoria Cave, there are indications of another 
cavern, and near a collection of stones called the Watch Tower. Perhaps 
this may have been a sentry or spy-keep for the inhabitants of the caves 
during the Roman occupation. 

Keeping alongside the wall which runs down between the cliffs, with 
the rifle butts some distance on the right, you have then the Attermire 
range before you, a majestic pile or assemblage of fantastically formed 
summits, looking like the shattered bastions of some giant's citadel. 

Attermire has always been interpreted into the outer or utter lake, 
or even sometimes into otter-mwe, or lake, the latter portion of the name 
having reference to the post-glacial tarn or water that once existed here 

especially in Tahiti. Vide W. Boyd Dawkins "Cave Hunting" (1874). p. 114. 
It was presented to the Museum of the Philosophical Society at Leeds by Mr. 
Jackson. 



126 

at the foot of these bold projecting crags. Bat the prefix otter was, I 
suspect, given to the place by the first Celtic invaders who held the 
tarn, then no doubt abounding with fish, exactly like the tarn under 
Giggleswick Scars, on the now dry site of which was unearthed the early 
British canoe, already mentioned. The origin of the word is to be 
found, I think, in the Goidelic ate or ait, a place, possession, or 
settlement. Such would appear to have been the origin of Atterley, 
in the parish of Much Wenlock, Shropshire ; also Attercliffe, which is a 
particularly ancient settlement, and eight centuries ago, at the great 
survey after the Norman Conquest, it was constituted the chief vill of 
the manor of Sheffield. In Domesday it is written Ateclive, and, like 
Attermire, is situated in the shelter of a lofty precipice, which overhangs 
the waters of the Don. 

The time-worn crevices and ledges of the Attermire rocks are 
adorned with many choice plants and ferns ; amongst the latter the rare 
Holly Fern (A. lonchitis) has been known to flourish here for a long 
period. It is now unfortunately one of the scarcest ferns in England, 
but formerly it was to be found pretty generally distributed among the 
Craven scars. The pretty London Pride (S. umbrosa), grows also wild 
not so far away from here, in one of the very few places in Britain where 
it is truly indigenous.* 

Up on a ledge of rock, rather bad of access, is the opening to 
Attermire Cave, another of those pre-historic habitations just described. 
It has been known locally for ages, yet nothing has been found in it 
within recent times but a single adult skeleton, a carved bead, and some 
coins. It was once very rich in stalactites, but these have almost all 
disappeared. The cave may be entered and explored for a considerable 
distance, but as it is often very wet and dirty, old garments should be 
donned for the purpose. In caverns that wind and branch a good deal like 
this one it is well, in order to ensure a safe and expeditious return, to play 
the game of paper-chase, that is scatter torn-up paper as you go along. 
Many adventurous cave-hunters have had some unpleasant experiences 
from the neglect of such a useful precaution. When you have got about 
twenty yards in, the height of the cave suddenly diminishes from about 
forty to barely two feet, which necessitates creeping for another twenty 
yards or so. You then enter a large, and what was within living 
recollection one of the most superbly decorated grottoes in the whole 
district. This cavity is about fifty feet high, and before the depredations 
began, contained many handsome stalagmites, like the pillars of some 

* In Ireland, on the famous coach-drive between Glengariffe and Killarney, I 
have observed this plant growing wild on the rocks near the summit of the road 
(1400 feet), and it may be found also on several mountains in the same beautiful 
neighbourhood. 



127 

Gothic hall, fluted and ornamented with the most exquisite patterns ; 
massive fanciful petrifactions like great lamps or chandeliers were 
suspended from the roof, and the floor and sides were similarly adorned 
with a variety of curious and beautiful figures. At one end of the cave 
a somewhat steep descent is made, requiring caution, as a sudden bend 
or lowering of the roof may remind you unpleasantly of its presence. 
Alternations of creeping aud threading your way erect will keep you 
fully employed for a couple of hours at any rate, affording plenty of 
diversion in an examination of the many weird and peculiar features of 
the place. Do not, however, neglect to be well provided with lights. 

Attermire, as well as some other caves in the district, was partly 
cleared for occupation at the time of the Rebellion of 1745 as well as 
during the war panics at the end of last century ; indeed, on several 
occasions they were temporarily furnished and occupied by old folks and 
nervous ladies " unable to run," who used to sew and knit within these 
mountain retreats without much fear of discovery. An amusing relic of 
this period, in the shape of an old broken knitting-needle, was found in 
Attermire many years ago. 

Between the cliffs and the targets you now cross the open land straight 
ahead about half-a-mile into the Stockdale lane, and winding along it to 
the right you are soon in the Kirkby Malham and Settle road, at the 
site of the Roman camp previously mentioned. The earthen mounds 
which form the ramparts of the camp cover a large area, the most 
extensive section being a quadrilateral measuring 110 yards by 90 yards, 
and separated on the north by a double line of works. On the east side 
there is the site of an old pond or cistern used to supply the camp with 
water, and described by a writer in the Gentleman's Magazine for 1784, as 
44 a noble spring, artificially surrounded with an earthen bank." The 
same writer also observes that the camp is " exactly like " that on Mam 
Tor, in Derbyshire, a statement which is copied by Gough in his edition 
of Camden's Britannia. The phrase " exactly like " should, however, 
be received with caution.* Fragments of the bones of red-deer have 
been found on the site of the Settle camp. 

At the bridge on the left, a short distance on the Kirkby Malham 
road, is the romantic Scaleber waterfall, a very beautiful and imposing 
sight, which is caused by the downthrow of the South Craven Fault. 
From the junction of the roads a descent of one mile is made into Settle 
by the Roman Catholic Chapel and the old " Folly." 

* A description of the camp on Mam Tor, accompanied by a crudely drawn 
ground-plan, will be found in Bray's Tour in Derbyshire, 2nd ed. (1783) pp. 202-5. 
** On High Hill, near Settle," observes Whitaker, " was very lately found [ca. A.D. 
1800] a brass celt, differing from all which I have seen in the form of the loop- 
holes, by which it was fixed to the shaft, and in being serrated on the edges." 



128 



OHAPTEE VIII. 




Up Eibblesdale from Settle. 

Up the Ribble — The Settle and Carlisle railway — Some interesting features of its 
construction— Particulars of viaducts and tunnels — Enormous difficulties — 
Longest tunnels in England — Winskill Rock — Tremendous blast— Stainforth 
—Its former importance— The old Knights of Stainforth — A horse's skull 
found buried in Giggles wick church — Early property transactions — Stainforth 
Force — A wild walk — The oldest rocks in Yorkshire — Scientific aspects of the 
scenery — Glacial drift and boulders— Some remarkable examples. 

O-DAY we will look for interest along the lonely Ribble, in 
the six romantic miles which lie, or rather are " heaped up " 
between Settle and Horton. This is a journey performed 
by most folk with the magic bit of cardboard which enables 
them to bowl along at the rate of forty or fifty miles an hour, without 
so much as a glance at the Golden Land they are passing through. Our 
" compartment " this morning, however, will be a pretty roomy one, for 
we intend to do these six miles de rigeur, a-foot, with many an inquisitive 
peep and look round Nature's mysterious workshop, and not be 
transmitted "through," like a parcel, tied round with a rope, — the 
deserved fate, according to the omniscient and immortal Ruskin, of 
every traveller by rail ! 

But first of all, in spite of Mr. Ruskin and the angels, I must say 
something of that wonderful iron arm which holds the purple-trimmed 
waste (or waist) of royal Bellisama* in its tight embrace. Penetrating 
the great Pennine chain of hills, it traverses one of the wildest, most 
mountainous, and most difficult railway passes in England. When the 
ground was first surveyed the scheme was pronounced by at least one 
eminent engineer as unsafe and impracticable. Public ways would have 
to be diverted, the river in at least one place would have to be turned 

* It may be pertinent to remark here that the first mention of Ribble by name 
after the Roman Bellisama was forgotten, is in the beginning of the 8th century. 
41 Terne datee S. Wilfrido a regibus juxta jRibcl flu. id est Hsmunderness. Ex libro 
de vita S. Wilfridi " (Lei and, Coll., vol. iii., p. 169). Bellisama, it may further be 
stated, is a Phoenician word signifying Venus In the waters. ( Vide Rauthmel's 
Bremetonaca, p. 99.) 



129 

out of its coarse, shifting moors and morasses would have to be crossed, 
and secure foundations for nearly a score viaducts obtained, besides a 
vast amount of boring and blasting through the hardest rock, including 
many miles of tunnelling ; while the metals would run at such an 
altitude and in such places as to be liable to the dangers of sudden 
waterspouts and floods, and in winter to repeated and impassable drifts 
of snow. The picture of this proposed Alpine railway was indeed a 
gloomy one, yet the whole of these obstacles have been overcome, and the 
line is now rendered one of the best, safest, and quickest railway routes in 
the kingdom. In fact, a stranger to the district may apprehend nothing 
remarkable during his flight between Settle and Carlisle, and would 
hardly realise where the difficulties have been. They have, however, 
been very great, and only mastered after great loss of life and enormous 
monetary outlay. At the quiet little church of Chapel-le-Dale, for 
example, the burials, which ordinarily average one or two a year, for 
several years exceeded forty per annum. But these, of course, included 
deaths on the railway works from ordinary sickness. 

Now let us see what was done. In the 5| years taken to 
make the railway £2,700,000 were expended. The first sod was cut 
near Anley in Nov., 1869, and the line was opened for goods traffic in 
Aug., 1875, and for passengers on May 1st, 1876. Its length from the 
junction at Settle to that at Carlisle is Vl\ miles, of which 29 are in 
Yorkshire, 20 in Westmoreland, and 23 \ in Cumberland. On the first 
section between Settle and Dent there were nearly 3000 labourers 
employed. This was the toughest length of the whole route, and it 
reaches in Blea Moor tunnel' an altitude of 1151 feet above sea-level, 
being, with the exception of the Tebay and Barnard Castle line between 
Barras and Bowes, the highest point at which railway metals have been 
laid for passenger traffic in England. This tunnel is 2640 yards in 
length, and in the deepest part 500 feet below the outer surface. The 
nature of the ground (described below) rendered the work of boring and 
clearing extremely arduous, not to say dangerous. When the great 
waterspout fell on Whernside during its construction, inundating the 
tunnel and doing immense damage, many shook their heads gravely and 
believed it would have to be abandoned as a hopeless job. While in 
progress it may be mentioned that about £50 a month was spent in 
candles to afford light in the tunnel for carrying on the excavations. 

The great viaduct at Batty Green, the longest between Settle and 
Carlisle, was another prodigious detail of the work of engineering. It 
contains 34,000 cubic yards of masonry, besides 6000 feet of concrete. 
The length of the viaduct is 1328 feet, composed of 24 arches, of an 
average span of 45 feet, and the height of the loftiest from the parapet 
to the foundations is 165 feet. Nearly all the piers rest on a bed of 

r 



130 



concrete 6 feet thick, laid upon the solid rock. They are 13 feet thick 
at the base, and 6 feet at the spring of the arch ; every sixth pier, 
however is, partly for ornament, but chiefly as a means of increasing the 
strength, 18 feet thick at the top instead of six. The entire line 
includes 19 viaducts, 13 tunnels, and many miles of embankments and 
cuttings, the construction of which in several places almost baffled the 
best skill of both the engineers and contractors. The subjoined table 
furnishes some particulars of the viaducts and tunnels between Settle 
and Crosby Garrett, which includes the Yorkshire portion of the line : — 



LIST OF VIADUCTS. 



No. Name. 



No. of 
Arches. 

1 Settle ... ... ... 4 

2 Settle, Giggleswick rd. 6 

3 Batty Moss 24 

4 Dent Head 10 

5 Arten Gill 11 

6 Dandry Mire 12 

7 Quarry 4 

8 AisGill 4 

9 Smardale 12 

10 Crosby Garrett ... 6 



Length in Height in ft. Span of 
feet. at deepest part. Arches in ft. 

130 
269 
1328 
596 
645 
700 
270 
270 
700 
270 



22 


80 


35 


...5of30&lof40 


165 


45 


100 


45 


100 


45 


50 


45 


54 


45 


65 


45 


130 


45 


53 


... So 



LIST OF TUNNELS. 



No. Name. 

1 Taitlands 

2 Blea Moor 

3 Rise Hill 

4 Moor Cock 
6 Quarry ... 
6 Birket ... 



Length in 
yards. 

120 
, 2640 
, 1180 

100 
70 

428 



Depth in 
feet. 

.40 . 

500 . 

180 . 

64 . 

50 . 



Strata. 



Blue Limestone. 
Gritstone, limestone & shale. 
Blue Limestone. 
Boulder Clay. 
Do. 



100 ... Limestone. 



7 Crosby Garrett... 180 



66 



Gritstone, limestone & flint. 



It will not be out of place to insert here a comparative table of some of 
the longest tunnels in England : — 

Yards. 



Severn 

Longshawe 

Stanbridge .... 

Wood head 

Cowburn 

Bramhope 

Medway 

Sevenoaks 

Box 

Littleborough .... 

Sapperton 

Polehill 

Mersey 

Bleamoor 

Kilsby 

Dove Holes 

Shepherd's Well. 
Oxted 



Great Western 7664 

Midland 6171 

North Western 5340 

Manchester & Sheffield 5297 

Midland 3977 

North Eastern 8745 

South Eastern 8740 

South Eastern 3600 

Great Western 3227 

Lancashire and Yorkshire 2869 

Great Western 2800 

South Eastern 2759 

Mersey 2700 

Midland 2600 

Northwestern 2423 

Midland 2420 

Chatham and Dover 2876 

Brighton and S. E. Junction 2266 



181 

For a good number of miles our line runs at a elevation of over 1000 
feet, and in some places is unavoidably exposed to the full fury of the 
tempests that sweep over these wild fells. On several occasions the 
drifts of snow on the line have been tremendous, as on the 27th Oct., 
1880, when a depth of ten to fifteen feet accumulated ; and again at 
Dent Head on the 6th Dec, 1882, when a force of 700 men was. 
despatched from Leeds and Carlisle to clear the line for some miles 
before traffic could be resumed. 

The Settle and Carlisle railway is essentially a line of through traffic, 
and both stations and stoppages are few and far between. If the 
Company could be prevailed upon to stop excursion trains at such places 
as Stainforth, Helwith Bridge, and Selside, some grand day, or half-day 
trips could be conveniently made from these points, but at present these are 
too far to attempt from Settle or the existing stations. 

In going " up the Ribble " to Stainforth you can take either side, — 
from Settle Bridge through Stackhouse, or east by Langcliffe. The 
latter is the most direct (2 miles). As both these places have already 
been described we will take the latter, especially if it be morning, for 
then the lights are on the western vale. On leaving Langcliffe we pass 
the towering "Winskill Bock, which the Craven Lime Co., Limited, has 
been working now many years. The date (1873) of its commencement 
is let in the face of the big, plain brick chimney, — a not specially 
attractive object in so romantic a spot. The rock forms an almost 
perpendicular escarpment of the thick band of limestone which occupies 
the main division of the North Craven Fault. It is very white and 
pure, and contains a good many fossil Gaster&poda, and occasionally 
good specimens of Nautilus are found. The summit of the quarry is 
overlaid with thick drift, containing pebbles of blue limestone, &c. 
An apparently extensive cavern has lately been discovered at the foot of 
the rock, but the descent into it is very rugged and precipitous. Several 
workmen have been lowered a good distance down with the aid of ropes, 
but no bottom has yet been found. A stone thrown in can be heard 
rattling for some time after, and there is evidently a lot of water in 
the hole. 

The writer will not forget being present at an unusual blast at these 
quarries. Four cwts. of powder, in three charges, were used, which blew 
the rock up with a report that must have been heard, — I had almost said 
felt j — several miles of. Standing in the shelter of the kilns, enormous 
fragments weighing two or three cwts. flew over our heads and broke up 
the soil, making the sods fly a quarter of a mile off. Fortunately for 
our heads the ejected particles were sods only ! 

We now come to the pretty village of Stainforth, with its neat 
church, trim houses and gardens, and general well-to-do appearance. 



132 

The village has an uneventful history dating back to a period anterior 
to the Conquest. It is mentioned in Domesday, and after the foundation 
of Sallay Abbey became part of the possessions of that house. It is 
noteworthy that under the assessment of the Subsidy Rolls of a.d. 1379, 
its 35 tax-payers, representing a population of probably nearly 200, are 
charged with a sum of 32s. Considering that such towns as Leeds paid 
only 60s. 4d., Bradford 23s., Halifax 12s. 8d., and Keighley 27s., the 
importance of Stainforth at that time is very apparent. It must, 
however, be observed that of this amount the lord of the manor, Robert 
de Staynford, is taxed with the sum of 20s., being the charge fixed by 
Richard II. on all the chief esquires or great landed aristocrats. The 
chapel, with memorials, of this now extinct family has already been 
mentioned in connection with Giggleswick church. 

But one remarkable fact, which I omitted to notice in referring to 
the recovery of the supposed 14th century monument of one of the 
Knights of Stainforth* during the present restoration of the church, 
should not be forgotten, and that is the discovery of the skull of a horse 
in the vicinity of where the buried tomb-stone was found. This would 
appear as if the head of the Knight's favourite charger had been buried 
at or about the time of his interment in the church, a practice not 
uncommon during the chivalrous era of the Middle Ages, although 
instances of burial of such animals within the church are indeed rare, 
and in the very few instances where such discoveries have been made, 
are an undoubted indication of high distinction of their owners. The 
skull of this horse was in fair condition, and the teeth almost perfect. 
It may ako be noted that one of the sepulchral stones before alluded to 
(page 77) bears some singularly interesting incisions. On the left or 
sinister side is a gothic-headed cross, in the shaft of which is carved a 
double-edged sword, indicating how closely the military spirit was 
combined with religious devotion, or, in other words, how the person so 
memorialised was mindful of his country and his God. This cross is 
joined to another, and similar one, but the shaft is plain, and on the right 
of it is carved a pair of shears, which proclaim the more peaceful calling 
of a farmer or dealer in wool. The emblems of Peace and War are here 

* Since the above was written I have obtained a photograph of this effigy 
through the kindness of Mr. Thos. Brayshaw, Hon. Sec. of the Church Restoration 
Committee. The figure, a recumbent one, is 6 feet in length, and the hands, 
though quite broken off, have been in the attitude of prayer. A sword, of a kind 
used during the Wars of the Roses, is depicted on the left side of the effigy. The 
shoulder-pieces, hip-pieces, and the ornament of the head-gear are curious, and of 
an unusual pattern, but Mr. W. H. St. John Hope, M.A., of the Society of Antiquaries, 
London, to whom the photograph has been submitted, pronounces the sculpture to 
be of the date 1450 to 1460. As it was found in the Stainford Chapel there is little 
doubt that it was designed for a member of that family. 



138 

beautifully contrasted, while the union of the two figures on the same 
slab shews the close and tender relationship of the deceased. Such 
representations of shears, with certain other implements, may be seen on 
several slabs in the catacombs at Rome, where they undoubtedly denote 
the occupation of a wool-comber ; but in England they are rarely found 
on sepulchral stones* except in the great sheep-rearing districts of the 
north. 

It is very probable that a kind of tenure in bondage continued 
here until long after the dissolution of religious houses. For in a 
petition addressed to George, Earl of Cumberland, in the year 1579, the 
inhabitants plead inability to comply with certain terms of release made 
by the then landlord, Edward Darcy, Esquire, " who," they say, 
" offereth to sell us, but holdeth yt at soe unreasonable a price as wee 
are never able to pay. Soe yt is, Right Hon'ble, that wee of one of our 
general] assente are most hartilie desyrous that yt would pleas y'r honor 
to by and purchase us, so as we myght be wholly und'r y'r honor's rule, 
— and we will wijlingly give under you towards the purchase all the 
goods that wee have, moveable and immovable, for good will and the 
good reporte wee heare of y'r honor." But to this plaintive petition the 
spendthrift buccaneering Earl was unable to give heed, for about this 
time we find that his extravagant cruisings abroad had so far crippled 
his means that he is writing to " My very good Lord, the Lord Burghley, 
hey tresorer of Inglande," for the loan of a modest " ten thousande 
pound," which he promises to " pave agayne by a thousand pounde a 
yeare, and for the assurance ether paune such land as your Lo. shall 
lycke, or putt soe many jen tell men in bonde as shall be thought 
suffitient." 

By Inquisition 1st and 3rd Elizabeth, Sir Henry Darcy, Kt. had 
been instituted lord of the manor and proprietor of Freer Stainford, 
being the first grantee after the Dissolution. As there are two 
Stainforths, viz., Stainforth Underbargh (in the Coucher Book of Sallay 
Abbey written Stamford subtus Montem), and Knight Stainforth, 
now known respectively as Great and Little Stainforth, the Darcy titles 
are comprehended in both, and negotiations for the dismemberment of 
the estate appear shortly after its appropriation to have taken place. 
Bv Fine passed 22nd Elizabeth, Thomas Armetsteede and Agnes, his 
wife, are found to be parties to the transfer to Richard Palay of 
" Messuage with lands in Knight Staynforth, free fishing- in the water 
of the Ribble, and an eighth part of the manor of Staynforth, into 8 
parts divided." The same eighth part afterwards (temp. Car. I.) 
belonged to Francis Malham, of Elslack, of whom William Paley had 
held the same by military service, as of his manor of Conistone, for 
" the eighth part of one pound of ginger per annum." The above 



134 

Edward Darcy, son of Henry Darcy, Kt., seems by the language of the 
petition to have been equally anxious to dispose of his Stainforth 
property, and from the timely dates appended to the following 
transactions we may infer they were not unfavourable to the complaining 

tenants. 

A.D. 1579. Plaintiffs : Thomas Asteley, John Harryngton, and Peter Osborne, 
Esqrs. Deforciants : Henry Darcy, Kt., Thomas Darcy, Arthur Darcy, Nicholas 
Darcy, John Darcy, Francis Darcy, and Edward Darcy. Esqrs. Manor of 
8tayneforthe Underberghe, and 20 messuages, 2 watermills, and 2 windmills, with 
lands in the same. 

A.D. 1582-3. Plaintiff : John Lambert. Deforciant : John Faldshawe. Five 
marks rent in Knyght Staynesforthe. 

A.D. 1583. Plaintiff: Richard Horsfall. Deforciants: Edward Darcy, Esq., 
and Elisabeth his wife, and Henry Darcy, Kt. Messuage with lands in Stayne- 
forthe Underbarghe in the parish of Giggles wick. 

A.D. 1583. Plaintiff : Thomas Frankland. Deforciants : Edward Darcy and 
Elizabeth Darcy, and Henry Darcy, Kt. Messuage with lands in Stayneforth 
Underbarghe in the parish of Giggleswick. 

A.D. 1595. Plaintiffs : Henry Laikland, John Cockett, Christopher Husband, 
and William Tat ham. Deforciants : Edward Darcy and Elizabeth his wife. 
Manor of Stainforth Underbargh and 20 messuages with lands there. 

The picturesque old stone bridge which connects the two Stainforths, 
has been stated to be of Roman origin, but this is absurd, as is alone 
proved by the Domesday name of the place indicating that a ford, and 
not a bridge, existed here at the time of the Norman Conquest. The 
bridge may date from about this time, but it was undoubtedly preceded 
by a ford, which gave the place its name. 

About a hundred yards below it are the romantic Ribble Falls, 
known as Stainforth Force, which form, perhaps, the finest sight along 
the whole course of the river. They are best viewed from a path which 
runs from the bridge along the west bank. In a time of flood the 
tempestuous waters confined within narrow bounds, and precipitated 
over abrupt ledges of rock into deep and inaccessible pools, present a 
sublime and highly attractive scene. The limestone in the bed of the 
river is much " pot-holed " by the grinding action of pebbles in the 
water, and the impending cliffs on either hand are richly clothed with 
verdure which help to give completeness to the picture. In the vernal 
season when flower and bird are awakening to life and beauty, and the 
lively greens of various mosses tinge cliff and bank, you should then 
come, as the poet of Winskill invites, and 

" View Stainforth Scar's bold, rugged waiiB, 
An 1 then the bonny wood that grows 

An' blossoms down below it — 
Such scenes as these, when seen in Spring, 
Wad mak a Quaker dance and sing. 

An' mak a clown turn poet." 



135 

The broken and rugged character of the river at this point is no 
doubt due in the first place to the fault which brings up the older 
Silurian beds against the carboniferous rocks on the south. This highly 
interesting dislocation, which gives such character to the scenery, passes 
through Stainforth in an easterly or south -easterly direction to beyond 
Malham Tarn, and the course of the fault, exposing the older rocks, may 
be viewed in many places in the neighbourhood, but perhaps nowhere 
better than on the upland walk by San net Hall to Malham or Littondale. 
The rocky promontory separating the ravines of Sannet Gill from 
Gatterick is also interesting, by shewing the peculiar indentation of the 
Silurian rocks, opposed to the reduced cliffs of limestone on the south. 



.Stainforth Force. 
Turning now towards the railway-bridge we follow the " wild " road 
to Horton, which traverses the upper divisions of the oldest known rocks 
id our county, representing by their profound depth and character a vast 
and incalculable period in the world's history. Here, where we are now 
walking, these Silurian beds are estimated to be nearly two miles in 
thickness. Consisting for the most part of tough grits and slates, with 
a thin conglomerate forming the base of the upper series, they are largely 
quarried in the district for roofing and flag-stones. Under Moughton 
there is a bed of greenish-grey whet-slate, very fine and beautifully 
variegated with irregular coloured rings, like those sometimes seeu in 
flint pebbles. This slate is much prized as a grind-stone for sharpening 



136 

razors. The Upper beds are characterised by a rapidly undulating series 
of folds, or anticlinals and corresponding synclinals, varying considerably 
in their position and dip, as well as in colour and mineral structure. 
Their edges and tops are much weathered and planed down by a long 
process of denudation, even indicating by their smooth and abraded 
surfaces the operations of a mysterious agency,— perhaps the effects of 
an infinitely remote Ice Age ! — and shewing that an enormous length of 
time must have elapsed before the reefs of limestone were deposited over 
them. Owing to the thick beds of drift, which fill in some places to a 
great depth the whole of this area, the boundary and sub-divisions of 
the Upper and Lower Silurians are not easily traced. Some members of 
the Lower group, and a conglomerate, are however in evidence at several 
points, notably in the streams near Bee Croft Hall, and in the railway 
cutting just below Horton station, which I shall presently mention. 
The Coniston limestone appears, also, in the bed of the stream at Dow ' r ) 
Gill, above Horton. There is no doubt that a very lengthened interval 
must likewise have occurred before the origin of these two series, as it is 
found that the Coniston Flags, which are regarded as the base of the 
Upper division, rest on different members of the Low T er group. I may 
add that the whetstone band, above mentioned, belongs, no doubt, to 
the upper part of the Lower Coniston Flags. These Silurian beds, 
which underlie Ingleborough and extend eastward across Ribblesdale to 
Wharf edale, attain their highest elevation (1170 feet) under the south 
front of Moughton Fell, where the horizontal beds of limestone resting 
unconformably upon the jagged and inclined Silurian slates, display one 
of the finest geological phenomena to be seen anywhere in Yorkshire. 

As we pursue our journey up the valley, with the aid of a glass a 
very fair idea of the position and aspects of this grand section may be 
obtained. Ascending the road to the top of Sherwood Brow what a 
glorious and wild stretch of country now" lies before us ! Pendle Hill 
looms dimly far away behind, with many intervening ranges and towering 
crags, while the solitary Ribble foams noisily away deep in the valley 
below. The water has cut its way through thick tracts of glacial drift 
composed of clay, gravel, and rounded and scratched stones, often piled up 
in large mounds or ridges coinciding with the direction of the valley. 
Boulders, sometimes many tons in weight, occur in and upon these 
accumulations of drift, and numerous examples will be observed on the 
way. Some of these are beautifully smoothed and striated, shewing 
clearly which way the ice moved. 

Descending towards Helwith Bridge the valley is occupied with an 
extensive tract of peaty drift, which, no doubt, for a long time, was the 
site of an ancient lake. A deflection of the great Ribblesdale glacier 
filled the depression which we see between Moughton and Swarth Moor, 



"% 



4( 



137 

leaving as it retreated, this low-lying flat covered with an expanse of 
water. Several alpine and sub-arctic plants still occur in the vicinity. 

The meaning of Helwith is somewhat perplexing. The first syllable, 
probably, denotes a hollow place, but as to the meaning of the second that 
is not so clear, unless we can explain it in the following little story 
related of Sir Walter Scott, who when a boy, was asked by his teacher : 
What part of speech is the word * with ' ?" " A noun," said Walter. 
Tou young blockhead," said the pedagogue, " what example can you 
give of such a thing ?" " Please, sir," answered the boy meekly, " there 
is a verse in the Bible which says, ' They bound Samson with wiOis? " 
The willow (A.S. withig) is certainly abundant in this locality and may 
have been much more so formerly. I have observed several species, 
notably the Tea-leaved willow, (£'. phylicifolia), which, like all the willows, 
is much subject to the peculiar attacks of the gall-fly. 

Arrived at the little hamlet of Studfold, picturesquely sheltered under 
a wooded ridge of dark Silurians, the old flag-quarry in the lower 
division of the Ooniston Flags may be profitably examined. The beds, 
which are somewhat coarse, dip here at an angle of forty degrees or 
more, and among the planes of laminae occur various small shells, but 
chiefly of the genus Orthoceratites. There is an old, two-century 
building close by, and descending by this to a stile below the Studfold 
farm, a path leads across the Ribble by a single-timber bridge into an 
old road, which, in wet weather, however, is more like a rough and stony 
river-course. But it is often an agreeable deviation from the ordinary 
highway, and to the botanical explorer its shrubby and well-flowered 
banks yield rare spoil. In about a mile it terminates at Crag Hill farm, 
whence there is a field path to Horton. 

There is a fine exhibition of ice-polishing in the railway cutting 
between here and Horton, about 500 to 600 yards south of the station, 
where the upper rock surfaces are splendidly glaciated. The metals are 
laid for a distance of 250 yards between a boulder-clay ridge or drumlin, 
at its deepest part being about 40 feet. Similar ridges occur both to 
the north and south of Horton, which gave the railway contractors 
•some tough work during the construction of the line. These drumlins 
are also found at great elevations, on Blea Moor, for example at nearly 
2000 feet. 

Having now conducted you to the mountain " town " of Horton, 
particulars of this interesting locality will be found in that section of 
our work. The evening train to Settle may be taken, and some idea 
obtained of the laborious construction of this grand Highland line. 



138 



CHAPTER IX. 




Lawkland and the Scar Caves. 

A lovely walk— Lanes of wild flowers — Lawkland— The Old Hall of the Inglebys 
— The smallest church in Yorkshire — Cross Streets and the Roman highway — 
Buckhaw Brow — Kelcowe Cave — Buckhaw Brow Cave — Cave Ha', an old bear 
den— Interesting discoveries — Austwick Beck— A Btory of the coaching days. 

NE of the sweetest country walks I know of from Giggleswick 
is to go under the railway viaduct from the Craven Inn, and 
by way of Lawkland to Cross Streets for Clapham or Austwick ; 
or return to Settle by Buckhaw Brow and the Ebbing and Flowing 
Well ; the latter a round of about six miles. To Clapham by Lawkland 
it is also six miles. When you get up to the Ridge, a little beyond 
Grain's House, the view is very pleasing, with the rich green valley 
below, in which nestle the little towns of Settle and Giggleswick. 
Above is the grand line of scars extending from Attermire to 
Ingleborough — the Schoolboys' Tower on Giggleswick Scar being a 
prominent object — while the majestic range of the Ingleborough fella 
occupies the whole of the prospect northwards. Here, I should say, we 
are on the south side of the great Craven Fault, so that we get a very 
comprehensive view of the effects of that extraordinary fracture upon 
the suiTounding scenery. 

Our road hence is a perfect picture in the loveliness of its floral 
display. The high and broad banks are decked with fruiting hazels, 
graceful willows, blush and white roses, luscious honeysuckle, with here 
and there a wild gooseberry or rasp, and among their spreading branches 
climb the purple blossoms of the tufted vetch, large masses of creamy 
cicely, pink knapweed and betony, tall plumy thistles, clustering St. 
John's wort, red campion, and the frail white blossoms of the lesser 
stitchwort, delicate harebells, white and blue, nodding foxgloves, yellow, 
branching nipplewort, golden-rayed ragwort, great willow-herb, purple 
crane8bill, figwort and valerian, climbing bryony with its dark, glossy 
leaves, sweet violets, and the " pansy freak'd with jet," — 

! these lack not 
To make you garlands of. 



Keeping along the Kirkbj Lonsdale road, where it joins the Settle- 
and Lancaster road, a little beyond Paley Green farm, our path is still 
through the same continuous wild-garden. In some places the 
great bell-flowers, musical with the murmur of many bees, form dense 
and undivided masses, while clumps of male fern, and the bright spangle 
of colour present an endless variety of rich ■' studies " to the artist. 
Near the little hamlet of Lawkland there grows a few plants of the 
beautiful borage, its brilliant azure flowers being conspicuous by the 
way-side. It is the only plant of its genus that is found in this northern 
climate of ours ; its true home being on the sunny shores of the 
Mediterranean. 



Ingleborough from the Railway near Lawkland. 

We have now reached Lawkland, with its thick, climbing woods 
on our left, and in the shelter of them stands one of the " stately homes of 
England," old Lawkland Hall. The place has no doubt received its 
name from the hollow ground here, now drained, having been the site of 
an ancient lake. In some early deeds relating to the property I find the 
name written Laiklaud.* The Hall has a lofty frontage, and has small 
square windows, and a massive central square tower. The latter is 
ascended by a spiral staircase continued to the summit. The walls are 
of great thickness, and on the south side is an old sun-dial. In the east 
wing is the chapel in which services were held up to the time of building 
a known by the suggestive name of 



140 

the Roman Catholic Chapel in the village, about a century ago. A 
portion of the interior is pannelled with black oak, and in several of the 
windows are pieces of stained glass with armorial bearings. The ceiling 
of the drawing-room is also decorated with the arms of Ingleby impaling 
Bradshaigh. Over the north entrance door is a shield bearing the arms 
of Ingleby. This side of the house is in the Elizabethan style of 
architecture, but the tower and south front are probably of the time 
of Henry VII. The Hall and Manor have been the property of the 
Ingleby family for three centuries, and up to thirty years ago was their 
oontinuous residence. The house is now let and occupied by the Rev. 
B. E. Watkins, M.A., late rector of Treeton, near Rotherham. 

The family of Ingleby appeal's to have been originally of Engelbi, 
near Lincoln, and to have spelt its name in that way. previous to settling 
At Ripley. The spelling has since then varied. Lawkland Hall and 
Manor were purchased about the year 1572 by John Ingilby, of Acomb 
Grange, second son of Sir Wm. Ingilby, Kt., of Ripley Castle, of his 
uncle, Peter Yorke, of Middlesmoor, Co. York., who was governor of 
Leith, in Scotland, temp. Edward VI. He likewise purchased the 
manor of Clapham from William Clapham, Esq., of Beamsley, together 
with Clapdale Castle, and also became lord of the manor of Hutton Rudby, 
in Cleveland. He was twice married, first to Anne, daughter of Wm. 
■Clapham, of Beamsley, and secondly to Alice, sister of Sir Thomas 
Layton. His will is dated 1608, and he was buried at Hutton Rudby. 
Thomas Ingleby, son by his first wife, was lord of the manors of 
Lawkland and Clapham. He eventually sold the manor of Hutton Rudby. 
He died in 1622, aged 58, and was buried on Easter Day in the north 
ohoir of Clapham church. Successive generations of the family have 
also found a last resting-place in the same old church. Lawkland Hall 
and Manor have since remained a possession of the Ingtebys, and while 
this for so long a period has been their parent home, various members of 
the family had other seats in the neighbourhood. 

A little further on and we pass the diminutive Roman Catholic Chapel, 
which was built in 1790, when the Inglebys turned Protestant. Up 
to twelve years ago it had a resident priest, but is now served from Settle. 
The neat little church, which has seat-room for about fifty worshippers, 
may vie in the smallness of its dimensions with the famous little edifices 
of St. Lawrence in the Isle of Wight, and Culbone in North Devon.* 

* Their dimensions in the order of their diminutiveneBS are these : (1) St. 
Lawrence's, originally 20 feet long, but a chancel having been added, it is now 30 
feet long and 12 feet wide. (2) Lawkland, 20 feet by 19 feet. (2) Culbone, 83 feet 
•by 12 feet. There are several very small churches in Cumberland, notably at 
Wythburn, under Helvellyn, and Wastdale Head. The last mentioned is 36 feet 
•by 14 feet, 6 feet to the eaves, and 17 feet high to the middle of the rafters. These 
particulars I have obtained on the spot. 



141 

Arrived at the Oross Streets Inn we are at the junction of the roads to- 
Au8bwick (1 mile), Clapham (2 miles), and Settle (4 miles), and the view 
hence is exceedingly grand of the lofty crags of Moughton to the north, 
with their long " dining-table " top forming a curious level ridge above 
the line of white scars. Far up the dale we can descry the lonely 
Crummack farm, whose only sight of a human dwelling is the single 
house where we now stand. If after a heavy rain you are here the 
Norber beck presents a striking scene as it lashes the face of its high dark 
cliff with foam. Cross Streets was at the divergence of two Roman military 
ways from the east and south, continuing westwards to Clapham and 
Ingleton, and joining other military ways which passed Wennington to- 
Overborough and Lancaster. Numerous coins, &c, have been found in 
the neighbourhood, and the two camps above Stainforth and Settle I 
have already elsewhere described. 

Having in a previous chapter described the Scar road as far as- 
Buckhaw Brow (815 feet), the highest point of the main road between 
the Yorkshire and Lancashire coasts, we may as well continue our walk 
to Clapham. We should, however, mention that before coming to the 
Ebbing and Flowing Well, Kelcowe wood is passed on the right, and 
beyond it is the Ox Scar, at the foot of which, and within 20 yards of 
the road, is the little Buckhaw Brow Cave. The meaning of Kelcowe 
seems obscure. It may be a corruption of hil, a spring, and hoive, a hill,, 
in allusion to the adjacent ebbing and flowing well, which, as previously 
explained, must have been an important tutelary spring appropriated to- 
sacred uses in Saxon times, as well as in the more primitive ages preceding. 
In fact, the prefix Kel or Kit may have a Celtic meaning, and indicate the 
presence of a church or cell, (Cym. Celt, cell), as in Ireland ; and the 
latter part of the word come from A.S. cofa, a cove, as in Cowes, 
(i.e., the coves) in the Isle of Wight. If this be so it establishes my 
supposition that the original village and church at Giggleswick stood 
nearer the old well and tarn than at present. Perhaps, also, the mysterious- 
Saint Alkelda, to whom the church is dedicated, is nothing more than a 
contortion of the A.S. hwliy held, i.e., holy well. In this Kelcowe scar 
there is a small cave, in which various Roman fibulas, and coins of the 
reign of Vespasian, were unearthed about fifty years ago. The cave, like 
many others in the district, had no doubt been a settled habitation 
during and subsequent to the Roman invasion. 

A little above the ebbing and flowing well, on the Giggleswick side, 
there is a wide breach in the scar known from time immemorial a& 
Nevison's Nick. The story runs that in the days of the " Merry 
Monarch " the bold highwayman, who had been having a rather lively 
time of it down Skipton way, in order to make good his escape, mounted 
his trusty steed and rode off in the direction of Winterburn. But he 



142 

was closely pursued, so casting a pin for luck into St. Helen's Well he, 
undaunted, struck the hills, and crossing Hanlith Moor leaped the 
chasm at Gordale head, and away he went over Malham Moor and by 
the bridle-path to Langcliffe, where he had to descend and mount the 
fells again. Coming to the " Nick " in Giggleswick Scar he spurred his 
horse and leaped the gap in safety, — his wonderful steed avoiding the 
crevices of the limestone pavement with very nice agility — and then with 
pistol raised galloping through the quiet village of Clapham, to the great 
alarm of the natives, he took the Kendal road and was soon lost among 
the hills again ! There are, however, other versions of this tradition. 

Leaving the old coach-road by Brunton House we now take the low road 
through Cave Ha 1 wood. The mouth of the cave, or hole, — an old 
bear-den, — can be seen up in front of the scar from the road. It is only 
a depression or opening in the face of the scar and is now very difficult 
of access, owing to the yielding nature of the rock and soil. Some years 
ago important discoveries were made in it. In the upper deposits were 
found various implements and flakes of chert and flint, as well as other 
ancient remainsin stoneandiron. These were mixed up with existing animal 
remains and recent works of art, by the evident operations of badgers, 
rabbits, &c. Lower down, beneath a bed of undisturbed cave debris, 
(composed chiefly of angular fragments of limestone), remains of goat or 
sheep, dog, and cave-bear were turned up. On the upper floor immense 
quantities of the bones of mice were found strewn among the broken-up 
pellets of owls, proving that these creatures must have been very 
abundant here. There is a hole overhead where the owls appear to have 
lived, but this apparently has not been explored. The owls, no doubt, 
captured and brought in the mice for food. Similar deposits have been 
noted in the Victoria Cave and other ossiferous caverns in the district. 
The cave has long been the haunt of a colony of jackdaws, and on this 
account has earned its present local sobriquet of Jackdaw Hole. 

Now we come to Cross Streets again, and descend over the good 
two-arch bridge across Austwick Beck. Ordinarily this is but a murmuring 
trout-beck, but in times of flood I have seen the whole space between 
the walls on its upper side filled with water, a width of twenty yards. 
Before the bridge was built, half-a-century ago, it was a well-known 
ford, and the only place on the coach road between Leeds and Kendal 
where, it is said, 1 6 horses could drink at once in a line side by side. 

What incidents of this road might we not relate of those merry old 
posting days ! As we are now within a short distance of Clapham, 
passing the beautiful domain of Ingleborough House (J. A. Farrer, Esq., 
J. P.), I may as well conclude this chapter with a tale racy of that 
bygone age, and which will serve to illustrate in an amusing manner the 
superstitions of the times. The story has been communicated to me by 



143 

Mr. J. S. Nicholson, of Liverpool, a native of the district, where his 
44 statesmen " forelders have been resident for centuries, and where, at 
Lawkland, he still owns an old property of the family. 

At the period referred to, now more than 70 years ago, the old Lion 
inn at Settle (where the coaches always stopped ) was kept by a Mrs. Hartley, 
who was one of the most capable and popular landladies in the north of 
England during the coaching days. The old coach road joined the 
present one at Settle Bridge, which, as I have before explained, was 
much narrower then than it is now. It next passed through the village 
of Giggleswick and by the Tarn at the foot of the scars, whence, at what 
is now known as Brunton Lane End you meet with it for about a mile, 
and re-entering the present road it ran on by Austwick to Clapham, and 
forward by the old road to Ingleton for Kendal, which I shall bye and 
bye describe. But now we will let Mr. Nicholson tell his story, the truth 
of which, he says, is vouched for from the fact that his informant 
was a member of the household where farmer John passed the night. 

The coach from Kendal was returning by Austwick to Settle one evening 
towards winter, and had as one of its passengers an old farmer, (I could tell you 
his name, but we will suppress it and call him John) who had been to a 
neighbouring fair to dispose of a cow, and was returning, as not unfrequently 
happened in these days, in a rather advanced state of inebriety, after having sold 
the animal. Some friends had put him in the coach, and as he could hardly take 
care of himself the guard of the coach was requested to look after him. 

Now as the old farmer lived some distance from the road, the guard determined 
to leave him at the house of a neighbouring farmer, whose house was close by, and 
who was a man well-known and highly respected in the district. The coach 
having duly arrived at the place where old John was to be left, the guard did 
not stop the coach till it had gone a short distance past the house, when he had to 
half carry the old man back. This was a very neatly-arranged proceeding which 
enabled the wily guard to relieve the old farmer of the bag of money he had 
received for the cow ! 

In the meantime the gentleman whose house they were approaching had come 
to the door with his wife and daughters to see what was the cause of the coach 
stopping at such a place. On hearing, however, the particulars of the case, and 
realising the helpless condition of his old friend, he at once consented to let him 
stay all night at his house. They got him upstairs and put him to sleep in a bed 
in a large room where two young men slept in another bed. But in the course of 
the night old John wakened up, and began to talk, imagining that he was in his 
own bed at home, and by this means he wakened the young fellows in the other bed. 
In this semi-Bomnolent state he began to talk, as he thought, to his wife, and one 
remark which he made occasioned the young fellows opposite to laugh so loudly 
that the old man was more thoroughly roused, and he began to enquire where he 
was. But the young men, in order to chaff him a little, did not tell him at first 
where he was, but when he did get to know he was quite satisfied, saying that if he 
was at Mr. So-and-so's (naming the owner) he was quite right. 

However, in the morning when he got up, on looking for his money and not 
finding it he was thrown into a state of great excitement, and after understanding 
how he had been left, and by whom, he at once exclaimed, " I know who has got 



144 

my brass. That guard has robbed me." (I suppose he must have had some 
faint recollection of wbat had transpired, and the guard, I must add, did Dot bear 
a very good character amongst the residents of the district.) After breakfa't the 
old farmer went home and told his wife, and finally he decided to consult a 
local '■ wiseman." 

Now in the neighbourhood of Bentham at that period there lived a well-known 
astrologer and wiseman, and to him old John sent his servant-man with 
instructions to find out the truth of his master's suspicions concerning the guard. 
When the man returned he was questioned as to the result of his interview. Said 
he, " When I saw th' wiseman an' towd him what i.hd c 
lad, sit tha doon a bit, and ah'll tell tha who it were.' 
ma, he took ma tul a glass, an' I began to beeal [cry out] when I saw t'seet. 
Theer i't glass I saw ivverything takking plaace on't night ye were robbed ! I saw 

t'oooach and t'nian dragging on ye to Maieter (naming the farmer at whose 

house he had been) and then I saw t'guard tewing wi ye'r pocket, an' I thowt I 
saw ye twig (detect] him, but he gat ye'r brass, reckonin' to tak uncuth [offence J 
at ye'r bother. Nay, an' t'wiseman showed me ivverything as plain as if I bed 
been theer mysel'." 

Old John replied that he knew who had taken his •' brass," thoroughly 
believing in the Wiseman's power to aid him. 



145 



CHAPTER X. 




Clapham. 

Charming Clapham— Former aspects— Flying Hortte Shoe Hotel — Its meaning 
explained — Ancient state of the manor — Old families — The Church and 
Market Cross — Old Manor House — Sir Michael Faraday, son of a Clapham 
blacksmith — Ingleborough Hall — Romantic cascades — Old coaching days. 

[HARMING Clapham ! What phrase shall appropriately express 
the beauty of thy bashful shades ? Like a lovely and coy 
maiden, or a violet in its leafy bower, thy presence in sooth, 
seems half -willing to be seen. But beauty, says a Spanish saw, is born 
married, and may not live apart, and true merit likewise, be whatsoever 
in kind, will be found out. Therefore, my pretty village, it is of no use 
sighing for inglorious concealment, or attempting to hide thyself beneath 
thy crown of leaves ! The tourist who is familiar with the loveliness 
of Derbyshire, or with the quiet, sweet combes and luxuriant lanes of 
Devonshire and Kent, or who has trudged through Yorkshire dales, 

Among the cliffs and winding scars, 
Where deep and low the hamlets lie, 
Beneath their little patch of sky, 
And little lot of stars, — 

may have come upon many a snug old English retreat, half smothered 
in honeysuckles and roses, with a babbling brook singing its " song of 
peace " by cot and hall, but surely he will have rarely found a spot more 
beautiful than this, or one, indeed, with greater attractions in its 
neighbourhood. The village itself has such a well-to-do appearance, 
and possesses withal so charming an aspect of neatness and tranquility 
that is quite refreshing to the jaded mind. Its picturesqueness also is so 
captivating, that in spite of all our wanderings, and the sight of many a 
rival spot in bonnie Craven, and elsewhere in our beautiful county, we 
would fain claim for it the title of " the prettiest village in Yorkshire." 
Many a time in clear and sunny weather have we left Clapham station, 
and pursued the white road to the village, — a walk of about a mile — the 
fresh breezes sweeping down from the crags, with the distant, bossy top 
of Penyghent peering beyond old Robin Proctor's Scar, — and looking 

K 



146 

sometimes so near that you might almost shoot an arrow on to it, — and 
with Austwick woods and the slope of Smearside away to the right ; 
while in front, to the north, the mammoth back and adamantine brow of 
royal Ingleborough rises in proud defiance, — a majestic bulwark of rock 
and fell, seeming verily to exclaim as we advance, " I am lord of all !" 

There were formerly four inns in the village ; now there is but one, 
and in the old visitors 9 books kept there many a familiar name in local 
science, art, and literature is inscribed, with many another from distant 
and foreign parts, attracted to the picturesque neighbourhood, and 
especially to the great Cave, the finest undoubtedly in the North of 
England. Many of the cottages also receive visitors, but as such 
accommodation is limited, these in the summer months are generally 
full. There is another inn, hear the station, which bears a sign which I 
believe is unique in Yorkshire, if not in England. It is called the 
Flying Horse Shoe, the meaning of which has fermented much 
controversy from time to time. Some have supposed that it came from 
the old English game of quoits, in which the horse-shoe was sometimes 
employed. Strutt, in his " Sports and Pastimes of the People of 
England," says that formerly in the country, " the rustics not having 
the round perforated quoits to play with, used horse shoes, and in many 
places the quoit itself to this day is called a shoe.' 9 The sign here, 
however, has nothing to do with the game of quoits. It has a winged 
horse-shoe pictured upon it, which is simply the crest of the Farrers, 
who for some time have been lords of the manor of Clapham. The 
name Farrer means no doubt farrier, just as Marshall and Smith do, 
and the wings to the horse shoe, I am told, imply that horses shod by 
the ancestors of the Farrers were supposed to/fy, a sort of advertisement 
of their skill in that line. The family motto is Ferre va ferme. The 
inn was built by the family in 1850, and for very many years has been 
tenanted by Mr. Henry Coates, who rents with his farm the celebrated 
Clapham or, as it is as often called, Ingleborough Cave from the Farrers, 
who are now the owners. 

The present lord of Ingleborough and Clapham is James Anson 
Farrer, Esq., J.P., son of the Rev. M. T. Farrer, M.A., who died in 
London in July, 1889, and was buried at Shirley, in Surrey, where he had 
been formerly vicar. His predecessor, James Farrer, Esq., J.P., D.L., 
and M.P. for South Durham, 1847-57 and 1859-65, was brother to the 
Rev. M. T. Farrer, and died unmarried June 9th, 1879. Their father, 
Jas. W. Farrer, Esq., of Ingleborough, was one of the masters in 
Chancery, J.P. for Lancashire and Westmoreland, J.P. and D.L. for Co. 
York, who died in 1863, in his 79th year. The schools in the village 
were erected as a memorial to him by several members of the family 
in 1864. 



147 

The Manor of Clapham was granted by Roger de Mowbray in the 
time of Henry II., probably about a.d. 1170, to William de Clapham. 
In this undated charter, the boundaries of the manor are thus described, 
but many of the names, it may be observed, are now obsolete. 

•' A Lord's Seat (some elevated point, undoubtedly named from the Mowbrays) 
et recta linea usque Faery Seat, et sic UBque Arke de Ravenber, et sic usque ad 
Kirk de Ravenber, et deinde usque Roundpot ac Stagnum usque Saddleston super 
Akebank, et sic usque ad Colden wells in Wescoe, deinde ad SkirtcrosB, et duplicem 
foream de Green Boriber, et sic ad pedem de Fumtnaber Sike, et sic sursum 
praedictum Sike, usque Fummaber Stones. 

" Test. Rob. de Wensbrough, Wulfurd Kipox, Rogero de Tendes, Alfred de 
Mereris, Augustino de Ustwice, Olivero de Horton, Nic. de Otterburn, Car. de 
Cansfield, Radulpho Bellax, Willo Dautry, Rolando de Lasse." 

There appears no evidence of an Anglo-Saxon settlement here beyond 
the name Clapham, that is the heim or home of Clapa, its first Saxon 
owner. The name Clapa occurs amongst the witnesses to a charter of 
Canute. A daughter of this nobleman named Gytha was married, it is 
said, with great pomp at Lambeth to one Tovi the Proud, in a.d. 1042, 
and at the wedding feast the King, Hardicanute, was present, and it is 
furthermore recorded that, drinking to such excess, he died suddenly of 
apoplexy in the midst of the guests, thus ending his reign of tyranny 
and indolence within three years of his accession to the throne. The 
first lords of whom we have any positive knowledge subsequent to the 
Conquest were the De Claphams. Dods worth tells us that they had a 
stronghold on the brow of Ingleborough, that this " Clapdale Castle hath 
been very large and strong, and standeth on the skirt of the high hill 
Ingleborrow, w'ch shooteth tow'ds Clapham, and was the desmayne of ye 
Claphams in later times, but I think it was builded by Adam de Staveley, 
or o'e of his ancestors, who sold the chace of Ingleborrow to Roger 
Mowbray, temp. Joh'is." In Glover's " Visitation of Yorkshire," 
(1584-5), and in Dugdale's Visitation, (1665), the pedigree of the family 
is recorded. 

By the marriage of Thomas de Clapham with Elizabeth, daughter 
and co-heiress of William de Moore, of Otterburne, in the time of 
Edward III., the manor of Beamsley was added to the family estates. The 
eldest son of this match was John Clapham, a fierce and staunch adherent 
to the Lancastrian cause during the wars of the Roses, who is said to 
have severed the heads of Jasper, Earl of Pembroke, and the Duke of 
Bedford with his own hands in the porch of the church at Banbury, two 
days after the battle of Danesmoor in July, 1468. He himself was 
subsequently captured in a part of the fleet organised by Warwick, the 
scheming King Maker, and shortly afterwards impaled, with other 
gentlemen, by the Earl of Worcester at Southampton. There is a tradition 
that the Claphams were buried upright in a chantry vault at Bolton 



148 

Abbey, upon which circumstance Wordsworth founds Mb well-known 
lines in the " White Doe of Rylstone." 

By warrant against William Clapham, of Beamsley, and his heirs, and 
John Clapham, of Beamsley, son of Eobert Clapham, of Clapham, 
deceased, and his heirs, the manor of Clapham, with Clapdale, and 24 
messuages, 24 cottages, a water-mill, and a fulling-mill, were purchased 
in a.d. 1572-3 by John Ingleby, of Acomb Grange, son of Sir Wm. 
Ingleby, Kt., of Ripley Castle, who had lately purchased (and removed 
to) Lawkland Hall. His son Thomas was lord of the manor of Clapham 
until his death in 1622, when it descended to Arthur Ingleby, who 
resided at Clapdale Hall, and who was lord of the manors of Lawkland 
and Thorpe % He was D.L. of Co. York, and died at Clapham in 1701. 
He sold the manor of Clapham to Josiah Morley, gent., of Scale House, 
Rylstone, who died in 1731, in his 80th year, and was buried at Bolton 
Abbey. His son, John Morley, who married at 21, and died in 1718 
at the age of 26, left a daughter, Margaret, born in 1716, who became 
the wife of the Rev. Thos. Wilson, D.D., afterwards Dean of Carlisle, 
who died Sept. 25th, 1778. His son, the Rev. Thos. Wilson, M.A., 
inherited the estates at Clapham and Horton-in-Ribblesdale, with a 
moiety of the manor of Rathmell, and assumed in consequence the name 
of Morley. He died in 1818, bequeathing his inheritance to his son, 
Thos. Wilson Morley, Esq. The Rev. T. W. Morley, and others, on May 
1st, 1856, sold the manor of Clapham and all their estates in Clapham 
to James W. Farrer, Esq., as narrated above. 

The first of the Farrers who settled at Clapham appears to have been 
Richard Farrer, gent., of Greystonleigh, Co. Lanes., born in 1658, and 
died at Clapham in 1742, aged 84. He married at Clapham, in 1686, 
Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Oliver Guy, of Lanshaw, a farm in 
the parish of Clapham. In consequence of his son Robert's imprudent 
marriage, he gave up Greystonleigh to him, (it having been entailed on 
him) and came with his wife to reside at Lanshaw, probably about the 
year 1726, as Robert's first, son was born in 1727.* Richard's son, 
Oliver, died in 1724, leaving a son James, who married in 1741 and 
died in 1766. His son, James Farrer, Esq., of Newcastle House, 
Lincoln's Inn Fields, was lord of the manor of Austwick. He married 
in 1782 Frances, only daughter and heiress of Wm. Loxham, Esq., of 
Woodford, Essex. He built Ingleborough Hall, the present family seat 
at Clapham. His son, Jas. Wm. Farrer, Esq., was born in 1785 and 
died in 1863, as stated above. 

The present lord, James A. Farrer, Esq., previously mentioned, is an 
author of some celebrity. His writings, which are chiefly relating to 
the manners and religion of ancient peoples, cover a wide field of thought, 

* Sec the Will of Thomas Carr (A..D. 1549) p. 99. 



149 

and are marked by considerable insight, great breadth of treatment, 
and originality. In 1879 appeared his "Zululand and the Zulus," 
also " Primitive Manners and Customs ;" in 1880, " Crimes and 
Punishments," including a translation of Beccario's book of that title ; 
in 1885, " Military Manners and Customs," and a pamphlet on "War," 
consisting of three chapters from the former. In 1891 was published 
" Paganism and Christianity," in which the author maintains that the 
Pagans were much happier and holier in their own illiterate faith, and 
their moral teaching was laid on a purer, higher and less selfish level, 
than that of the Fathers of the Church, and that on the whole the triumph 
of Christianity over Paganism " has been not a gain, but a misfortune 
to the world, and has retarded rather than promoted civilisation." 

The Inglebys continued in possession of Clapdale Hall from its 
acquisition in 1573 until the time of Arthur Ingleby, Esq., who was 
born in 1773 and died in 1852. He sold Clapdale Hall, and went to 
live at Austwick. His elder brother, John Abbotson Ingleby, Esq., was 
born at Clapdale Hall in 1764, and afterwards resided at Lawkland, of 
which place he was manor lord, where he died in 1831. His son, 
Thomas Ingleby, Esq., .J. P., succeeded to the Lawkland estates. He 
waft baptised at Clapham .in 1 788, leaving a son, the late Christopher 
Ingleby, Esq., J.P., who died in 1889. See Austwick. 

The church at Clapham, doubtless of Saxon origin, though not 
mentioned in Domesday, was erected in the time of Henry I., but of the 
original structure nothing remains but the low, embattled western tower. 
The rest of the building was re-erected in 1814. Scon after its 
foundation the church formed part of the numerous endowments of the 
Benedictine Abbey of St. Mary's, York. The immunities enjoyed by 
this mitred monastery, which included exemption of their lands from 
toll, &c, must have distinguished Clapham as a place of note and 
comparative affluence in pre-Reformation days. On the creation of the 
See of Chester in 1542, the benefice, with patronage, was given, with 
other possessions of the Archdeaconry of Richmond, to the Bishop of 
Chester. The living, a discharged vicarage, is now in the gift of the 
Bishop of Ripon. The following are the names of the incumbents with 
the dates of their institution : — 



A.D. 1252 


AmfriduB. 


A.D. 1654 


Alex. Johnson. 




William de Walton. 


1661 




1368 


Adam Wylwra. 


1685 


Edward Lodge. 


1391 


Joh. de Derlington. 


1697 


Nathaniel Armistead. 




Joh. de Beryngham. 


1730 


J Graves. 


1394 


Joh. Sandal 1. 


1755 


W. Currer. 


1424 


Job. Robinson. 


1783 


John Halton. 




[some omissions] 
Anthony Battersby. 


1837 


Chas. Overton.* 


1574 


1841 


John Marriner. 


1589 


Thomas Proctor. 


1876 


John Meire Ward. 


1639 


James Critchlev. 







* Author of " Cottage Lectures on the Pilgrim's Progress/' and other smaller works. 



150 

The ancient parsonage at Clapham was for many generations the 
occasional residence of the church dignitaries from Richmond, and its 
site on the south-east side of the church is identified by the name of 
Archdeacon's Croft, which from the discovery of human bones within it, 
appears to have been taken out of the old church-yard. The church, 
consisting of chancel, nave of five bays, aisles, and square tower, has 
sittings for 700 persons. In 1884 it was fitted with new choir stalls, 
pulpit, prayer-desk, &c , and the interior otherwise renovated and 
improved. The ancient bells in the tower were re-hung, and a new 
clock placed in the tower at a cost of about £90. The expenses of these 
improvements were borne principally by the Rev. M. T. Farrer, of 
Ingleborough. The Registers date from a.d. 1595, and are, with the 
exception of a few portions, very fairly preserved. 

Among the epitaphs there is one " humbly inscribed, to the memory 
of William and Jane Balderston, of Sedbusk, and to ten of their 
children, by their only surviving son, William Balderston." The father 
and mother died within six weeks of each other in 1814, and the whole 
family of twelve members were stricken down within the short period of 
eight years. The touching record is appropriately inscribed : 

" We're here to day, to-niorrow yield our breath, 
reader, tremble, and prepare for death." 

Another stone on the south side of the church may be noted on account 
of the figure 7 occurring, singularly, ten times. It is to a family named 
Stackhouse. There are also several other epitaphs of interest. 

Prior to 1879, when Austwick was constituted a separate parish, with 
an area of 7450 acres and a population of 739, the parish of Clapham 
consisted of 25,300 acres, and the township of 12,012 acres of land and 
25 acres of water. In 1881 the population of the township was 676 and 
of the parish 711. In 1810 a considerable area of common land was 
enclosed. 

I suspect that before the charter for a market at Clapham was conferred 
by King John in a.d. 1201, the market had been long held at Austwick, 
which at that early period was the principal place in the manor. In the 
year mentioned (1201) a grant was made to William de Clapham to 
hold a market at Clapham every Thursday, a fair on Saturday before 
Quadragesima Sunday and two days following, on that of St. Philip and 
St. James and three days following, on the festival of St. Mary Magdalene 
and two days following, on the eve of St. Matthew and two days 
following. The fairs are now held on Sept. 27th and Oct. 2nd yearly 
for cattle and sheep. 

On the east bank of the pleasantly tree-shaded beck, opposite the old 
Manor House, is a remnant of the ancient Market Cross, comprising a 



151 

stone base of three tiers with a fragment of the pillar, about two feet 
square, upon it. Just above is a narrow stone bridge of high antiquity, 
which has been superseded by the erection of the wider and more 
substantial county bridge a little lower down. It seems always to have 
been known by the name of Broken Bridge, but happily for the peace of 
antiquaries there is no reason to suppose that it has ever in anv way 
been identified with the name of the place, as appeal's to have been the 
case with one so-called at Pontefract. Clapham has always been a hom% 
(and a dear one, too !) and has never been known by any other name. 

The old Manor House, just mentioned, fell into disrepair many years 
ago, and a portion of it was, for some time, used as a stable and lumber-room. 
Over its main entrance is carved CWI, 1701, and upon the key-stone 
of its spacious fire-place are the initials and date, I C 1701. On each 
side of this open chimney-piece, which has a span of W\ feet, is a curious 
antique stone-oven. About two years ago (1890) the house was 
admirably restored by Mr. Fairer, of Ingleborough Hall, and is now 
fitted-up as a reading and recreation room, in which there is suitable 
provision for games. There are also meeting and class rooms, a savings 
bank, and village library attached. The reading-room with library was 
started in 1857, with 100 volumes from the old parish library. It is 
maintained by subscription, and its store of books has been largely 
augmented, numbering now nearly 2000 volumes. 

Among the families connected with Clapham I cannot omit a 
mention of that of Faraday, whose name first appears among the 
baptisms in the church registers for 1 708. In this year is recorded the 
baptism of a child of Richard Faraday, a stonemason of Keasden, near 
Clapham. A son of the same Richard Faraday was married in 1756 to 
Elizabeth Dean, of Clapham Wood Hall, and James Faraday, of this 
family, who worked as a blacksmith at Clapham, was father of the 
celebrated Sir Michael Faraday, LL.D., F.R.S., &c, born at Xewington, 
in Surrey, in 1791, whither his father had removed shortly after his 
marriage. As a prince among British scientists, -Professor Faraday well 
earned the approbation and benefactions of his countrymen. His labours 
and discoveries were likewise rewarded with many honours from abroad. 
Thrioe he received the degree of Doctor ; Oxford making him a D.C.L., 
Prague a Ph.D., and Cambridge an LL.D. ; besides which he was 
instituted a Chevalier of the Prussian Order of Merit, a Commander of 
the Legion of Honour, and a Knight Commander of the Order of St. 
Maurice and St. Lazarus. Among the medals which he received were 
each of those at the disposal of the Royal Society, — indeed, the Copley 
medal was given him twice, and the Grande Medaille d'Honneur at the 
time of the French Exhibition. Altogether it appears he was decorated 
with ninety-five titles and marks of merit, including the blue ribbon of 



152 

science, for in 1844 he was chosen one of the eight foreign associates of 
the French Academy. His scientific researches are very numerous. 
The Royal Society Catalogue gives under the name of Faraday a list of 
158 papers, published in various scientific magazines or learned 
transactions. This list includes the 30 series of his "Experimental 
Researches in Electricity."* Thus we see this son of the Ciapham 
blacksmith risen to dignity and honour, alike creditable to his genius 
and industry, and adding, moreover, an imperishable lustre not only to 
this retired Yorkshire village whence his family sprung, but to the great 
land of his birth ! 

" Ingleborough," the present manor house at Ciapham, was erected 
by the Farrers about a century ago. It is a good, spacious building of 
stone, with a handsome arcaded portico of the Corinthian order, and 
stands in private grounds of about forty acres in extent. There is a 
long, irregular and picturesque lake, covering about eight acres, 
beautifully environed with wood, and artificially formed out of a deep 
ravine on the east side of the giant Ingleborough. The hall is now 
lighted with electricity, the supplying dynamo being obtained from a 
water-wheel fixed in the cascades in the grounds. 

Among the smaller class of waterfalls nothing can exceed the beauty 
of this series of cascades, when a sufficient body of water is precipitated 
down the rocky bed. But in flood the increased volume transforms 
them into a scene of magnificence almost beyoud credence. In the 
grounds above, the torrent leaps in a double fall of 20 feet each into a 
confined circular pool, and then firing its mimic artillery, so to speak, 
under the picturesque ivy-clad arch, falls with a loud roar some eight or 
ten yards further into the stream below. From top to bottom I have seen 
it at such times a mass of amber-coloured foam, with not a stone in the 
bed visible, the foam-crested rocks causing the spray to rise to the 
beautifully draped archway, filling it with a fleecy veil on which the sun 
shining has reflected a myriad sparkling hues. It is unfortunate that no 
very complete view of it can be obtained from the public road, but the 
best is that from the walls of the churchyard or through an opening in 
the trees on the road opposite. 

In the old coaching times Ciapham was daily (Sundays excepted) the 
scene of much bustle and activity, for the Union coach from Kendal 
arrived in the village every morning, and at half-past ten was timed to 
leave the New Inn for Leeds and London. The Mail from Lancaster 
also arrived about ten a.m. and returned at five in the evening. 

Concluding this account of Ciapham, I must now turn to the natural 
marvels of the neighbourhood. 

• See Dr. Gladstone's Life of Faraday. 



153 



CHAPTER XI. 




Ingleborough Cave and Gaping Gill. 

Clapdale Castle— The Ingleborough Cave — Its discovery and history— Description 
of the interior — Age of the stalactites— Floods in the cave— Extent of the 
Excavations— Measurements — Clapdale Pass and Cave— Trow Gill— An extinct 
waterfall— Gaping Gill— Flood scene — Descent of the Gill — A wild prospect- 
Ascent of Ingleborough. 

|IRST let us take a stroll to the famous Ingleborough Cave, — 
one of the greatest natural curiosities that our country can 
boast, — by way of old Clapdale Castle, previously mentioned. 
Application to visit the cave should be made to Harrison, 
the guide, who lives near the New Inn, as he is not in attendance at the 
cave {\\ miles distant) except on Bank holidays. At the top of the 
village is one of the private entrances to Ingleborough Hall, by 
which there is also a delightful route to the cave, and the guide has 
permission to conduct visitors this way. But those who desire to visit 
the grounds only should apply for permission at the steward's house close 
by. As much damage has been done, this restriction has been found 
necessary, and it is hoped that all having the privilege of visiting this 
beautiful demesne will help to preserve what is intended for their own 
enjoyment and that of others. 

If our route is not through the grounds, or if we are going past the 
cave to Trow Gill and Gaping Gill for the ascent of Ingleborough, &c, 
we turn from the above entrance gate to the left, and then very soon to 
the right up a long, winding lane, which leads in about a mile through 
the farm-yard of old Clapdale Hall, or as Dodsworth the seventeenth 
century antiquary somewhat pompously describes it, u A great old castle 
joyning on Clapham, the antient demesne of the family of Clapham, 
who have lived here in good reputation till our fathers' days." It is, 
however, nothing more than a small fortified house, formerly roofed with 
lend, having walls in some parts six to eight feet thick, raised on a 
foundation of natural rock, which is curiously exposed in several places. 
As already stated it is supposed to date from the beginning of the twelfth 
<#ntury, and to have been built by one of the De Staveleys, from whom 
Eoger de Mowbray purchased it, and afterwards {temp. Henry II.) 



154 

granted it, with the manor, to William de Clapham. I am told there is 
an artificial passage extending from the east end of the house a 
considerable distance underground. It is said to have been explored for 
several hundred yards, but whither it terminates is not known. The 
house is now in an indifferent state of repair, and from the time of 
Arthur Inglebj has been occupied as a farm dwelling. I may remark,, 
in addition to such particulars as I have given of this family, that in 
the time of the Commonwealth, and prior to his removal to Lawkland, 
the hall was occupied by Columbus Ingleby, who was buried at Clapham 
Church, May 15th, 1716. In the Depositions from York Castle 
it is recorded of this young squire : "On 4th August, 16G2, an inquest 
on Brian Redman, of Ingleton. On August 2nd, Columbus Ingleby, 
of Lawkland Hall, gent., shot him with a pistol. Mr. Ingleby was tried 
and acquitted, 1667—68." But the circumstances of this accusation 
do not transpire. 

Leaving the " castle " a path descends to the mouth of the cave. It 
forms an open archway 56 feet wide, 15^ feet high, at the foot of an 
umbrageous cliff, and from its secluded position has a not unromantic 
appearance. The mouth narrows for about twelve yards, where a well- 
weathered strong iron grating and gate prevent further progress without 
the " open-sesame " key of the guide. The first portion of the cave 
extends for nearly 60 yards, is 18 yards wide, and 3 yards in height. 
This is denominated the Old Cave, and has been known from the earliest 
times, but its bright crystalline ornaments have long ago disappeared. 
Nothing was known of the extensive ramifications beyond until 1837, (or 
about the same time that the Victoria Cave, near Settle, was discovered) 
when a thick barrier or curtain of stalagmite was removed, and the 
stream of water which had been observed to flow along one of its sides, 
and gave indications of a continuation of the cave, was diverted, and a 
deep pool of water behind drained off. The galleries were then explored* 
large chambers adorned with sparry wonders, — the growth of centuries, — 
revealed ; excavations made, grottoes opened out, fissures, gulfs, and pool& 
traversed at no little personal peril, until a distance of nearly one 
thousand yards was rendered accessible. The actual penetrable length 
of the cavern, however, is about 700 yards. Over this length a path has 
been laid and other conveniences constructed for the easy and safe 
passage of visitors. The original work of exploration was carried on by 
the brothers Mr. James and Mr. Matthew Farrer, along with Lord 
Encombe, afterwards Lord Eldon, who was on a visit to Ingleborough 
Hall at the time. 

The stream which flows through the cave and issues from the rock 
beside the main entrance is unmistakably the same as that which falls 
into Gaping Gill Hole on the east side of Ingleborough. But the 



155 

stream does not pursue throughout its course the same direction as it 
ouce did, for there is evidence of changes both gradual and sudden, and 
of an alteration in level. 41 Along the walls of the cave there is in places 
a sort of dado or fringe of tufa running with marked regularity for 
longer or shorter distances, and a certain indication of an ancient and 
higher water level. Also shelves of glistening stalagmite project from 
the same points, upon which rest the pebbly debris ot a previous 
water-course. Floods must formerly have ravaged thj cave along 
channels that have for ages been deserted, and thus prevented the 
accumulation of calcareous deposit in places where it is -now forming. 
In recent times boulders many tons in weight have been carried down 
into the bed of the cave by the force of extraordinary floods, and many 
of these stones at different times have been removed and broken up for 
repairing the pathways. At a certain distance in, the temperature of the 
cave is never found to vary, whatever may be the intensity of the heat 
or cold outside. It has been tested well at all seasons, and found to 
maintain a uniform temperature of 48°. 

From the mouth, the cavern stretches first to the north, then 
north-west, then north and north-east, and finally to the east. Through 
most of the route the elevations are such as to admit of persons walking 
erect ; in one or two places, however, the height is reduced to about four 
or five feet and necessitates stooping. Admirable and commendable 
care has been taken of the natural decorations within the cavern, and these 
include an innumerable variety of curious and exquisite transparencies, 
some having the appearance of half-finished statuary or of wrought 
marble or ivory, and bearing more or less resemblance to familiar 
objects. The first great chamber we come upon in the new cave is the 
" Vestibule," or u Eldon Hall," so called in honour of its first explorer, 
Lord Eldon, mentioned above. Hence the rich and fairy-like " Stalactite 
Gallery " is entered, and in this the stalactites and encrustations display 
a rare and remarkable array of beautiful and fantastic designs. Some of 
these have been named from their supposed likeness to different objects. 
8uch are the Turkey's Head, Jew's Ear, Fleece, Glacier, Beehive, Belfry, 

* " There is a generally received opinion," says Mr. Tiddeman, in the Memoirs 
of the Geological Survey. *' that the stream which enters at Gaping Gill is the same 
as that which has an exit beneath and sometimes through the Ingleborough Cave. 
The ground for determining this is narrowed by the North Craven Fault which 
crosses to the S.E. near the head of Clapham Tarn. This forms a barrier of 
Silurian rocks crossing the valley, and all springs from the drainage of the valley 
above must come out at this (it being impervious to water) if they do not come 
out before. No springs of sufficient size to dispose of the water which falls into 
Gaping Gill come out at this barrier or above it, if we except the stream coming 
out under the cave, and the volume of this in a general way varies with the 
quantity of water poured into Gaping Gill." 



156 

Flitch of Bacon, Jockey Cap, &c. The latter is a singularly-formed 

mass of stalagmite, ten feet eight inches in circumference, and its maximum 

height is 30 inches. Having been watched, it is calculated to be made 

up of the accumulated droppings of 305 years.* The actual measurements, 

taken May 6th, 1892, are these : 

Inches. 

Circumference at the base 128 

Circumference at half its height (the peak) 88 

Circumference at the crown of the formation 62 

Roof to apex of Jockey Cap 86f 

Or if measured to the bottom of the indentation, which is 

formed by the force of the drip 87 

Leaving the wonderful Jockey Cap and proceeding through the 
Pillar Hall beyond we see a fine, solid, upright concretion of spar, six 
inches thick, which is formed by the junction of a stalactite, or descending 
column, and a stalagmite, or ascending one. Still keeping forward, or, 
in the words of Robert Story, 

" On. on ! the lights pause. Is yon black rock the ending? 

No, no ; thou hast farther, and fairer, to view ; 
So, follow we must where the elf-lights descending, 

Half show a low vault. Don't they burn a bit blue ? 
Start not I there's no ghost, I assure you, to fear, sir ; 

But 6toop lower yet — if thy head thou wouldst save : 
I-ridr sometimes gets checked in his onward career, sir, 

And Humility's well in the world, and the Cave." 

Now the silvery tones of a small cascade call our attention to the 
Waterfall, where a fleecy stream gushes over a rocky canopy, like a 
mimic shower-bath, into the abyss : 

" What song shall reflect it ? A gem-studded ceiling, 
On columns of crystal appearing to lean ; 
Sides flashing with brilliants ; the wide floor revealing 
A pure water-mirror that doubles the scene." 

About a hundred yards further on, passing the Lake to the end of the 
Long Gallery, is the First Gothic Arch, and to the right is a huge boss 
of stalagmite called the Ladies 1 Cushion. As this immense opening 
seems to coincide with a natural rift in the mountain, there is little 
doubt that there is a bifurcation of the cave here to the east or south. 
As yet this sparry barrier has not been broken through. A fluted 
coating of tufa, partly detached from the left wall, emits, when gently 
struck, a variety of musical sounds, to which the name Ring of Bells 
has been given. Beyond is the long, low aisle called the Cellar Gallery, 
and the Second Bells, followed by a number of cross vaults or fissures in 
the rock designated Arches. This part of the cave is subject to big 

* In 1845 estimated by Phillips at 259 years. f 1° 1845 this Wft8 95 i in* 



157 

floods, and on several occasions it has been nearly filled with mud and 
sand, rendering its clearance a matter of some difficulty. At the end is 
the Second Gothic Arch, and the so-called Giant's Hall, a lofty irregular 
chamber, reaching upwards above sixty feet. This terminates the 
accessible portion of the cave, where it is about 190 feet from the surface 
of the earth, but there is on the right side a small orifice which leads 
down to a shallow water-course, supposed to continue northwards to 
Gaping Gill, from which it is distant, in a straight line, sixty-two chains, 
or a little over three-quarters-of-a-mile. With a candle in his cap and a 
rope round his body, the late Mr. James Farrer, and subsequently others, 
endeavoured to trace this latter portion, but the roof being in places 
very low and contracted, and parts of the fissured bed filled with very 
deep water, which necessitated swimming, nothing of any note was met 
with. Indeed, this extremity of the cavern is apparently only accessible 
to the daring and ingenious swimmer. 

The following are the ascertained distances of the several parts and 
objects in this grand natural abyss : 

Yards. 

From the Mouth of the cave to the Gate 12 

From the Gate to the end of the Old Cave 56| 

To the Vestibule, or Eldon Hall 65 

The Stalactite Gallery 130 

The Pillar Hall 150 

The Waterfall 160 

X OO XjckCkfj ■•• ••• • ■• •■• ■•■ ••• ••• ••• mmt& 

The First Gothic Arch 260 

The Ladies* Cushion, a supposed branch here, length unknown. 
The Second Bells (Cellar Gallery) 825 

A XI fi-lIUr • • • • • • • • • •  • • • • •  • ••• *•• »\J\J 

JL Uw Dvja ••• ••• ••• ••• • •• •«• ••• ••• Om\J 

The Water Sinks 600 

The Second Gothic Arch 6S0 

The Giant's Hall 703 

Explored, 2 — 800 yards beyond, as explained above. 

The visitor will welcome daylight after his long incarceration 
underground, and though he has penetrated the rock barely half-a-mile, 
he will verily believe, from the time it has occupied, that he has gone 
u many a mile." The charge for admission, I may add, is 2s. 6d. for 
one or two persons, and Is. each when there are three or nlore. 

The return to Clapham may be made by the route described, or if 
the tourist is in command of a full day, let him ascend the Clapdale 
Pass between the cliffs of beautifully wooded limestone, and along a 
luxuriant and velvety, almost park-like path. About £-mile onwards on 
the left is another low-mouthed cave, now choked with screes and 
herbage, which has at some time or other been the debouchure of a 



158 

• 

water course, no doubt from Gaping Gill. At the gate at the end of the 
lane we mount a step-stile, and continue up the same depression a little 
way into Trow or Trough Gill (A.S. trug\ a short but magnificent ravine 
which will interest the geologist, as well as the lover of wild scenery. 
At its lower end it is about one hundred feet wide, narrowing northwards 
to a pass of eight feet, while the rocks on either hand, clothed with 
conifers and many uncommon shrubs and ferns, rise perpendicularly to 
a height of seventy to one hundred feet. There is no doubt that we are 
standing here in the bed of an ancient water-course, and looking up the 
rocky pass at the top upon what has been once a grand waterfall, now 
long extinct. But far back in point of time — thousands of years ago, in 
fact — the volume of water which rushed down this gully must, in times 
of flood, have presented a very wold and sublime sight. These waters 
are now swallowed up by the ever-deepening Gaping Gill, but you can 
follow the old bed plainly upwards all the way to this huge pitfall. In 
walking up the ravine you can see by its shape what denudation has 
done in widening the outlet since the diminution and disappearance of 
the stream, which, in the slow process of time, cut its way back up the 
gill. At the upper end on the left the cliff shelves into a shallow, open 
cave, singularly covered with a deposit of sand and mud, which has been 
brought down through the interstices of the thick bed of limestone 
Above. 

Climbing now out of the top of Trow Gill, follow the wall side up 
about 600 yards to a small gate on the left. Many tourists aiming for 
Gaping Gill get over the wall too soon, and after a long and fruitless 
search, to their chagrin and disappointment, are obliged to give it up. 
The country people round about have earned pounds in shewing tourists 
the way to this wonderful chasm, and this also applies to many others in 
the district. Unfortunately there is no board or special indication of 
the site of Gaping Gill, and you may get within a few yards of it, and 
jet not be aware of the fact. The spot being unenclosed on the open 
moor is highly dangerous, and no attempt should be made to find it after 
dusk. We have often thought a sign-board put up here would be of 
some help. However, from the little gate above mentioned, you will see 
immediately on the left some rocks and a large, incipient " pot," with a 
few ash trees hanging over it. Keep this on the left and follow a faint 
track over broken limestone, under a low, rushy hill, about 150 yards, 
when the traok veers to the right another 200 yards, with the south 
spur of Simon Fell in front, and then you come upon the broad turfy 
gill carrying the Fell Beck directly into the frightful rift hundreds of 
feet down. The water has worn its way through the thick bed of turf to 
the rock, and is precipitated on the north side over a " staircase " into a 
funnel-shaped chasm eight feet wide and about twenty long. I have 



159 

visited it daring a violent flood when the lower rocks round the hole 
have been filled with water, and the spray has risen from the roaring 
cauldron in a wild, boisterous, seething mist. Caution should at all times 
be exercised in approaching the lower ledges, as these, even if dry, are 
slippery with the continued plash of the water. 

The altitude of this wild spot above the sea is about 1880 feet, and 
it may be interesting to note here the flourishing condition of the 
mountain ash, while the foxglove's purple bells,— a somewhat rare 



Gaping Gill Hole. 

! on the limestone, — hang close above the brink. The side 
opposite to that on which the stream enters is very much broken and 
battered with the concussion of rocks brought against it by floods. 
Many years ago Mr. Birkbeck, of Settle, made an attempt to descend 
the hole, but when he had been lowered to a depth of about one hundred 
feet the friction of the rope against the contracted throat of the abyss 
was so great that he was obliged to desist, and only managed to reach the 
surface after running very great risk. A second attempt was afterwards 
made, and at 190 feet down a ledge of rock was encountered which 
barred further descent. The chasm was then plumbed 166 feet still 
lower, making the total depth from the surface ledge 856 feet, or 
measured from the top of the steep bank above the hole 385 feet. 



160 

Having satisfied the ample cravings of the Gill with a stone or two, 
you may with advantage satisfy your own, either in a similar manner 
(your appetite being, of course, equal to it !) or by disposing here of 
something a little more digestible, to wit, your "pocket-dinner," 
preparatory to the ascent of Ingleborough, — that " huge creature of God," 
as Thomas Gray grandiloquently calls it. But a bedraggled and 
impious tourist I once encountered, leaving the north skirt of the 
mountain, with the water oozing out of his boots and his hair hanging 
like candles, and to whom I explained the above interesting literary fact, 
antithetically designated it " that huge creature of the Naughty One !" 

On leaving the Gill you steer north-west over the sloping end of Simon. 

Fell, taking it at its middle ascent, on to " Little Ingleborough," when 

the massive summit of the mountain (2378 feet) will be seen just ahead. 

It is a stiff and longish pull, although the vertical ascent from Gaping 

Gill is only 1000 feet. . Take an obvious track along the east side of the 

fell, which presently bends northward up the side of Ingleborough to its 

fiat and spacious top. By this route you traverse a thick and unusual 

tract of hill-peat, which in some places covers the flats of limestones, and 

has generally been formed in such situations where a sandy and thin drift 

has been deposited in the depressions, and doubtless in some instances 

being the dried-up beds of ancient tarns. Immense blocks of gritstone 

are also found resting on pedestals of limestone, which have been denuded 

of superincumbent drift. The botanist should keep a look-out for the 

interesting specialities of this route, and on Little Ingleborough he will find 

plenty of Parsley Fern. But the botany and the physical structure of 

the mountain are fully explained on another page, yet so far as the 

former is concerned, I must repeat the desirability of suppressing, rather 

than betraying the exact habitats of the rarer kinds of plants, and 

especially of the ferns. It is simply shameful the way in which the 

" hamper men " and collectors have rooted out the latter, — which are 

sold only to perish in the impure atmosphere of towns, — thus robbing 
the mountain of one of its great natural charms. 

I shall have much to say presently about this rare old hill, which may 
be ascended by many and various routes, bringing the tourist in contact, 
as I hope to shew, with some of the most interesting phenomena in the 
district. 



161 



CHAPTER XII. 




Austwick. The Norber Boulders. 

Walk to Austwick — Peculiar examples of " glaciation •' — Former importance cf 
Austwick — Old landed families — Austwick Hall — The Church, Cross, &c. — 
Some strange tales — Wild flowers — The Holly Fern here yet — Seventy kinds 
of ferns collected — The famous Norber boulders — Their history and wonderful 
aspects described — Nature's oldest cathedral — Effects of the Ice Age — 
Ancient dried-up lakes — Robin Procter's Scar— Lovely view. 

0-DAY there is a rich treat in store : a delightful walk, and 
just as long or as short, as rough or as easy, as we like to 
make it. We intend to go through Austwick to Norber, 
and where in England can you match the sight that is presented on the 
cliffs of Norber ? It is, as an open-air phenomenon of the operations of 
once Arctic Yorkshire, absolutely unrivalled. To the non-geological 
mind, also, the scene is hardly less striking. Do not, however, be 
misguided that every smoothed or detached stone you see about here is 
ice-borne, for denudation of every kind of rock acts often in the most 
curious manner. I remember once being in this district when a villager 
took me a little out of the way to inspect a large block of limestone. It 
was partly embedded in drift and highly polished on one side. " Now, 
says he, " that is a fine specimen of your so-called glaciation." " Yes, 
I remarked, " but just wait until that young bull comes up." We 
instinctively moved aside, and the animal inquisitively drawing nigh and 
usurping our places, proceeded to rub himself briskly against the 
smoothed end of the boulder. " There," I said, " all the * glaciation ' 
there is on that stone is bovina /" On another occasion a man at 
Austwick shewed me a number of Silurian pebbles from an ounce or two 
to several pounds in weight each. They were round and smooth, and 
scratched in straight lines. " Scratched by ice !" I at once ejaculated, 
on seeing them. " No," said he, " they were taken out of a ploughed 
field here, and the marks on them are those of the ploughshare. They 
might easily be mistaken for ice-scratchings." Therefore, geological 
collectors for museums, &c, had better be on their guard. Good metal 
there is in this district undoubtedly, but all is not gold that glitters. 

L 






162 

Let us for the nonce take the shortest and pleasantest path. Going 
round by the New Inn at Clapham there is a stile or gate opposite the 
old Market Cross, whence a foot-road runs through the park of 
" Ingleborough," and up through a small plantation, over several stiles 
of blue-flag and Nbrber " calliard," direct to Austwick, coining out near 
Mr. Wm. Handby's house, mentioned below. 

The village, though scattered and straggling, is attractively placed 
on the sunny side of the valley, and especially when approached from the 
south has a very picturesque appearance. On the left the thick woods 
rise up along the rugged scars, and the large old Hall stands out 
prominently in a verdant opening on the hill side. Away to the right 
are the woods beyond Feizor and the romantic little hamlet of Wharfe, 
with Wharfe Gill, and the wild, extended hollow that runs to Helwith 
Bridge under Moughton to Ribblesdale. Smearside, like the cone of 
some worn-out volcano, is conspicuous to the south, and here and there 
on the highest points of the scars we see a large limestone cairn reared 
against the blue ether. Under the rosy aspects of a fair day the whole 
scene is bewitching, and we feel that our first acquaintance with the 
s]K)t is, indeed, a case of love at first sight. 

Austwick is a very old place, and as it was the head of the honour or 
barony, consisting of 12 manors and 12 dependent villages, at the time 
of the Conquest, I may here cite the Domesday record. 

In Oustewic and Heldetune (Austwick and Eld roth (?)) Clapeham (Clapham) 
Cherchebi (Kirkby Lonsdale) Lupetun (Lupton) Prestun (Long Preston) Holme 
(Holm) Bortun (Burton) Hotune (Hutton) Wartun (Wharton) Clactun (Claughton) 
Catun (Caton). These Torfin had for twelve manors. In these are forty-three 
carucates to be taxed. 

The place received its name evidently from its position east of 
Clapham, and its pre-eminence appears to have been lost after the 
formation of the wapentake. The early history of the manor is connected 
with the families of Darcy and Yorke. The latter, which has been long 
seated at Gowthwaite and Bewerley, purchased the Forest of Nidderdale 
in the time of Henry VIII. In the 41st of Elizabeth the manor of 
Austwick, for a consideration of £1200, changed hands as appears by 
the following Fine. 

Plaintiff : Richard Shuttleworth, Kt Deforciants : John Yorke, Esq., and 
Juliana his wife, Elizabeth Yorke, widow, and Thomas Yorke, gent, brother of 
John. Manor of Austwicke, alt Awstewick, als Astwicke, and 100 messuages and 
40 cottages, with lands in the same, and in Wharffe, Eldrothe, Hiemore, Feyserghe, 
alx Fesser, Cromoke, Lowkland, Langshawe, Horton, and Birkes. 

This was Sir Richard Shuttleworth, of Gawthorp, in Lancashire, 
Chief Justice of Chester, in whose family the manor of Austwick 
remained until 1782, when it was purchased by James Farrer, Esq., of 



163 

Clapham. The manor house and demesne, however, were sold by Sir 
John Yorke in 1573 to the Inglebys, about the time they acquired 
Lawkland. The under-mentioned transactions also took place during 
this reign. 

A.D. 1579. Plaintiff : John Ingleby. Deforciants : Peter Yorke, E*q., and 
Elizabeth, his wife. 6 messuages and 6 cottages with lands and a rental of 20 hens 
in Austwicke and Lanshaye, in the parish of Clapham. 

A.D. 1580. Plaintiff : John Ingleby. Deforciants : Peter Yorke, Esq., and 
Elizabeth, his wife. 4 messuages with lands in Eldrothe, Loneheade, Awstwike, 
and Clapham. 

a.d. 1597. Plaintiffs : John Browne, sen., Thos. Pick haver, sen., Thos 
Pickhaver, jun., John Browne, jun., and William Watson, gent. Deforciants : 
Thos. Talbot, Esq., and Elizabeth, his wife. 6 messuages with lands in Pathorne, 
Laikeland, ah Lawkeland, and Clapham. 

A.D. 1597. Plaintiff : Anthony Watson, gent. Deforciant : Richd. Chew, 
gent. 2 messuages with lands in Feazor, Knight Stamford, Astweeke, and 
Lai kl and. 

The Ingleby family, a party to the two earlier transactions, had 
acquired, as stated, Austwick Hall, and lived there many generations. 
Sir Chas. Ingleby, Kt., of Austwick Hall, son of John Ingleby, lord of 
the manor of Lawkland, and brother of Arthur and Columbus Ingleby, 
of Clapdale Hall, previously mentioned, was a Colonel in the army of 
Charles Second. He was admitted a member of Gray's Inn in 1663, 
barrister-at-law in 1671, and Baron of the Irish Exchequer, 23rd April, 
1686, but declined to go to that country. He was in May, 1687, made 
a Serjeant-at-law, and on 6th July, 1688, appointed a Baron of the 
English Exchequer, and knighted. Sir Charles was superseded by King 
James Second in the November following, after being four months in 
office, and in 1698 he was practising in York as a barrister, and was 
fined 40s. for refusing to take the oath of allegiance. He was born at 
Lawkland in Feb., 1644, and buried there on Aug. 5th, 1718. 

The Austwick Hall estate, with some others, was bequeathed in 1846 
by the late Thomas Clapham, Esq., of Stackhouse, son of the Rev. Wm. 
Clapham, Vicar of Giggleswick, to Thomas R. Clapham, Esq., F.R.A.S., 
of Feizor, who is the present occupant of the Hall, and one of the 
principal landowners. 

The house occupies a dry and airy position on the pleasant escarpment 
above the village. It is a building of great antiquity. The entrance 
hall appears to have been an old Norman Peel or fortified manor-house, 
and is very strongly built, with walls seven to eight feet thick. Additions 
were made probably when the Inglebys came into possession of it in 
1573 ; the walls of the newer portion being well grouted in the style 
prevalent at this period. Formerly the walls were covered with a thick 
rough-cast, but in 1863 Mr. Clapham had this entirely removed and the 



164 

house cemented. This coating of plaster had concealed some portions 
of a very fine carved doorway, the mouldings of which had been 
ruthlessly destroyed to make way for the lime. The fine old mullioned 
window had also been similarly treated. It is interesting to observe that 
the north-west corner of the house is partly built on a large glacial block 
of Silurian grit. 

In May, 1879, Austwick was formed out of the mother parish of 
Clapham into a separate parish. The Church of the Epiphany was built 
in 1841, and was formerly a chapel of ease to Clapham. In 1883 it was 
enlarged and consecrated. It is a neat stone building in the Early 
English style, with sittings for about 250 persons. Three beautiful 
stain-glass windows, the work of Messrs. Lavers & Westlake, of London, 
were put in the east end by public subscription as a memorial of the 
Queen's Jubilee. The inscription reads : " To the Glory of (rod, and in 
memory of the 50th year of the reign of Queen Victoria, these three 
windows are placed by the parishioners of Austwick, 1887." There are 
two other windows by the same firm ; one placed in 1889 to the memory 
of the late wife of Captain Peters, and the other in the chancel, erected 
in 1890 as a memorial of the late Christopher Ingleby, Esq., J.P., of 
Lawkland Hall, who was a devoted benefactor of the church, and who 
died, as the inscription states, on All Saints' Day, 1889. Both windows 
were the outcome of public subscriptions, amounting to about £120. 
Among the furniture of the church is a very handsome Communion 
table, constructed of oak from Lawkland Wood. 

There is in the village a small Wesleyan Clapel built in 1823, a good 
mixed school dating from 1842, and a Reading-room with a library of 
about 300 volumes. At the junction of the road in the village is the 
base, consisting of four tiers, of an old Market Cross. The present stone 
pillar was hewn at Austwick, and set up about fifty years ago by Mr. 
Charles Ingleby. ' The markets, if they were ever held here, which we 
have not been able to discover, have long been discontinued, but a yearly 
fair for cattle is still held on the Thursday before Whit Sunday. 

Some old traditions still cling about Austwick respecting the peculiar 
failings and lack of ordinary intelligence of its inhabitants. It is said, 
for example, that once a man was observed to wheel repeatedly an empty 
barrow into a hay-loft, and when an explanation was sought, it 
transpired that he was wheeling sunshine into the barn to dry the hay 
with ! One of the most familiar stories is that of a farmer calling 
together nine of his neighbours to assist him in lifting a bull over a 
gate, which separated one field from another. After struggling for some 
time, a passing traveller, perplexed by the strangeness of the proceedings, 
asked them what they wanted to do. " Come and give us a hand," they 
cried. " Open the gate and drive him through, can't ye ?" the man 






165 

replied, and this happy and unthought-of suggestion at once relieved 
them of any further trouble. Of course, Austwick now-a-days is not 
behind any other village in the dales either in general intelligence or 
business aptitude, and yet how strangely will tradition sometimes repeat 
itself ! Only within the last twelve months an amusing instance of this 
happened. A man, deputed to convey a calf to Clapham, accordingly 
yoked a horse and cart, and presently set off at a gentle and safe pace 
in the discharge of his errand. On arriving at Clapham, however, he 
found to his dismay that he had left the calf behind, so there was 
nothing for it but to go back and start again. "Nay, mon," said a 
bystander on his return, " thoo's noan left t'cawf behind ; tlwo went 
thissen." But the superior individual who made that remark, probably 
never in his life made a mistake himself ? Instead of taking a 
charitable view of the slight oversight he let him " have it," like the lad 
at a Craven fair whom a farmer was trying to engage to assist on the 
farm, but would not finish the bargain until he brought a character 
from the last place, so he said, " Run and get it, and meet me at the 
market cross at five o'clock." The youth returned up to time, and then 
the farmer said, " Well, have you got your character with you ?" 
u Xa," replied the knowing youngster, " but I've got yours, an' I'm no' 
cominV 

There is still another ludicrous story we have heard from this district, 
and which serves to show how the latest vagaries of town fashion 
sometimes penetrate to the remotest country places. A near-sighted 
dalesman observing a large bunch of flowers on a chair, and wishing to 
preserve them from fading, placed them in a basin of water. When his 
wife saw the bouquet half-an-hour afterwards she gave a piercing scream, 
and it was only her brave Yorkshire heart that saved her from fainting 
on the spot. Her defective-visioned husband had actually mistaken her 
new bonnet for a freshly-gathered bouquet ! 

But, now, let us see where the real flowers are. We will therefore 
take a look round the pleasant meads and scars, — 

Soft mossy lawns 
Beneath these canopies extend their swells, 
Fragrant with perfumed herbs, and eyed with blooms 
Minute yet beautiful. 

Yes, the botanist and true lover, — not the destroyer, — of wild flowers and 
ferns will find the district literally overflowing with treasures. The 
country round about is very beautiful, and Austwick may well be rising 
in favour as a health resort. Many of the houses in the village have 
begun to lay themselves out for receiving visitors, and to those needing 
rest and complete quiet, with the tonic of pure air and inviting scenery, 
the place would be hard to beat. The walks in the vicinity are 



166 

delightful and varied. To Norber, which I shall presently describe at 
length ; to Wharfe Gill, a deep, wooded glen with a bright, bird-haunted 
stream and a musical waterfall ; and through Oxenber Wood (about 60 
acres), full of long-aisled or winding walks, and romantic peeps amid 
darksome crag and forest, which remind one more of scenes in the far-off 
Black Forest of Germany than of homely Yorkshire. Fishing in the 
becks is also free to those staying in the neighbourhood. 

Ferns and flowers, as I have said, brighten the fields, and woods, and 
scars. Numerous, indeed, are the species, although many specialities, 
especially in ferns, have very markedly disappeared. Not many 
years since, several varieties of the Cristate Hart's-tongue were 
common on Moughton, but now not a plant can be found. But 
within two or three miles of Austwick there still blooms the 
beautiful, evergreen Holly Fern (P. lonehitis), one of the most precious 
native ferns left in England, being now well-nigh exterminated. 
It loves most the high and bleak mountains of Sweden and Norway, 
but it has a wide range, nevertheless, although nowhere common, 
extending from Iceland and Lapland to Russia, and even southwards to 
the cool altitudes of Hungary and Greece. Many people firmly believe 
that it is long extinct in Yorkshire, and there has been no little discussion 
on the subject within recent years. But I have fronds gathered here in 
July, 1891, and there is no mistake about them being the real Holly 
Fern, and not any form or variety of angulare or aculeatum, of the 
Prickly Shield species. The fronds are five to six inches in length and 
one inch broad, the upper pinnae being thickly covered with sort* I 
have also seen other fronds gathered recently by natives of the district, 
and there can be no question, either, that the plant still flourishes, but 
very sparingly, in several localities within this area. They are of the 
type common to the mountains of Scandinavia, and are undoubted relics 
of the time when there was a land connection between that country and 
Britain. It may be also noted that the underlying Silurian rocks of this 
home of the fern possess some affinities with the' ancient silts of 
Scandinavia. Prof. J. E. Marr, M.A., writing in the Naturalist for 
May, 1890, observes : " It is interesting to find an old acid lava at 
"Wharfe Mill Dam, near Austwick, for great masses of such lavas were 
poured out in the region of the Lakes and North Wales at this time, and 
the equivalent shales of the island of Bornholm contain some ashy bands. 
The characteristic Trinurleus of these shales in Sweden occurs in 

• In verification of the above statement, I have submitted a freshly gathered 

specimen to Professor J. G. Baker, F.R.S., F.L.S., of the Royal Herbarium, Kew, 

who kindly replies, under date Aug. 8th, 1891 : " This is undoubtedly true 

Lonchltis. None of the forms of aculeatum ever shew fructification when the 

rond is simply pinnate, and only an inch broad." 



167 

abundance at Norber, near Settle, where it is accompanied by a beautiful 
and rare trilobite of the genus Dindymene, which is also found in 
Sweden." He further remarks, in speaking of the Middle Grits and the 
subordinate shales of the Wharfe valley, to which the remarkable 
Moughton whetstones are probably referable, that " they contain 
Mynograptus nitesoni and M. dubius, found on the same horizon in 
Scandinavia and marking the base of the Ludlow series." 

But neither the Holly Fern, nor the Ordovician fossils of the 
Austwick area, are the only existing relics we possess of this country. 
Many other plants and mosses, with their parasitical insects, common to 
Scandinavia and other northern latitudes still linger, — the undoubted 
survivors of a vastly remote period, — amid the pure breezes of our Craven 
Highlands. Such, for instance, the little Dryas octopetala, a native of 
Sweden and Spitzbergen. 

In peeping about the country gardens sometimes you come across a 
rare flower or fern, which may have found a congenial home, or haplessly 
otherwise, by such removal from its native scars or moorland fells. One 
of the most interesting cultivated collections I have met with is that 
of Mr. Wm. Handby, of Austwick, who two or three years ago had 
nearly 70 kinds of ferns growing in his little garden-plot, and all of his 
own gathering from the immediate neighbourhood. As he has carefully 
preserved a list of them, and as they are fairly representative of the 
native ferns of this district, their enumeration here will be referred to 
with interest. Doubtless, were a careful search to be made of the whole 
area, the list might be considerably extended. 

Polystichum lonchitis (from various localities), P. aculeatum, P. 
angulare, var. lineare, var. gracile, var. cristatum, var. proliferum 
Wollastoni, var. polydactylum, var. apweforme, Ceterach officinarum (fine 
bushy plants from Moughton, Swarth Moor, and Malham), Asplenium 
Adiaivtum-niyrum (from Wharfe),^!. viride, var. incisum, A. trichomanes, 
A. Ruta-muraria, A. marinum (not local, from Heysham), Lastrea 
filix-rnas, var. grandkeps, var. digitata, var. abbreviate var. Jervisii, var. 
Barnesii, var. Bollandice, var. crispa, var. incisa, L. filix-fawiina, L. 
Thelypteris, L. cristata, L. dilatata, L. amula, L. Oreopteris, Polypodium 
vulgare, var. semilacerum, var. cristatum, var. Cambrkum, P. Dryopteris, 
P. Phegopteris, Athyrium ftlix-famina, var. corymbiferum, var. laciniatum, 
var. thyssanotum, var. Frizellue, var. Barnesii, var. rectangulare, var. 
laciniatum-confluens, var. grandkeps, var. ramo-Frizellue, var. diffisso- 
multifidum, var. Victoria, Cystopteris fragilis, var. Dklckmna, 
Scolopendrium vulgare, var. crispum, var. subcornatum, var. polyschides, 
var. polyeuspis-undosum, var. gymnosorum, var. bimarginato-cordatum, 
Blechnum spirant, var. polydactyla, var. continuum, Allosorus crispus 
(Helwith Moss), Botrychium lunaria. 



168 

All the species of this remarkable list which their discoverer was 
not able to identify himself, have been verified by some competent 
authority. 

But we must now direct our steps towards Norber, or the North frill, 
as its name signifies, above Austwick. Going by the old Hall, before 
described, we follow the lane up about three-quarters-of-a-mile to where 
the roads divide. Here there is a field on the left, containing numerous 
large travelled boulders, which may be profitably examined, and the scar 
ascended in front, on the top of which the black-looking, massive 
Silurian erratics present a strange contrast with the grey-white broken 
limestone on which they rest darkly against the sky. It will, however, 
be better to go down past the plantation and follow the Crummack lane 
up the dale until near its junction with the White Stone lane, which 
crosses the Crummack Beck. Crtvm, in Celtic, I may add, means crooked, 
winding, and ach, water, which exactly suits it. 

Here you are at the foot of Norber Scars, and close to an old limekiln. 
Scores of boulders lie scattered about the valley bottom to the south and 
west, but formerly they were much more numerous here than now, large 
numbers of them having been broken up to build and repair the walls. 
Hundreds, however, remain on the scar above, saved from destruction by 
their peculiar and inconvenient position. They lie scattered together, 
mostly within a space of a half-mile, and are of every shape and size, 
some very curiouslv formed, and perched or stranded on the worn 
limestone, or piled one on another in the most fantastic manner. Their 
aspect in such a spot is singularly weird and impressive, and in old times 
the Nature-worshipping primitive people of this remote mountainous 
country must have looked upon the mysterious place with superstitious 
feelings. 

The question of their origin and occurrence here will be naturally 
asked. To the unscientific beholder they will probably be referred to 
the displacement of volcanic forces. Some few years ago a couple of 
West Riding townsmen visited the spot, and one of them rapturously 
exclaimed, " Why, Jim, lad, there's been a tremendous bust, — these stoans 
have been blawn sky heigh, an' tummelled abaht intuv all shape an' i' all 
directions. But, come, let's squat a bit an' hov a sangwich." As this is 
a duty never long absent from the thoughts of a healthy Yorkshireman, 
we will leave them to enjoy their meal while we briefly consider the 
causes of the wonderful scene around. 

It will be observed that the scars and summits are composed of 
mountain limestone, while the valley bottom is made up of a massive, 
dark, weathered slaty-rock. A branch of the great Craven Fault, as I 
have before pointed out, strikes eastward from near Clapham along the 
foot of Norber, and Moughton Fell, towards Stainforth and Malham 



. 169 

Tarn, bringing down the Scar limestone on the south to a level with the 
blue flags and grits of the Silurian system, whose effect we see so finely 
displayed on the south front of Moughton Fell. The scars which run 
about east and west, are the direct result of this remarkable fracture. 
The Crummack valley, where we now are, is cut through this Scar 
limestone, and has no doubt at some time been an arm of the sea. 
Water and the action of the atmosphere have worn down the strata until 
some of the lowest beds of the Silurian formation are exposed. The 
Coniston limestone, of the Lower group, here forms one of a series of 
folds or anticlinals, ranging from the north-west to the south-east, and is 
probably continuous with that of Crag Hill, in .Ribblesdale. Above it 
lies a thin conglomerate, forming the base of the Upper Silurians, 
which dips north-north-east under some slates at the Beck head, but is 
•difficult to trace owing to the spreads of drift which occupy the valley, 
especially on its west side. Another prominent anticlinal crops out near 
the limekiln above mentioned, consisting of a dark bluish-grey thick- 
bedded calcareous grit, and is the ridge, undoubtedly, from which most 
of the boulders we see around us have been derived. It extends across 
the valley, rising somewhat westward, with a rapid dip to the north-east. 
Fragments of all sizes torn from this ridge lie in its immediate vicinity, 
and the floor of the rock hereabouts is, moreover, so smooth and slipjxjry 
that, unless on the alert, you will probably descend to a closer inspection 
of its surface than you are prepared for. 

No one who has studied the question can doubt for a moment that 
this slippery surface is due to the passage of an immense weight of ice. 
The glaciers which overspread the north of Britain seem to have been 
divided at various points in the passage southwards ; that which came 
over Blea Moor having been separated by the projecting buttresses of 
Park Fell and Ingleborough, which, again, in descending Ribblesdale, 
was broken into two moving thick masses of ice by the towering swells 
of Moughton. About 150 yards north of the Silurian out-crop referred 
to, there is good evidence of its direction in the deep groovings on the 
rock, all pointing directly southwards. Leaving these marks of its 
presence the ice gradually retreated, and numerous lakes and tarns were 
left in the valleys and on the mountain sides. One such may be observed in 
Crummack, adjoining a marl-pit, which is part of the old lake-bed and 
is composed of a white, powdery marl made up of fresh-water shells, 
chiefly of the genera Limner and Cyclas. 

But a peculiar feature of the situation is, that while the parent-ridge 
is at present at about 900 feet elevation, most of the blocks from it are 
found ascending to an altitude, on the south and west, of nearly 1200 
feet. It may be conjectured that these can only have been transported 
into such positions by floating icebergs, as is shown to be the case in 



170 

various places elsewhere. Here, however, the direction of the rocks, 
and the position of the principal striae, or ice-markings, all point 
unmistakably to a definite horizon and a lower land-surface, which would 
not be the case were the blocks sea-borne, for then there would be an 
indiscriminate distribution, and the ice-marks would have no relation to 
the general slope or lie of the land. The transported grit rocks, it 
should moreover be observed, do not occur to the north of the ridge 
mentioned. The Crummack glacier has, therefore, undoubtedly descended 
towards Clapham into the valleys of the Wenning and Lune, and the 
direction of its flow is indicated by the boulders on its course. From 
tbe ridge whence the main stream has been obtained they have been 



Nokber Boulder. 

pushed forward up the slope by the irresistible force of the glacier, which 
also raised partly by lateral pressure, has dropped the numerous boulders 
on the more elevated limestone bed. Some of the boulders, it will be 
noted, have their axes and stria; transverse to the southward movement 
of the glacier, which may be due to their having fallen from the ice and 
rolled promiscuously on the inclined and polished limestone floor. Since 
the time when they were deposited, the limestone plateau has been so far 
denuded that some of the blocks, many tons in weight, are now seen 
strangely stranded on pedestals or detached masses of the white rock, 



171 

• 

raised from one to two feet above the ground, and which have been partly 
protected from disintegration by the superincumbent grits. 

The scars also having worn back, many of the stones have been 
precipitated into the valley below even within present remembrance. In 
fact, many of those which we see obtruding their outlines against the 
sky, stand close to the brink of the scars, and must sooner or later come 
down. There is one immense boulder, 9 feet long and 9 feet high, and 
about 3£ feet wide, which hangs in such a position upon a crumbled 
limestone base, and inclined at such an angle, that it looks almost as if a 
strong gust of wind would bowl it over the cliff. The largest stone 
which I have observed measures 49 feet in circumference and is 6 feet 
high, having a flat under-surface, with indications of striae. Many 
behind it are curiously perched, and present odd forms. One very 
black-looking stone, in shape like a pyramid, is 6 feet high and 6 feet 
across the base, and reposes on three small blocks of limestone about a 
foot in height. Others sharp, angular, and weathered, and from twenty 
to forty tons in weight, stand on similar pedestals, or have fallen and 
got partly embedded in the turf. Amid the impressive quietude of the 
scene, as we go on surveying these wonderful monuments of the dim 
past, we feel, indeed, as if we were walking about the crumbling tombs 
and aisles of Nature's oldest cathedral ! 

Some idea of the time that has elapsed since the deposition of the stones 
may be obtained from the extent of denudation of the surface limestone 
on which they were originally laid. If, as it has been calculated, 
denudation of this rock goes on at the rate of one-twentieth of an inch 
in 50 years, or say 1 inch in 1000 years, those rocks standing upon 
their worn fragments of limestone 20 inches or so above the adjacent 
ground, must have been there, roughly speaking, a period of at least 
20,000 years.* But while this is, indeed, a vast period, it is but as the 
twinkling of an eye compared with the age of the dark, scattered rocks 
themselves. These, in point of time, are certainly the greatest 
monuments of antiquity our county possesses. 

The boulders gradually thin away to the west and north, and do not 
ascend to more than about 1200 feet, consequently we may infer that 
the hill, which rises northwards about 100 feet higher, has not been 
crowned with ice. Thus a further indication of the southward and 
descending movement of the frozen mass is apparent from the fact that 
while the rocks on the east of Simon Fell, a few miles to the north, are 
ice-scratched at an altitude of 1850 feet, there are no apparent signa 
of glaciation at Norber much above 1200 feet. 

* Of course, this is only an approximation, as the rate of weathering must 
entirely depend on local conditions of subaerial agencies, such as rainfall, &c. 



172 

From a conspicuous stoop-like piece of limestone at the west end of 
the plateau we get a fine outline of the characteristic features of the 
surrounding country. Below us, to the south, runs the lovely valley 
into Ribblesdale, its deep depression marking the lie of the North Craven 
Fault. Above it are the Austwick Woods, Swarth Moor, and the 
double-horned top of Smearside. Far away beyond are the Langcliffe 
■and Settle crags, backed by the looming summits of Lancashire, 
including Pendle Hill. To the north-west a stream of sunlight is 
parting the grey clouds that have settled upon the hoary head of mighty 
Ingleborough, while westward, looking over the well-wooded upland lake 
of Ingleborough park, the view into Lunesdale is exceedingly fine. 
Eastward rise the massive grey scars of Moughton, with their dense, 
long line of " screes," and beyond, in the point-blank of vision, old 
Penyghent just raises his cap to the bonny blue sky above. 

About 100 yards west of this limestone stoop we arrive at the edge 
of Robin Procter's Scar. This immense bluff of white rock, I may say, 
has borne its name now some centuries. A certain Robin Procter, of 
Clapham, was making his way home along the " tops " from Selside, and 
the evening being stormy and darkness coming on, he missed his way 
and fell over the precipitous cliff here and was killed. His burial is 
recorded in Latin in the Clapham parish registers. It may also be 
noted that the first baptismal entry contained in these registers is in 
the year 1595, and is of one " Robertus filius Robertus Procter," an 
ancestor, probably, of the above. 

From the edge of Robin Procter's Scar we look down into a hollow, 
somewhat oval in shape and walled round. This basin-like cavity, 
which is strewn with Silurian blocks, is the bed of an old lake, drained 
about eighty years ago. The gently sloping banks are dry and cracked, 
and in appearance not unlike the venation of a leaf on a large scale. 
The grass and soil look brown and poor, but I am told these have much 
improved of late years. The place is still known as Tarn Thwaite. 
Formerly in winter, when the lake was soon frozen, the youth of 
Austwick and Clapham used to come here at the close of the day's 
labours, and often under the bright rays of the moon, 

— " All shod with steel 
They hiss'd along the polish'd ice, in games 
Confederate, imitative of the chase 
And woodland pleasures, — 
Or cut across the image of a star 
That gleam'd upon the ice." 

From this point the village of Clapham can be reached in about 45 
minutes by descending into the Thwaite Lane opposite, which goes 
straight down under the tunnel of Ingleborough grounds and emerges at 
the church and waterfall. 



173 



CHAPTER XIII. 




Cave Hunting on Ingleborough. 

A land of caves, gulfs, and swallow-holes — Their origin and aspects scientifically 
explained — Cave hunting on Ingleborough— A wild tramp — Long Kin holes 
and cave — Marble Pot — Juniper Gulf — Simon Fell Caves— Alum Pot- Ascent 
of Simon Fell — The Druids — An ancient forest — Local place names. 

HE plateaux of carboniferous limestone, and " winding scars ,r 
of our dales are famous for an infinitude of caves, caverns, 
holes, churns, kins, gulfs, pots, pans, or swallow-holes, as they 
are variously called, and which, while they are generally spread over 
Craven, are nowhere exceeded in number and interest than in the 
neighbourhood of Ingleborough. Their origin may be due in some cases 
to igneous movement, but the great factor in their formation has been 
water, operating in a variety of ways. These causes have been thus 
shortly summarised by Prof. Tiddeman in the Memoirs of the Geological 
Survey : 

1st. The large horizontal flats of bare limestone which give the 

water every chance of finding an entrance. 
2nd. The numerous vertical and long continuous joints which so 

easily lend themselves to water-carriage. 
3rd. The rarity of beds of shale or other alternations in the great 
body of the limestone, which would tend to check the free 
passage of water. 
4th. The rapid descent of the ground beyond the limestone plateaux, 
which gives steep gradients to the water-flow in the limestone. 
5th. The height of the Fells above, which form condensers to 
atmospheric vapour and give a rainfall above the average. 

As Prof. Boyd Dawkins well observes, nowhere in the world can the 
subterranean circulation of water be studied with greater advantage 
than here. The caves, he says, rival in size those of Carniola and in 
Greece, and are to be found in all stages of formation. But a good part of 
Yorkshire geography is really unwritten, for there is so much concealed 
underground, that this branch of our knowledge can never be considered 
as complete until these various and complicated water-courses are known 



174 

and mapped out. The subject, indeed, is peculiarly fascinating, while the 
rills and streams of the Yorkshire Scar country, with their long, 
subterranean passages, will provide the explorer, armed with rope and 
lights, with an amount of real adventure, and likewise tax his geographical 
skill in a similar, if less perilous manner, to that for example, of the 
" pioneer of civilisation " who, with tomahawk and gun sets himself 
the task of penetrating the dark, untrodden regions of far-off Africa ! 

Let us then go up into the heart of the hills, where there are a 
number of these mysterious chasms, but little known and rarely visited. 
Our route is that described at the end of the last chapter, by Clapham 
Bottoms, passing the church and under the long tunnels, ascending the 
road about three-quarters-of-a-mile, when it branches to Austwick by the 
extinct lake previously mentioned. But you should open the gate here, 
and keep straight on, descending across the depression of the Craven 
Fault, with the fine scars in front, and on the left, the deep, contracted 
wooded valley of Clapdale, with the mouth of the great Ingleborough 
Cave conspicuous, and old Clapdale Hall high above. This scene, viewed 
under the warm glow of a bright Autumn noon, amid the various tints 
of the trees, and the decaying brackens and shrubs upon the scars, 
reminds us not a little of Shelley's lines : 

The noonday Bun 
Now shone upon the forest, one vast mass 
Of mingling shade, whose brown magnificence 
A narrow vale embosoms. 

Passing shortly through a second gate, or rather the third from 
Clapham, you emerge on the wild open fell, with the wooded Trow Gill 
some distance on the left. The long lane we have come up runs about 
north-east by south-west, and by crossing the hollow northwards from 
here, and then walking up with the gully on our right, we shall arrive at 
a gate in the wall which crosses our route. Simon Fell (2125 feet) and 
Ingleborough (2373 feet) are now to the north-west, and the isolated 
bulk of Penyghent (2273 feet) to the east. This wall is continuous 
northwards with another, which separates the west fell from the large 
allotments on the east, and runs all the way up the south slope of Simon 
Fell. By following this long allotment wall up some 300 to 400 yards, 
you enter a hollow of bare limestone, on the left of which are two deep 
rifts known as the Long Kin Holes. The deepest is that to the north, 
but the summit aperture is insignificant, and partly enclosed with a 
tumble-down wall. A small stream descends the hole from Simon Fell, 
and flowing at a considerable depth penetrates the lower chasm, whence 
its course is not clear. The direction, however, is towards the Gaping 
Gill beck and Ingleborough Cave, but, except in flood the channel is 
almost dry. No attempt has been made to descend these fissures, as 



175 

they are too narrow for some distance down to admit of a free passage. 
The northern one has been plumbed to a depth of over 200 feet, while 
the southern one, which is more open and longer, does not appear 
anything like so deep, the greatest depth found being little more than 
100 feet. The sides of the chasms are adorned with shrubs and ferns, 
and some fine flowering specimens of the great willow-herb. The altitude 
is about 1350 feet. 

Following up this limestone hollow we arrive very soon at a point 
where the stream, having cut through the thick turf to the rock below, 
has in the lapse of ages worn away this hard bed for a length of nearly 
50 feet, and two or three feet wide. The torrent goes down by a succession 
of ledges into the Long Kin Cave at its lower extremity, where the 
horizontal limestone above forms a portal about four yards high and 
barely one in width. To penetrate this chasm requires caution, as the 
descent in some places is very rough and rapid, and should not be 
attempted except in settled weather, as a sudden rising in the water on 
the fell above would speedily submerge the cave, and the tourist so 
caught by the " tide " would find escape well nigh impossible. Soon 
after getting in, it brandies suddenly to the left, and the cave then by a 
succession of bends and low chambers, may be penetrated for a distance 
of nearly 250 yards. At one part of its course daylight is seen through 
a chink above. 

A little to the north-west of the cave, and close under the allotment 
wall mentioned, is Marble Pot, so called from the fine polish of the rock 
out of which it is formed. This is a very deep and astounding chasm, 
and viewed during a flood is an impressive sight. It descends about 
30 yards, carrying the water to the mouth of a hole nearly 50 feet in 
depth, over which the torrent leaps in one unbroken cascade. Ordinarily 
the flow of water is only small, but in wet weather the rush and roar is 
tremendous, and the " pot " has been known to fill up and even 
boil over. 

About half-a-mile to the north-east of this cavity is another grand 
natural rift in the mountain, called Juniper Gulf. Do not approach too 
near this terrible fissure, as the rocks, especially after rain, are very 
slippery. The juniper, which grows upon its brink, means, we are told 
in the language of flowers, succour or help, and you would certainly need 
it in case of any untoward accident. The water descends the contracted 
chasm a vertical depth of about 80 feet, and must then fall more or less 
rapidly to the south, perhaps joining the underground stream of Long 
Kin. By following the wall up here on the right you will come to another 
larger stream which flows east to a small cave in the rock some six or 
seven yards below the surface of the moor, and half-a-mile due north of 
this cave is another smaller opening in the limestone. 



176 

About a mile north of this poiut the grandest and most stupendous, 
of all the Yorkshire ground-chasms may be reached. This is Helln or 
Alum Pot, which is described elsewhere. You will have to cross the 
heathery waste, and at the end of the long wall, and then very soon pass, 
through another smaller gate on the left, and by another wall, skirting 
the thick limestone pavement, beyond which the site of Alum Pot may 
be recognised by the clump of trees, and short dipping wall which 
encloses it. 

The tourist who wishes to see Gaping Gill on this outing, may from 
the gate at the top of Clapham Bottoms, before mentioned, without 
going through the gate follow the w r all side westward about 600 yards, 
in the direction of Trow Gill. He will then come to the small gate and 
track which leads to the great rift, described on page 159. From 
Gaping Gill the Long Kin Holes and Cave, I may add, are about 1000 
yards due east, and just over the allotment wall which runs to the 
top of Simon Fell.* 

Simon Fell may be conveniently ascended from any of these formidable 
rifts, and the ridge followed up to the gusty top of Ingleborough, whence 
a descent may be made to Ingleton, in time for the evening train north 
or south. To return to Clapham the tourist may vary the route above 
described, by going from Gaping Gill through the ravine of Trow Gill 
and past the mouth of the Cave direct to the village. 

In the name of Simon Fell we have another instance of what I take 
to be an indication of the former presence of the Simon Magi, or ancient 
priests of the Britons, an interesting survival of the rites of the 
primitive inhabitants of these Highlands, more fully discussed elsewhere. 
Ingleborough, above, constituting one of the finest natural observatories 
in the whole country, would, we may be sure, be seized upon by the 
earliest migrant races, as an invaluable and permanent prospecting 
ground, and that such was the case is evident from the numerous remains 
of habitations still existing on and about its summit. Facing the east 
was Simon Fell, encompassed by extensive natural woods, a fact which 
may startle the imagination of the beholder at this day, considering the- 
wide bleak and barren wastes which the mountain now dominates. But 
the names of the places in the vicinity declare this to have been the case ; 
thus Brant Riggs, or ridges from which wood has been cleared by 

* In the Gentleman's Magazine, for the year 1761, (Vol. xxxi, p. 127), a writer 
signing himself " Pastor," names several caves and holes on Ingleborough, which 
I am unable to identify. These are Blackside Cave, Sir William's Cove, (copied 
from this account into Gough's " Camden " (Vol. iii, p. 282, as St. William's Cave). 
Atkinson's Cave, and Johnsons Jacket Hole. The last is described as " a place- 
resembling a funnel in shape, but vastly deep." Gaper Gill, also mentioned, is no* 
doubt what is always called now Gaping Gill. 



177 

burning ;* Selside, from Set, a wood, and side, a settlement ; Borrins, 
from bor, a wood, and rin, a promontory or point, the latter an affix in 
various combinations of rin, rein, or rain, which is of frequent occurrence 
in Craven. Thus there is a headland and building about a mile north 
of Selside Shaw called Reyn Barn, and there are also other high points 
and promontories elsewhere mentioned in our rambles, of the same 
name. 

The numerous copious streams, and a fine spring on the edge of the 
hill, along with these forest groves, would provide the tribes with 
abundant material, both for their bodily maintenance and for the 
performance of their sacred rites. There is little doubt, also, that the 
sites of their burial placeB were marked by heaps of stones or cairns, 
long since removed for building the adjoining walls. In the 
neighbourhood of the Long Kin Holes, however, traces of several cairns 
still remain, and there are also traces of others in the valley bottom at 
the foot of the mountain. There was a particularly large one close to 
the east side of the road to Selside, about a mile above Horton Station, 
which has disappeared, I am told, within living memory. We have no 
proper account of it, but it was doubtless ransacked and removed in the 
expectation of finding treasure. It is mentioned by the same clerical 
writer, quoted ou the last page, in the Gentleman's Magazine, for 1761, 
as follows : " In the valley above Horton, near the base of this mountain, 
[Ingleborough] , I observed a large heap or pile of greet-stoues all 
thrown promiscuously together, without any appearance of building or 
workmanship, which yet cannot be reasonably thought to be the work of 
Nature. Few stones are found near it, though 'tis computed to contain 
400 of that country cart loads of stones, or upwards. There is likewise 
another at the base north-east, in resemblance much the same, but scarce 
so large, and I was informed of several others up and down the country." 

The large cairn referred to may have been raised to commemorate some 
dire conflict between the Romans and the native hill tribes, as it lay on 
the old Roman thoroughfare across Ribblehead to the camp under 
Smearside. There appear to have been a good many cairns and tumuli 
about these summit tracts, where " surprises " may be exacted to have 
occurred more commonly than elsewhere. 



* Brant has also the meaning of steep. 

M 



178 



CHAPTER XIV. 




Clapham tO Ingleton. 

The old road from Clapham to Ingleton — Newby and Furness Abbey — Local 
properties of the Abbey— Deer park at Ribblehead — Newby Cote — Ascent of 
the Scars — Caves and pot-holes — A tremendous abyss — The Craven Fault — 
Rantry Hole— Cold Cotes— The Tow Scar Fault— High Leys and Holly Plat 
House — Glorious prospect— Yarlsber and the Danish Camp — Ease Gill Glen 
and Waterfall — Beautiful scenery, geologically explained. 

HE very pleasant four miles of highway which separate 

Clapham from Ingleton are best traversed by the pedestrian 

along the higher or old coach road by Newby Cote. It 

commands lovely prospects to the southwards, and also affords, 

from a geological standpoint, a better idea than is to be obtained from 

the lower road, of the effects of the complicated system of Faults, which 

give to the neighbourhood its marked features. 

About a mile from Clapham, on the lower road, is the quiet little 
village of Newby, which, although it is not mentioned in Domesday, is a 
very old place, and the capital of an extensive manor. It was originally 
divided into two parts, both of which were acquired at an early date by the 
monks of Furness, who in all probability had a grange and chapel here. 
At the dissolution of monasteries, the manor was annexed to the Duchy 
of Lancaster, and after having passed through various hands, was 
purchased about a century ago by the Farrers of Clapham. The various 
properties of the wealthy Abbey of Furness are recorded in the Liber 
Reyis of 26th Henry VIII., and from these " First Fruits " of the 
appropriation the following noteworthy transcript may here be introduced. 
The list is interesting, as including the names of many local places, now 
supporting but a scant population, and situated amid the very wildest 
and most remote parts of these rugged Highlands. Such for example, 
are Cam House, Ling Gill, Thornes Gill, Rainscar, and Gearstones, — 
while in the neighbourhood of Ribblehead, comprised within this ancient 
survey, were large deer and horse parks. The enumeration is an exact 
copy of the original : 

Redd'et firm is in Lonsdall, viz.: Kesden £10 12s. 4d.. Thynook et Hardacre 
£2 9s. 0d.„ Hesyllhawe et Greynclose £3 6s. 8d., Villa de Newby £6 5s. lid., 
Newby Coote £4 Is. 7d. ob\ Claypham Towne £2 7s. 0d., Stakhouse £5 6s. 8d M 
Selffed £13 Ss. 4d., Southouse £8 2s. 8d., Souterstale £13 6b. 8d., Brunt Skarre 



179 

£8 6b. 8d., Wynteretayll £8 Os. Od., Raneskall £2 8b. Od. t Camhouse £8 Ss. 4d., 
Lynghyll et Byrkw'th £6 19s. Od., Netherlonge £3 18s. 8d., Thorns £2 10b. 4d. ob', 
Beerstons et Coltepke £6 9s. 2d., et Yngman Lodge £6 6s. 8d. In toto £1 10 18b. 4d. 

The manor house at Newby (now a farm-house), called Newby Hall, 
is an ancient stone gabled building of fine proportions, and containing 
on the ground floor two beautifully arched doorways. There appears to 
have been a chapel in the hall, for the arrangements of two of the upper 
rooms are such as to warrant the assumption. A decorated window 
occupies the south-east corner of this part of the building, and the roofs 
of both apartments, now unfortunately covered in, are constructed of 
old carved oak. 

From Newby Cote the ascent of Ingleborough is less of a climb, and 
also shorter in point of distance, than from Ingle ton or Clapham. Go 
up the wall side by the houses, and when on the top, by keeping slightly 
to the right, the Knowe Gap stream will be encountered coming down 
from the north under Ingleborough. The stream is a good guide to the 
summit, which can be seen due north ahead. Or, if the tourist wants a 
fine open walk over the breezy fell, without going to the top of the 
mountain, let him strike north-west when at the top of the scar on going 
from Newby Cote, and in less than a mile he will discover a number of 
interesting deep rifts or shakeholes in the limestone plateau. They are 
mostly within an area of a half-mile, and the nearest of them is about 
midway between Newby Cote and the house and plantation of Crina 
Bottom, which can be seen a long way off in the same direction under 
Ingleborough. Their names, wjiich indicate some physical or other 
characteristic, are in the order of succession, Raspberry Pot, Fluted 
Hole, Pillar Hole, Long Kin West, Rosebay Pot, Fern Pot, Moss Hole, 
Mud-foot Hole, and Cave Pot. Most of them, while only narrow and 
unimposing on the surface, having the appearance of mere rifts or cracks 
caused by earthquakes, are of prodigious depth. In fact it is impossible to 
ascertain the real depth of some of them owing to the projections of rock 
and the contracted nature of the fissures. Lying adjacent and parallel to 
the Craven Fault it is not improbable that their initial origin may be 
due to that great displacement, as little or no water is apparent in several 
of the holes. The Pillar Hole is so narrow that it can be stridden, and 
its approximate depth is 150 feet. The Long Kin Hole West, so called to 
distinguish it from one of like name, already described, east of Gaping 
Gill, is likewise a narrow but tremendous abyss, shaped on the surface 
like a letter L, and sometimes in consequence called the L. Hole. It has 
been plumbed to a depth of nearly 300 feet but this cannot with certainty 
be declared to be the full depth. 

Little more than half a mile east from Crina Bottom, and just to 
the north of the above shakeholes is another, which in the absence of a 



180 

name Mr. Balderston has christened with the somewhat alarming 
appellation of the Boggart's Roaring Hole. He says that on throwing 
stones into it they appeared to go much further than the line, with a 
peculiar clatter that began to creep upwards, " something between a roar 
and growl," a resentful tone that may be supposed to belong to the 
presiding genius of this dark and unexplored cavern. Its depth from 
the ground is said to be 145 feet. 

We are here at an elevation of about 1,400 feet, and by going 
westwards half-a-mile the Jenkin beck may be crossed at a point where it 
is swallowed up by a cavity in its rocky bed called Rantry Hole. Along 
the course of the lxsck are other swallow-holes, which engulf, or are 
submerged by the stream, according to its supply. Near Crina Bottom, 
opposite, is another long and deep fissure, not yet oj)ened out, but 
running water can be heard beneath, and stones thrown into it rebound 
with a jingling noise, apparently to a considerable depth. From Crina 
Bottom there is a cart-lane down to Ingleton, (l£ miles). 

But to resume our walk along the road to Ingleton from Newby Cote. 
In about a mile we cross the anticlinal of the Tow Scar Fault, and observe 
on our left the little hamlet of Cold Cotes, occupying the shallow valley 
caused by the westward downthrow of the faulted strata. The Tow 
Scar Fault, which is in reality the Mid Craven Fault, rises to the south- 
west of Graygarth, along the southern abutment of Hunt's Cross, crossing 
the Twiss and Doe, just above the Catleap Fall, and continuing in a 
south-easterly direction by Ease Grill and Slatingber, bringing up the 
Mountain Limestone against the shales overlying the Coniston Limestone. 
It is visible for the most part in an anticlinal ridge, the folds of the 
rock, however, which are largely obscured by drift, being only apparent 
at the base. At Cold Cotes, the Upper Coal Measures are brought up 
against the limestone,- and outcrops of coal may be seen in the Warth 
field, l)et\veen Cold Cotes and Greenwood Leghe, and also at other points 
nearer Ingleton. Here apjwsitely may be introduced details of a section 
of the coal-measures as exhibited in a gill near Yarlsl>er, (from the 
Government Survey Memoirs) : 

Sandstone ... ... ... ... 

Plav 

W I €mj • • • ••• • * • •»■ «•■ ••• ■•• 

L/Oftl "SlIlllL »■• ••• •■« • • » ••• ••• 

Sandstone, rather hard ... 

Soft grey and purple shales, with reddle ... 

«« f  < | llc»r*lGr • • • >•■ • • • 

nBuUSlunv ••• *•■ ••• •«• ••• ••• 

Red and white speckled soft sandstone (thickness unknown). 
Here comes a fault running N. 30° W. with quartz-pebbles in it. 
Fine light-blue clay well bedded, with plant-remains. 
Coal, good 

•^CH»"L lfl\ • • • «■• • « * ••• ••• ••• * • • ••• 

Grey " soapstone * with small ferruginous irregular nodules. . 



Ft. 


In. 


66 





6 








1 


8 





7 





9 





4o 





1 





1 





8 






181 

On the hill side upon the line of this fault we see the farm-house 
called High Leys, and on Gray Scar, half-a-mile behind the house are the 
deep and mysterious gulfs and cracks in the mountain above described. 
We now pass an old dwelling called Holly or Holy Plat House, which 
has a curious, projecting porch with stout stone pillars. When the Leeds 
and Kendal and Lancaster mail coaches travelled this road it was a 
well-known wayside inn. I have mentioned this road at the end of 
chapter ix. 

There is an enchanting prospect of the wooded vale of Lune from 
this elevated point. The spreading village of Ingleton occupies a 
beautiful position on the edge of the fells, and sheltered from the north 
by the white scars of Twisleton and Graygarth, which tower away behind. 
Westward, the graceful spire of Burton-iu-Lonsdale church rises alwve the 
fertile landscape, while the large and beautiful mansion lately built 
by Alfred S. Kirk, Esq., at Rareber, is a conspicuous object in the 
foreground. 

Enjoying this lovely prosj)ect we descend past the Slatingl>er farm 
and Yarlsber, when the road dips across the bridge over the Jenkin beck 
above mentioned. The tourist should turn aside here and view the 
romantic scenery of this attractive little glen. By following the stream 
up half-a-mile he will arrive at the fine waterfall of Ease Gill. The 
sloping pastures are strewn with the mealy, little pink primrose, fragrant 
orchis, pretty star-like sandwort, blue-flowered butterw T ort, and milkwort, 
and many another floral gem. 

The geologist also will find as much to interest him in this beck 
course as, perhaps, anywhere in the neighbourhood. From the bridge 
upwards the stream is crossed by numerous faults, running transversely 
to the course of the water, and disclosing by the position of the opposed 
strata a prodigious downthrow to the south and west. In ascending the 
beck we approach on the west side a mass of crumbly shale, and near it 
a bed of sandstone (apparently of the Yoredale series) while on the 
opposite or east side are the Silurian rocks, indicating a total resultant 
downthrow of at least 600 feet. The Coniston Limestone, detached here, 
consists of calcareous shale, with concretionary blue limestone-bands 
which turn to rotten stone on weathering. The beds dip S.S.E. nearly, 
at angles of from 50° to 80°. A short distance to the eastward they 
pass under the Carboniferous Limestone, and on the west are bounded by 
the same fault which cuts off the Coniston Limestone in Ingleton and 
Thornton becks.* 

On the south-east side of Ease Gill Wood, or about 600 yards north- 
east of the present house at Yarlsber, there is a circular camp, about 

*See the Memoirs of the (ieologival Society (1890). 



182 

90 yards in diameter, and surrounded with the remains of a foss and 
vallum, which measures at the top nine yards across. It is marked on 
the Ordnance Survey maps as supposed Roman, but its form and position 
are distinctly Danish, albeit its configuration, being irregularly circular, 
and adapted to the nature of the ground, is no objection to the Roman 
plan of castramentation. Yet its outline, so readily conforming to 
Danish ideas, and the numerous places hereabouts of Danish derivation, 
point to such an origin ; Tarlsber, for example, meaning the seat of 
government, literally the hill of the earl, from which we may suppose 
that this particular camp was the headquarters of some Danish general, 
in command of properly-organised forces, and very different from the 
scattered bands of pirates who for a long period previously had plundered 
in an erratic manner the coast and estuary districts of Yorkshire. But 
this we shall refer to again in our history of Ingleton. There appear to 
have been outposts all round Ingleborough, for the summit of this noble 
mountain, from a strategical standpoint, was, indeed, a " crown " worth 
fighting for, and many a struggle must there have been to obtain 
possession of it, and as some confirmation of the fact, cairns, tumuli, 
and other pre-historic objects, have been unusually numerous in its 
vicinity. There is a large rocky mound, rather suggestive of an 
entrenched tumulus on the south-west side of the camp just described. 

The Ease Gill Force (Gadhelic, eas, a waterfall) is formed by the 
dislocation of the above Tow Scar Fault. It occupies a secluded angle 
of the stream, while the wet rocks, canopied with luxuriant foliage, rise to 
a height of nearly 50 feet, and as completely environ the area of the 
fall as the walls of a hermit's cell. Rich mosses, and various ferns and 
flowers clothe the pendant steeps, while sometimes may be seen disported 
upon them the gaudy wings of some rare moth or large and curious 
dragon-fly. The water plunges from a height of 27 feet, under a natural 
bridge of rock having a span of 12 feet, and falls with tumultuous roar 
into a confined pool beneath. The tourist may ascend the plantation 
beside the fall, and come down to this mossy rock-bridge, which, at its 
broadest end, is about four feet wide, and whence, looking down the 
tree-shaded defile, he can just see the far-off purple heights of Burn 
Moor. Should he desire to ascend Ingleborough from the fall, he must 
follow the beck upwards, which is a good guide to Crina Bottom, (1 mile), 
and the conspicuous summit which is li miles further. . This is a 
grand and not much frequented route. 



188 



CHAPTER XV. 




Ovbb the Moors to Bentham. 

Walks between Clapham and Bentham — Newby Moor — Bolland Moor — Mewith 
Head — Clapham Wood Hall and the Farad ays— The Glasites — Eeasden — Lumb 
Falls — Queen of Fairies Chair — A tramp over Burn Moor — Four Stones, &c. 

|T is five or six miles from Clapham to Bentham, and by 
increasing this distance more or less, some very interesting 
walks are discoverable. The most direct way is along the 
high side of the station, and by a good road over Newby 
Moor to High Bentham ; or by Linghaw Cross, (600 feet), whence there 
is a very fine view ; or from this same road, after passing the first 
farmhouse on leaving the station, cross the railway bridge and descend 
to Hazel Farm to the Wenning side, whence a path runs through 
Waterscale Wood and by the Cave, hereafter mentioned, to Bentham. 
 But this is a route that is not much traversed, and in places it is rough 
and somewhat difficult to trace. A better way is to descend from 
Clapham station over the Wenning bridge, and up the road as far as 
Wickworth Farm (half-mile) whence to the right by a path to Clapham 
Woods Farm, (not Clapham Wood Hall), and so by the fields and a 
pleasant road to Bentham. 

The road by Clapham Wood Hall ascends the open Bolland Moor 
road as far as the cross-roads near Turnerford, (1 J miles), and then turns 
to the right, crossing the picturesque Keasden Gill beck, and traversing 
at Mewith Head about a half-mile of unenclosed moorland, whence the 
walk is along pleasant flowery lanes, three miles to Bentham. This is a 
nice out, but it is fully six miles from Clapham station. Clapham Wood 
Hall has been already mentioned as the old home of the Faradays, from 
whom sprung the celebrated scientist, Sir Michael Faraday, D.C.L., 
F.R.8., &c. His father, the blacksmith, lived here before his removal 
to London, in 1790, and there were also other members of the family, 
occupying humble positions in life, resident in the neighbourhood. One 
of these was a Richard Faraday, stonemason, at Keasden. The family 
belonged to a little religious community called the Glasites, and 
subsequently better known as the Sandemanians, which worshipped in a 
small building at Wenning Side, and to this pious set the learned and 
worthy Professor always gave his warmest sympathies and support, 
and retained his adhesion to this body throughout his life. 



184 

A capital trip is to ascend the Bolland Moor road as far as the above 
little village of Keasden, 2£ miles from Clapham station ; the spire of 
the neat little church rising prominently from the high land (770 feet) 
above the romantic Keasden Gill. The building, which will accommodate 
about 100 persons, is a chapel-of-ease to Clapham, and was erected in 
1873, at the sole cost of the late James Farrer, Esq., J.P., of Ingleborough, 
the lord of the manor. The deep gill, down which the foaming hill 
beck leaps in a succession of small cascades, is well wooded, and at one 
point of its course, called the Lumb Falls, the stream is precipitated 
with considerable vehemence into a dark and deep pool, and when swollen 
with rains is a particularly impressive sight. 

After viewing this romantic spot, and on crossing near the head 
of the gill, aud striking due west up the fell, in about a mile the stone 
fence which forms the dividing line between Yorkshire and Lancashire, 
will be reached. Following it a short distance a conspicuous group 
of rocks will be observed at the summit (1,320 feet), one of which has 
an artificial opening, and is called " Queen of the Fairies Chair." Here on 
bright moonlight nights, say the believing dalesfolk, the airy sprites of 
Burn Moor used to hold festive revel. All along this boundary ridge are 
other huge boulders or collections of stones known by such names as the 
" Standard of Burnmoor," " Long Grain Beacon," " Raven Castle," 
*' Cat Stones," and the " Cross of Greet." The latter is a large gritstone 
pillar on the pass into the Forest of Bolland, about five miles north of 
Slaidburn. 

By continuing along the same ridge from Queen of Fairies Chair, some 
two miles east the great boulder stone of Four Stones will be arrived at, 
a prominent land-mark for miles round, which is described in the next 
chapter. This enormous stone is two miles south of Bentham, and the 
fell can be descended to the village, crossing the Wenning at Low 
Bentham, near the mills. 



185 



CHAPTER XVI. 




Bentham. 

Bentham — Roman and Saxon remains - The church in Domesday — Ancient 
families — History of the manor - Gibson'* Green and Dr. John Gibson — 
Curious will— Stones fired by the Scots — A model church—Some rare relics — 
Fine old bell — A watch-tower in the Wars of the Roses — Bentham Registers — 
Burial in woollen — List of Rectors — Public institutions — Old Grammar 
School— Fox, the Quaker, at Bentham — Trade tokens — Ancient market-cross — 
The Black Hole — " Tweed Dobbie " and Barguest — Beautiful scenery — Four 
Stones. — Waterscale Wood and Cave. 

HE ancient and attractive village, or rather villages of High 
and Low Bentham (which are about a mile apart) lie just 
within the Yorkshire border, being separated on the south 
side from the county of Lancaster by the little Kirk Beck 
which forms a picturesque waterfall opposite the rectory, and flows into 
the Wenning near the church. While the neighbouring and extensive 
parishes of Giggleswick and Horton - in - Ribblesdale are, as elsewhere 
stated, within the Deanery of Craven, the parishes of Bentham, Ingleton, 
and Clapham form part of the Deanery of Lonsdale, yet all are comprised, 
for civil purposes, within the division of Ewecross. 

Of the antiquity of Bentham, and of its importance in mediaeval 
times, the record in Domesday (a.d. 1086) affords ample testimony. Its 
handsome church is one of the few in this part of England mentioned 
in that celebrated ancient survey. The following is the abstract : 

IV. Manors. In Benetain (Bentham) Wininctune (Wennington) Tathaim 
(Tatham) Fareltun (Farlton) Tunestalle (Tunstall) Chetel had four manors, and 
there are in them eighteen carucates to be taxed, and three churches. 

The fact that there were three churches of value, viz. : Bentham, 
Tatham, and Tunstall, and 1 8 geldable carucates, or probably 2000 acres, 
proves that the district must have been in a very advanced and profitable 
state of cultivation at that early period. It is, indeed, almost certain 
that the favoured and fertile lands about Bentham, watered by the 
pleasant Wenning, which abounded in fish, were ever since the Roman 
occupition the centre and home of an active agricultural class. Moreover 
the Roman military road from Colne and Ribchester passed through the 
village towards Overborough and Casterton, and it is also probable that 



186 

from its position near the north road over Cam Fell to Ingleton and 
Lancaster, that here was a mansions, or one of the divertoria of the 
passing legions. A few remaining yards of the Roman road may be 
traced near West End Farm, on the opposite side of the railway from the 
rectory. The greater part of the road has, however, been broken np. 

We have seen that at the time of the Norman survey the four manors 
belonged to one, Chetel ; the first great local Saxon proprietor being 
apparently one, Benet, a personal name, in its various modifications, 
transmitted to the present time. The suffix tain or ain (as given in 
Domesday) may, however, have another meaning, viz. : from the Celtic 
tin or tew, a fire, in allusion to the Beltane fires on Ingleborough ; or 
Teat, hain or am, a wood or thicket. With' regard to the former, the 



Benthaji. 

very ancient and serviceable beacon on Ingleborough apparently gave 
name, as elsewhere pointed out, to plnces much more distant than 
Bentham, which is only some four or five miles off, and can be well seen, 
as shewn in onr illustration. It is questionable whether there was any 
great extent of wood at the time of the Norman Survey. At any race, 
in the neighbourhood of the village there was a large area of both grass 
and arable land. 

The tree meaning seems doubtful, yet I am inclined to accept the Saxon 
terminal ham, heim, or home, as the more probable explanation. The 
presence of a Saxon church, the position as chief manor, and the extent 
of cultivated land, are emphatically indicative of a home. And in later 

rters, as also in the local pronunciation, the name appears to have been 



187 

almost invariably spoken or written Bentham, Bentame, Bentum, and 
the like. It is not improbable that the Norman scribes misread the final 
am for ain. Although in the Nomina Villarum (a.d. 1815* the name is. 
actually written Denton, a still very obvious error in transcription. 

Yet in spite of all this ancient importance, it is astonishing how little 
has been recorded of Bentham. Dr. Whitaker devotes but a few desultory 
lines to it, apparently for the reason that no families of note were ever 
settled here. 

The past history of the manor is in part coincident with that of 
Ingleton, both having been acquired in the reign of Queen Elizabeth by 
the family of Cholmley or Cholmondeley, who shortly after the dissolution 
of monasteries, obtained a lease for twenty-one years of the abbey lands 
in the neighbourhood of Whitby, and subsequently (in 1545) received a 
grant of all the possessions of that house. Sir Richard Cholmley, lord 
of Bentham and Ingleton, was born in 1580, and in 1624 was High 
Sheriff of Co. York., and M.P. for Scarborough. He resided at Whitby, 
and died in 1631. Sir Richard Cholmley, of Roxby, in the parish of 
Spofforth, his grandfather, joined the expedition under the Earl of 
Hertford, against the Scotch, and so gallantly distinguished himself that 
after the burning of Edinburgh he was knighted at Leith, 11th May, 
1544.* 

The following conveyance was effected in the 37th year ot Elizabeth. 
The exchange stated being for a render of 400 marks of silver : 

A.D. 1595. Plaintiffs : Thomas Metham, esq., Ralph Sal ven, esq., and Francis 
Metham, esq. Deforciants : Richard Cholmeley, esq., and Richard Cholmeley, 
gent. Manors of Ingleton and Bentham, and the advowson of Bentham church. 

The plaintiffs to this transfer were of the ancient and knightly 
family of Metham, of Howdenshire, while the Salvens, of North Duffield, 
and Croxdale Hall, Co. Durham, have for many centuries ranked among 
the chief gentry of the Palatinate. The following transaction may also 
be cited, as shewing what families were connected with Bentham at this 
time : 

A.D. 1598-9. Plaintiffs : Thomas Wyldman, Steph. Husband, Wm. Cumberland, 
Robert Tatham, Thos. Huganson, John Yeates, Edmd. Hogeson, Jane Robynson r 
widow, and Francis Plumer. Deforciants : John Gybson, Doc. of Laws, and 
Margaret his wife, and John Gybson, gent. Seven messuages with lands in 
Bentham, Burton and Thornton. A Warrant against the heirs of Marmaduk* 
Gibson, deceased, the brother of Doctor John Gibson. 

The little hamlet or domain of Gibson's Green, near Bentham, was- 
named after this old family, and the Dr. Gibson here referred to was a 
celebrated Elizabethan divine, and a Canon Residentiary of York. Dean 

Vide Forster'B Pedigrees of Yorkshire County Families. 



188 

Hutton, afterwards Archbishop of York, writing in May, 1582, to the 
Earl of Huntingdon, who was at that time Lord President of Her 
Majesty's Council in the North, styles him " my good frend," and adding, 
" I have alwaies wished him well, and verie lothe wold I be to joyne with 
his enemies ; which had bene done before this tyme, yf it could have 
bene compassed." Dr. Gibson, though non-resident, drew the stipend 
of a Canon Residentiary, and this letter was in respect to an appeal for 
him to retain the profits of residence, or " quietlie enjoy his prsebend 
and dignitie, thoughe he be absente," a proposal advanced by the good 
doctor and his friends which does not seem to have succeeded. The 
Gibsons resided in this neighbourhood from at least the time of Queen 
Mary, and at Gibson's Green, between Calf Cop and Oysterber and the 
Burton road, there is an old house of theirs with the initials and date, 
J. A. G., 1680, carved above the doorway. Among the wills of the 
Registry at Richmond, there is also the following curious injunction 
concerning a member of this family : 

Jhesus, 7 May, 1554, Rychard Gybsoti of Yngleton — to be buried in the 
churche of Saynt Leonard at Yngleton, ny unto the place wher I have kneled — 
Item, I will that ther be vi masses the day of my buryall, and every prest to have 
iiijd. — Item. I will that my son Christopher have my jacke, a pair of splyntes, a 
sconse, a yoke and bowes.* 

With respect to the other families concerned in the above deed, that 
named Husband occurs frequently in the registers two centuries ago, or 
from the time they have been preserved, and it appears to be the only 
family name inscribed therein to which the Latin word generosws, the 
equivalent to ''gentleman," is attached, thus : 

Maria filia Will mi Husband, generosi, sepulta Maii 19, 1686. 
Stephanus Husband, gener., sepultus erat Sept. 14, Ano Dni 1689. 

• Ajackr., sometimes called an acketon or hoqueton, was a defensive jacket or doublet quilted 
with leather ; aplynts, or spl-nt*, were armour plates for the protection of the inside of the arms ; 
and a sconse was a metal skull-cap or head-piece, without vizor. It is interesting to note that the 
possession of these accoutrements shew the above Richard Gibson to have been a man of some 
consequence, as by the famous Statute of Winchester, passed 18th Edward I., (a. d. 1284) every 
man was bound to provide and keep armour and weapons, according to his estate or goods. The 
armour and weapons directed by this statute to be kept by persons of different possessions, were 
thus allotted : (1) Kvory one possessed of lands to the yearly value of 16 pounds and 40 marks 
in goods, to keep a haubergcon, an iron head-piece, a sword, knife, and horse. (2) Those having 
from 10 and under 16 pounds in lands and chattels, or the value of 40 marks, the same as the 
preceding class, the horse excepted. (3) Persons having 100 shillings per annum in land, and 
upwards, were to keep a doublet, a head-piece of iron, a sword, and a knife. (4) From 40 shillings 
annual rent in land, and upwards to 100, to keep a sword, bow and arrows, and a knife. (6) He 
that had under 40 shillings in land, was sworn to keep faulchions, gisarmes, daggers, and other 
small arms. (6) Persons possessing less than 20 marks in chattels, to have swords, daggers, and 
other inferior weapons, and all others, authorised to keep bows and arrows might have them out 
of the forests. 

A review of these arms was to be made twice a year, by two Constables out of every hundred, 
who were to report defaulters to the justices, and they to present them to the King in Parliament. 
This statute was repealed in the first of Philip and Mary, ( a.d. 1563), and another enacted, wherein 
armour and weapons of more modern date were inserted. See Grose's Military Antiquities, Vol. 1, 
page 12. 



189 

Among the marriage entries there is one of Elizabeth Husband and 
Thomas Inglebie, armiger, on August 11th, 1717. As the baptism of 
the said Elizabeth took place at Bentham, on Nov. 4th, 1700, she must 
have entered upon her career of " weal and woe " at a very youthful age. 
The first-born of this union was a daughter, Elizabeth, baptised at 
Clapham, March 14th, 1718, and married in 1747 to James Carr, of 
Stackhouse. The Inglebys, as related elsewhere, were an old Catholic 
family, seated at Lawk land and Austwick, and a branch of the family 
of Ripley Castle. In the Registration books of the names and real 
estates of Papists in the West Riding, for the years 1717 to 1784, there 
is this entry : " Thomas Ingilby, of Austwick, Co. York, Esquire ;" 
doubtless the same as the above. 

The subsequent history of the manor is apparently a con jointure with 
that of Ingleton. Both properties were held by Gerard Lowther, of 
Penrith, a Bencher of Lincoln's Inn, who was M.P. for Cumberland in 
1602 ; and afterwards, by the marriage of Catherine, daughter and 
heiress of Henry Bouch, of Ingleton Hall, with Edward Parker, J.P., 
of Browsholme, (who died in 1721) transmitted to this ancient historic 
family. The Parkers, I may add, for many generations held the office 
of Bowbearers of the Forest of Bolland. Thos. Lister Parker sold the 
advowson of Bentham Church to James Farrer, of Clapham, on July 
27th, 1810, retaining the next presentation, which was accordingly made 
to the Rev. John F. Parker, in 1825. 

The church at Bentham is, as stated, a pre-Norman foundation, but 
of this early structure nothing has been saved but a fragment of a Saxon 
Crucifixion., which for some centuries was concealed beneath a thick coat 
of plaster in the east wall of the tower. The stone is about 18 inches 
square, and bears a crude and slender representation of Our Saviour with 
extended arms, and upon His head a crown of thorns. A few years ago 
it was rescued from the risk of decay and placed in its more protected 
position inside the church, by the present Rector. 

As appears by a remission of taxes granted by Edward II. in the 
18th year of his reign (a.d. 1319), the church at Bentham was almost 
wholly destroyed by the marauding Scots during one of their raids after 
the battle of Bannockburn in 1814. Amongst the towns specified by 
the Act in the wapentake of Ewecross are Bentham and Clapham. On 
the south wall and tower of the church there are, moreover, stones which 
shew unmistakable evidence of the action of fire ; and it is also apparent, 
from very recent discoveries in the church, that it was rebuilt shortly 
after this time, for on raising the floor of the chancel in preparation 
for the restoration which was completed in 1 878, the stone coffin of the 
founder of the chancel was laid bare to view. At the head of the coffin 
was placed an oblong fragment (unfortunately only a fragment) of a 



190 

atone slab, the name or any clue by which the worthy benefactor could 
have been traced being lost. This slab, which probably had at one time 
formed the lid of the coffin, measured 4 feet in length, and 1 foot in 
width, and on it is cut out, and afterwards filled with lead, this 

inscription, the earlier and latter parts of which have perished, 

Qui Fecit cancellum cujus Anhle Propitietub Deus 

£ — Who made this chancel, on whose soul God have pity. — ] 

The formation of the letters employed in this work is somewhat curious 
-and uncommon, and corresponds exactly to that of similar characters in 
an alphabet in use about the year 1340, of which examples are 
preserved in the British Museum. The coffin and slab, which now lie 
within the Sacrarium on the north side, are denoted by a small brass 
plate engraved with the following words : Sepvlchrvm : Fvndatoris : 
hvivs : Cancelli : CiRC : f ±J>* 1340. [The burial place of the 
Founder of this Chancel, about the year of our Lord, 1340.] It may 
be remarked that the Founder was evidently a man of small stature, for 
the inside measurements of the coffin are only 5 feet 7 inches long, and 
1 foot 5£ inches wide. A particularly interesting feature, corroborative 
of this period, is the inclination of the chancel towards the south, and is 
intended to typify the leaning of our Lord's Head on the Cross after His 
finished work. This is a beautiful symbol, most frequently observed 
in architecture of the reign of Edward III. 

A Faculty obtained in Oct., 1822, to "take down and entirely 
remove " the fabric of the church appears to have been earned out upon 
every portion, save the tower and chancel, with painful completeness. 
The lower part of the tower, which is composed of random-walling, is 
■evidently of the reign of Edward III., while above the second string- 
course, including the parapets, is an addition of the time of Henry VII. 
The re-building in 1823 entirely obliterated the ancient features in the 
body of the church, while several relics of interest were either ruthlessly 
destroyed or buried from sight under a copious covering of rough-cast 
and whitewash. Happily the restoration of 1877-8, conducted by Mr. 
Norman Shaw, R.A., has transformed ugliness into beauty, and disclosed 
many things of rare interest long hidden from view, while under the 
fostering care of the present rector, the Rev. F. W. Joy, M.A., who is 
a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, a number of relics have been 
discovered and most carefully restored, and much light has been thrown 
by him upon the past history and structure of the ancient fabric. To 
his able interest in the old parish records is to be attributed, indeed, a 
great part of the information contained fn this chapter. 

The interior of the church is particularly beautiful, and everything 
looks in perfect and admirable order. The style of architecture is 
Perpendicular throughout, the old arches being of exceptionally fine 



191 

proportions. According to the compass, the edifice does not stand due 
east and west, but inclines a great deal south-west and north-east. It is 
very much to be regretted that when the church was thoroughly examined, 
previous to the commencement of the restoration in 1876, no trace of 
any old pediment or capital was found, all having been ruthlessly 
abolished in 1823. A stone corbel, let into the east wall of the chancel 
aisle, and inscribed with the initials, I.B., has evidently held a statue of 
the patron saint, John the Baptist, now unfortunately lost. This, it may 
be remarked, was a relic of pre-Reformation times, when, according to 
custom, each church contained three altars ; namely, the High Altar, in 
the centre of the east end of the chancel, being necessarily the chief ; 
the other two, dedicated respectively to the Virgin Mary and the. Patron 
Saint, being placed in subordinate positions. 

The beautiful east window by Powell, of London, is of five lights, 
and illustrates the following scripture subjects : The Salutation ; The 
Naming of Jesus ; The Baptism of Christ ; The Reproving of Herod ; 
and the Martyrdom of John, these being scenes in the life of John the 
Baptist, the patron saint of the church. Another very beautiful window, 
by the same firm, is on the south side of the chancel, and is to the memory 
of the late Mr. Joseph Teale, who died in 1889. The left-hand light 
represents the Angel of the Revelation, (chapter xxii., 1 — 2) " And he 
shewed me a pure river of water of life, clear as crystal, proceeding out of 
the throne of God and of the Lamb." The right-hand light has for its 
subject the Angel going down into the Pool of Bethesda, and troubling 
the water, (St. John, chapter v., 2). There are also other handsome 
memorial windows, viz. : to Mr. Alfred Foster, of Spring Head, Halifax, 
who died in 1873 ; to Mr. John Swainson and his wife, Elizabeth 
Susannah Swainson, of Halton Hall, (erected in 1878) ; and to 
Mrs. Eleanor Burrow, who died in 1873 ; put in by her niece, Mary Alice 
Just, in 1886. There is a mural tablet, with a Latin inscription, at the 
west end of the nave, in memory of the Rev. George Holden, (ob. 1793), 
and Jane, his wife (ob. 1781.) He was schoolmaster at Bentham, and 
an author of some repute, and whose son, the Rev. Geo. Holden, LL.T)., 
is commemorated by a similar monument in the church at Horton-in- 
Ribblesdale, of which he was minister until his death in 1820. The 
Bentham Registers record the elder Holden's marriage, by licence, with 
Jane Brooks, spinster, Sept. 20th, 1755. He was one of the first who 
understood the rotations of sea-tides, and by his calculations produced 
the once popular " Holden's Liverpool Tide Tables." 

Within the church there is also a neat mural monument to several 
members of the Garnett family, of Lancaster. The most noticeable of 
the few brasses which have escaped destruction, is that of Christopher 
Fetherstone, Rector of Bentham from a. d. 1616 to 1653. He was a 



192 

younger son of Alexander Petherstone, Esq., of Fetherstone Haugh, 
Northumberland. The inscription, in Latin and English, is neatly if 
somewhat playfully expressed. Observe the humour on the words 
Feather and Stone. 

" Conditur hac parva generosus Rector in urna. 
Corpus terra tegit, spiritus astra colit. 
Pluma refert an imam, sic Saxum corporis umbram. 
Pluma volat, Saxum nunc jacet hoc tumulo. 

Who list to know who lyes under this stone, 

Sometimes a man ; but now is tied and gone, 

His soul like to a Feather flyes aloft, 

His body stone like to his Center soft, 

What I have beene thou art ; and thou shalt bee, 

What now I am, loe this is Destinie. 

Christoferus Fetherstone, artium Magister, Rector ecclesine deBentham incumbens, 

succumbens ; obiit Octobris 14to anno 1653." 

The tablet is suiTuounted by the coat-of-arms of the Fetherstone 
family, which also has a reference to the name. In one of the upper 
windows of the old rectory there were several beautifully emblazoned 
quarries of old glass with the same coat-of-arms and crest. These have 
been carefully preserved, and have been re-leaded and placed in a 
prominent position in a window of the drawing-room of the present 
rectory, with a suitable inscription, detailing their history. 

Near this old brass there is one recording another rector, the Rev. 
Thomas Lupton, who died in 1719-20, aged 80, and who was rector of 
the church 56 years, and his wife, Mrs. Mary Lupton, who died in 1096, 
aged 55. Nothing appears to be known of these, excepting a comment 
of dubious import, in the year 1690, when a complaint was laid by the 
parishioners of Ingleton against Thomas Lupton, Rector of Benthain, 
for not allowing their curate a competent stipend ! Near the font is a 
memorial brass to Anna, wife of Stephen Husband, gent., who died in 
1683. We have already referred to this family. And another neat 
brass commemorates anonymously the placing of the clock and chimes 
in the tower, July 14th, 1885, by "one who hopes for Heaven in 
Eternity." 

Among the remaining antiquities now preserved in the church is an 
old erased tombstone, recovered from the debris of the u restoration " of 
1823, and which bears the arms of the Mason's Company, a chevron 
between three castles, and the motto, " In the Lord is all our trust." 
The present Rector, Mr. Joy, has, at the suggestion of the Society for 
the Preservation of Ancient Monuments, placed this interesting tablet in 
the east wall of the Font Chapel, and the stone which formerly held the 
brass tablet of the Rev. Thos. Lupton and his wife (mentioned above), 
but which has until lately been used as one of the steps leading to the 



193 

beating apparatus, has been restored to its place and the brass fitted into 
its old quarters again. Another curious stone erected near it, was taken 
ont of the river, bat unfortunately this slab, from long neglect and 
ciposnre, is in a broken and fragmentary condition. The inscription is 
in raised letters of the middle of the 17th century, and is apparently a 
memorial stone, — possibly a grave-stone. The portion that is legible 

reads, " Of John , Kiekebecke W Two Days 

Befo Departurere Her Greatest A " 

The handsome reredos is in Caen stone, with marble panels, 
containing sculptured emblems, in relief, of the fonr Evangelists. It was 
made and carved by Mr. Earp, of London. The lectern, presented by 



Bestham Church Font. 
Henry Hall, Esq., of Alton, in Hampshire, and the carved oak pulpit, 
are also very beautifnl objects. The latter was presented by John 
Ellershaw, Esq., of Headingley, a representative of an old Bentham 
family. The large and beautiful font most be noticed at greater length, 
as it is quite unique. It was designed by Mr. W. R. Lethaby, a pupil 
of Mr. Norman Shaw, R.A., and is referred to in an article on 
" Architecture at the Academy," in the fyiectator of June 7th, 1890. 
The several parts of the whole structure are an emblematic interpretation 



184 

A capital trip is to ascend the Bolland Moor road as far as the above 
little village of Keasden, 2£ miles from Clapham station ; the spire of 
the neat little church rising prominently from the high land (770 feet) 
above the romantic Keasden Gill. The building, which will accommodate 
about 100 persons, is a chapel-of-ease to Clapham, and was erected in 
1873, at the sole cost of the late James Farrer, Esq., J.P., of Ingleborough, 
the lord of the manor. The deep gill, down which the foaming hill 
beck leaps in a succession of small cascades, is well wooded, and at one 
point of its course, called the Lumb Falls, the stream is precipitated 
with considerable vehemence into a dark and deep pool, and when swollen 
with rains is a particularly impressive sight. 

After viewing this romantic spot, and on crossing near the head 
of the gill, and striking due west up the fell, in about a mile the stone 
fence which forms the dividing line between Yorkshire and Lancashire, 
will be reached. Following it a short distance a conspicuous group 
of rocks will be observed at the summit (1,320 feet), one of which has 
an artificial opening, and is called " Queen of the Fairies Chair." Here on 
bright moonlight nights, say the believing dalesfolk, the airy sprites of 
Burn Moor used to hold festive revel. All along this boundary ridge are 
other huge boulders or collections of stones known by such names as the 
" Standard of Burnmoor," " Long Grain Beacon," " Raven Castle," 
« 4 Cat Stones," and the " Cross of Greet." The latter is a large gritstone 
pillar on the piss into the Forest of Bolland, about five miles north of 
Slaidburn. 

By continuing along the same ridge from Queen of Fairies Chair, some 
two miles east the great boulder stone of Four Stones will be arrived at, 
a prominent land-mark for miles round, which is described in the next 
chapter. This enormous stone is two miles south of Bentham, and the 
fell can be descended to the village, crossing the Wenning at Low 
Bentham, near the mills. 



185 



CHAPTER XVI. 




Bentham. 

Be n tham — Roman and Saxon remains — The church in Domesday — Ancient 
families — History of the manor - Gibson's Green arid Dr. John Gibson- 
Curious will — Stones fired by the Scots — A model church— Some rare relics — 
Fine old bell — A watch-tower in the Wars of the Roses — Bentham Registers - 
Burial in woollen — List of Rectors — Public institutions — Old Grammar 
School — Fox, the Quaker, at Bentham — Trade tokens — Ancient market-cross — 
The Black Hole — " Tweed Dobbie " and Barguest — Beautiful scenery — Four 
Stones. — Waterscale Wood and Cave. 

HE ancient and attractive village, or rather villages of High 
and Low Bentham (which are about a mile apart) lie just 
within the Yorkshire border, being separated on the south 
side from the county of Lancaster by the little Kirk Beck 
which forms a picturesque waterfall opposite the rectory, and flows into 
the Wenning near the church. While the neighbouring and extensive 
parishes of Giggleswick and Horton-in-Ribblesdale are, as elsewhere 
stated, within the Deanery of Craven, the parishes of Bentham, Ingleton, 
and Clapham form part of the Deanery of Lonsdale, yet all are comprised, 
for civil purposes, within the division of Ewecross. 

Of the antiquity of Bentham, and of its importance in mediaeval 
times, the record in Domesday (a.d. 1086) affords ample testimony. Its 
handsome church is one of the few in this part of England mentioned 
in that celebrated ancient survey. The following is the abstract : 

IV. Manors. In He Detain (Bentham) Wininctune (Wennington) Tathaim 
(Tatham) Fareltun (Farlton) Tunestalle (Tunstall) Chetel had four manors, and 
there are in them eighteen carucates to be taxed, and three churches. 

The fact that there were three churches of value, viz. : Bentham, 
Tatham, and Tunstall, and 1 8 geldable carucates, or probably 2000 acres, 
proves that the district must have been in a very advanced and profitable 
state of cultivation at that early period. It is, indeed, almost certain 
that the favoured and fertile lauds about Bentham, watered by the 
pleasant Wenuing, which abounded in fish, were ever since the Roman 
occupation the centre and home of an active agricultural class. Moreover 
the Roman military road from Colne and Ribchester passed through the 
village towards Overborough and Casterton, and it is also probable that 



196 

1847. October 27, Mary Thompson, aged 12 weeks, (died on the road between 
Tatham Bridge and Bentham). 

1863. July 23, Alice Hole, aged 100. 

1874. April S, John Paisley Smith, aged IS years, (killed by lightning at 
5-10 p.m., March Slst, as he was returning home from school). 

1882. July 3, Isaac Shuttleworth, of Long Preston, aged 24 years, killed by 
lightning. 

As the catalogue of Rectors of Bentham, given in Whitaker's 
History of Richmo?idshire, is imperfect, it will be useful to insert here 
an amended list, which I am enabled to present by favour of the 
Rev. F. W. Joy, the present Rector. 



Datk of 

IjCSTITl'TION. 


Rectors. 


Patrons, 


Cause ok 
Vacaxcv. 


A. D. 1874 


D'ns Edm. Mi rescue . 


p'mort 


20 Julii, 1394 


D'ns Nic. Otterburn . 




p'mort 


20 Sept, 1421 


D'ns Tho. Swetynge. 






Cap 

Robt. Fishe, CI. . . 


Joh'es Tirwhit 




1462 




p'mort 




Thomas Leson . . . 




1546 






p'mort 


5 July, 1668 


Anthony Hopkins . . 


Richard Cholmeley. 








of Roxby, Kt. . 


Death of R. F. 


18 Nov., 1588 


Robert Field . . . 


Richard Cholmeley . 


Death of A. H. 


29 May, 1616 


Xtopher FetherBtone, 








v/l«, iM.A. ... 


Will. Louther, Ar. . 




25 Aug., 1660 


Robert Lowther . . 


The King . . . 




24 Jan., 1670 


Edward Fell, M.A. . 


Anthony Bouch, of 








Ingleton. Com.Lan. 


Resig. of R. L. 


9 Oct., 1693 


Thomas L up ton . , 


Peter Murthwait . . 




July, 1717 


Thomas L up ton* . . 


Win., Abp. of York, 








by lapse . . . 


Death of T. L. 


17 June, 1720 


Richard Goodall, A.B. 


Ferd. Hudleston, of 








Millom Castle, Esq. 


Death of T. L. 


26 Mar., 1748 


James Cowgill . . . 


Alex. Butler, of Kirk - 








land, Com. Lan. Esq. 


Death of R. G. 


3 Jan.. 1748 


Oliver Marton, B.A. . 


John Parker, Brows- 








holme,Co. York , Esq. 


Death of J. C. 


26 Nov., 1761 


Edwd. Fell (?) . . . 


Ed. Parker, of Brows- 








holme .... 


Resig. of 0. M. 


16 Dec, 1761 


Thomas Butler, M.A . 






3 Oct., 1825 


John Fleming Parker, 








M.A 


Thos. Lister Parker, 
Hill St., London, 








Esq 


Death of T. B. 


20 Jan., 1863 


William Clayton, M.A. 


Rev. Win. Clayton . 


Death of J. F. P. 


7 Mar., 1865 


Matthew Wood, M.A. 


Susannah Clayton . 


Death of W. C. 


22 Aug., 1865 


Edgar Sherlock, M.A. 


Rev. Edgar Sherlock 


Resig. of M. W. 


14 Oct., 1884 


Frederic Walker Joy, 








M.A, F.S.A. . . 


Walker Joy, Esq. 


Resig. of E. S. 



* There is an inexplicable anomaly between this entry and a brass in the church, -which records 
that the Rev. Thomas Lupton, -vrho died in 1719-20, was minister of the parish " six and fifty 
years." See p. 192. 



187 

almost invariably spoken or written Bentham, Bentame, Bentum, and 
the like. It is not improbable that the Norman scribes misread the final 
am for ain. Although in the Nomina Villarum (a.d. 1315) the name is- 
actually written Denton, a still very obvious error in transcription. 

Yet in spite of all this ancient importance, it is astonishing how little 
has been recorded of Bentham. Dr. Whitaker devotes but a few desultory 
lines to it, apparently for the reason that no families of note were ever 
settled here. 

The past history of the manor is in part coincident with that of 
Ingleton, both having been acquired in the reign of Queen Elizabeth by 
the family of Cholmley or Cholmondeley, who shortly after the dissolution 
of monasteries, obtained a lease for twenty-one years of the abbey lands 
in the neighbourhood of Whitby, and subsequently (in 1545) received a 
grant of all the possessions of that house. Sir Richard Cholmley, lord 
of Bentham and Ingleton, was born in 1580, and in 1624 was High 
Sheriff of Co. York., and M.P. for Scarborough. He resided at Whitby, 
and died in 1631. Sir Richard Cholmley, of Roxby, in the parish of 
Spofforth, his grandfather, joined the expedition under the Earl of 
Hertford, against the Scotch, and so gallantly distinguished himself that 
after the burning of Edinburgh he was knighted at Leith, 11th May, 
1544.* 

The following conveyance was effected in the 37th year ot Elizabeth. 
The exchange stated being for a render of 400 marks of silver : 

A.D. 1595. Plaintiffs : Thomas Metham, esq., Ralph Salven, esq., and Francis 
Metham, esq. Deforciants : Richard Cholmeley, esq., and Richard Choi me] ey, 
gent. Manors of Ingleton and Bentham, and the advowson of Bentham church. 

The plaintiffs to this transfer were of the ancient and knightly 
family of Metham, of Howdenshire, while the Salvens, of North Duffield, 
and Croxdale Hall, Co. Durham, have for many centuries ranked among 
the chief gentry of the Palatinate. The following transaction may also 
be cited, as shewing what families were connected with Bentham at this 
time : 

A.D. 1598-9. Plaintiffs : Thomas Wyldman, Steph. Husband, Wm. Cumberland, 
Robert Tatham, Thos. Huganson, John Yeates, Edmd. Hogeson, Jane Robynson r 
widow, and Francis Plumer. Deforciants : John Qybson, Doc. of Laws, and 
Margaret his wife, and John Gybson, gent. Seven messuages with lands in 
Bentham, Burton and Thornton. A Warrant against the heirs of Marmaduke 
Gibson, deceased, the brother of Doctor John Gibson. 

The little hamlet or domain of Gibson's Green, near Bentham, wa& 
named after this old family, and the Dr. Gibson here referred to was a 
celebrated Elizabethan divine, and a Canon Residentiary of York. Dean 

Fide Forster's Pedigrees of Yorkshire County Families. 



188 

Hutton, afterwards Archbishop of York, writing in May, 1582, to the 
Earl of Huntingdon, who was at that time Lord President of Her 
Majesty's Council in the North, styles him " my good frend," and adding, 
" I have alwaies wished him well, and verie lothe wold I be to joyne with 
his enemies ; which had bene done before this tyme, yf it could have 
bene compassed." Dr. Gibson, though non-resident, drew the stipend 
of a Canon Residentiary, and this letter was in respect to an appeal for 
him to retain the profits of residence, or " quietlie enjoy his prtebend 
and dignitie, thoughe he be absente," a proposal advanced by the good 
doctor and his friends which does not seem to have succeeded. The 
Gibsons resided in this neighbourhood from at least the time of Queen 
Mary, and at Gibson's Green, between Calf Cop and Oysterber and the 
Burton road, there is an old house of theirs with the initials and date, 
J. A. G., 1680, carved above the doorway. Among the wills of the 
Registry at Richmond, there is also the following curious injunction 
concerning a member of this family : 

Jhesug, 7 May, 1554. Rychard Gybsoii of Yngleton — to be buried in the 
churche of Saynt Leonard at Yngleton, ny unto the place wher 1 have kneled — 
Item, I will that ther be vi washes the day of my buryall, and every prest to have 
iiijd. — Item. I will that my son Christopher have my jacke, a pair of splyntes, a 
sconse, a yoke and bowes.* 

With respect to the other families concerned in the above deed, that 
named Husband occurs frequently in the registers two centuries ago, or 
from the time they have been preserved, and it appears to be the only 
family name inscribed therein to which the Latin word generosiis, the 
equivalent to ifc gentleman," is attached, thus : 

Maria filia Will mi Husband, generosi, sepulta Maii 19. 1686. 
Stephanus Husband, gener., sepultus erat Sept. 14, Ano Dni 1689. 

* A jack*, sometimes called an ackeUm or hoqvtt<>n, was a defensive jacket or doublet quilted 
with leather ; splt/nts, or splmts, were armour plates for the protection of the inside of the arms ; 
and a scn»sr was a metal skull-cap or head-piece, without vicor. It is interesting to note that the 
possession of these accoutrements shew the above Richard Gibson to have been a man of some 
consequence, as by the famous Statute of Winchester, passed 18th Edward I., (a. d. 1284) every 
man was bound to provide and keep armour and weapons, according to his estate or goods. The 
armour and weapons directed by this statute to be kept by persons of different possessions, were 
thus allotted : (1) Every one possessed of lands to the yearly value of 15 pounds and 40 marks 
in goods, to keep a haubergeon, an iron head-piece, a sword, knife, and horse. (2) Those having 
from 10 and under 15 pounds in lands and chattels, or the value of 40 marks, the same as the 
preceding class, the horse excepted. (3) Persons having 100 shillings per annum in land, and 
upwards, were to keep a doublet, a head-piece of iron, a sword, and a knife. (4) From 40 shillings 
annual rent in land, and upwards to 100, to keep a sword, bow and arrows, and a knife. (5) He 
that had under 40 shillings in land, was sworn to keep faulchions, gisarmes, daggers, and other 
small arms. (tij Persons possessing less than 20 marks in chattels, to have swords, daggers, and 
other inferior weapons, and all others authorised to keep bows and arrows might have them out 
of the forests. 

A review of these arms was to be made twice a year, by two Constables out of every hundred, 
who were to report defaulters to the justices, and they to present them to the King in Parliament. 
This statute was repealed in the first of Philip and Mary, ( a.d. 1553), and another enacted, wherein 
armour and weapons of more modern date were inserted. See Grose's Military Antiquities, Vol. 1, 
page 12. 



189 

Among the marriage entries there is one of Elizabeth Husband and 
Thomas Inglebie, armiger, on August 11th, 1717. As the baptism of 
the said Elizabeth took place at Bentham, on Nov. 4th, 1700, she must 
have entered upon her career of u weal and woe " at a very youthful age. 
The first-born of this union was a daughter, Elizabeth, baptised at 
Clapham, March 14th, 1718, and married in 1747 to James Carr, of 
Stackhouse. The Inglebys, as related elsewhere, were an old Catholic 
family, seated at Lawkland and Austwick, and a branch of the family 
of Ripley Castle. In the Registration books of the names and real 
estates of Papists in the West Riding, for the years 1717 to 1734, there 
is this entry : " Thomas Ingilby, of Austwick, Co. York, Esquire ;" 
doubtless the same as the above. 

The subsequent history of the manor is apparently a con jointure with 
that of Ingleton. Both properties were held by Gerard Lowther, of 
Penrith, a Bencher of Lincoln's Inn, who was M.P. for Cumberland in 
1602 ; and afterwards, by the marriage of Catherine, daughter and 
heiress of Henry Bouch, of Ingleton Hall, with Edward Parker, J.P., 
of Browsholme, (who died in 1721) transmitted to this ancient historic 
family. The Parkers, I may add, for many generations held the office 
of Bowbearers of the Forest of Bolland. Thos. Lister Parker sold the 
advowson of Bentham Church to James Fairer, of Clapham, on July 
27th, 1810, retaining the next presentation, which was accordingly made 
to the Rev. John F. Parker, in 1825. 

The church at Bentham is, as stated, a pre-Norman foundation, but 
of this early structure nothing has been saved but a fragment of a Saxon 
Crucifixion, which for some centuries was concealed beneath a thick coat 
of plaster in the east wall of the tower. The stone is about 18 inches 
square, and bears a crude and slender representation of Our Saviour with 
extended arms, and upon His head a crown of thorns. A few years ago 
it was rescued from the risk of decay and placed in its more protected 
position inside the church, by the present Rector. 

As apj>ears by a remission of taxes granted by Edward II. in the 
18th year of his reign (a.d. 1319), the church at Bentham was almost 
wholly destroyed by the marauding Scots during one of their raids after 
the battle of Bannockburn in 1314. Amongst the towns specified by 
the Act in the wapentake of Ewecross are Bentham and Clapham. On 
the south wall and tower of the church there are, moreover, stones which 
shew unmistakable evidence of the action of fire ; and it is also apparent* 
from very recent discoveries in the church, that it was rebuilt shortly 
after this time, for on raising the floor of the chancel in preparation 
for the restoration w r hich was completed in 1878, the stone coffin of the 
founder of the chancel was laid bare to view. At the head of the coffin 
was placed an oblong fragment (unfortunately only a fragment) of a 



184 

A capital trip is to ascend the Bolland Moor road as far as the above 
little village of Keasden, 2£ miles from Clapham station ; the spire of 
the neat little church rising prominently from the high land (770 feet) 
above the romantic Keasden Gill. The building, which will accommodate 
about 100 persons, is a chapel-of-ease to Clapham, and was erected in 
1873, at the sole cost of the late James Farrer, Esq., J. P., of Ingleborough, 
the lord of the manor. The deep gill, down which the foaming hill 
beck leaps in a succession of small cascades, is well wooded, and at one 
point of its course, called the Lumb Falls, the stream is precipitated 
with considerable vehemence into a dark and deep pool, and when swollen 
with rains is a particularly impressive sight. 

After viewing this romantic spot, and on crossing near the head 
of the gill, and striking due west up the fell, in about a mile the stone 
fence which forms the dividing line between Yorkshire and Lancashire, 
will be reached. Following it a short distance a conspicuous group 
of rocks will be observed at the summit (1,320 feet), one of which has 
an artificial opening, and is called " Queen of the Fairies Chair." Here on 
bright moonlight nights, say the believing dalesfolk, the airy sprites of 
Burn Moor used to hold festive revel. All along this boundary ridge are 
other huge boulders or collections of stones knowu by such names as the 
" Standard of Burnmoor," " Long Grain Beacon," " Raven Castle," 
*' Cat Stones," and the " Cross of Greet." The latter is a large gritstone 
pillar on the pass into the Forest of Bolland, about five miles north of 
Slaidburu. 

By continuing along the same ridge from Queen of Fairies Chair, some 
two miles east the great boulder stone of Four Stones will be arrived at, 
a prominent land-mark for miles round, which is described in the next 
chapter. This enormous stone is two miles south of Bentham, and the 
fell can be descended to the village, crossing the Wenning at Low 
Bentham, near the mills. 



185 



CHAPTER XVI. 




Bentham. 

Bentham — Roman and Saxon remains - The church in Domesday — Ancient 
families — History of the manor - Gibson's Green and Dr. John Gibson — 
Curious will— Stones fired by the Scots — A model church—Some rare relics — 
Fine old bell — A watch-tower in the Wars of the Roses — Bentham Registers — 
Burial in woollen — List of Rectors — Public institutions — Old Grammar 
School — Fox, the Quaker, at Bentham — Trade tokens — Ancient market-cross — 
The Black Hole — •■ Tweed Dobbie " and Barguest— Beautiful scenery — Four 
Stones. — Waterscale Wood and Cave. 

HE ancient and attractive village, or rather villages of High 
and Low Bentham (which are about a mile apart) lie just 
within the Yorkshire border, being separated on the south 
side from the county of Lancaster by the little Kirk Beck 
which forms a picturesque waterfall opposite the rectory, and flows into 
the Weuning near the church. While the neighbouring and extensive 
parishes of Giggleswick and Horton-in-Ribblesdale are, as elsewhere 
stated, within the Deanery of Craven, the parishes of Bentham, Ingletou, 
and Clapham form part of the Deanery of Lonsdale, yet all are comprised, 
for civil purposes, within the division of Ewecross. 

Of the antiquity of Bentham, and of its importance in mediaeval 
times, the record in Domesday (a.d. 1086) affords ample testimony. Its 
handsome church is one of the few in this part of England mentioned 
in that celebrated ancient survey. The following is the abstract : 

IV. Manors. In Benetain (Bentham) Wininctune (Wennington) Tathaim 
(Tatham) Fareltun (Farlton) Tunestalle (Tunstall) Chetel had four manors, and 
there are in them eighteen carucates to be taxed, and three churches. 

The fact that there were three churches of value, viz. : Bentham, 
Tatham, and Tunstall, and 1 8 geldable carucates, or probably 2000 acres, 
proves that the district must have been in a very advanced and profitable 
state of cultivation at that early period. It is, indeed, almost certain 
that the favoured and fertile lands about Bentham, watered by the 
pleasant Wenning, which abounded in fish, were ever since the Roman 
occupation the centre and home of an active agricultural class. Moreover 
the Roman military road from Colne and Ribchester passed through the 
village towards Overborough and Casterton, and it is also probable that 



202 

It is said that in 1598, so prevalent was the disease in the north that 
scores of towns and villages in Yorkshire, Durham, and Westmoreland 
had to be vigilantly watched in this way. The Assizes at Durham could 
not be held owing to the extent and malignancy of the outbreak. At 
Richmond, 2200 persons are reported to have died in this one year, and 
at Kendal even a larger number were similarly stricken down. During 
the great plague of 1665 the strictest precautions were taken, but alas ! 
in too many instances they came too late, and whole communities were 
suddenly overcome by the awful death-dealing plague. What was 
the nature of this terrible visitation at Bentham, or whether it actually 
prevailed here, we have had no means of ascertaining. But it is a 
significant fact that the parish registers cease, and are missing, with the 
year 1665, which does not seem unlikely to be from the circumstances 
that these, and similar moveables, in which there was the slightest 
suspicion of contagion lurking, were destroyed during this fatal year. 

But let us leave this old Plague Stone, with its unhappy memories, 
and journey forward to Low Bentham. Passing through the village we 
arrive at the substantial Wenning Bridge, and the grand old church, 
described in the last chapter, opposite which is the Rectory, a 
picturesquely situated Elizabethan residence, erected in 1884 from 
designs by Mr. Norman Shaw, R.A. The old Rectory was taken down 
and the present one built on its site. 

Bentham Bridge, in the time of Christ. Fetherstone, Rector from 
1616 to 1653, was the scene of one of the most remarkable rescues from 
a watery grave that has probably ever been recorded. Indeed, such an 
instance of re-animation— a human being lying three days and three 
nights in the river !— seems incredible, but the statement is vouched for 
in the following particulars : — 

"Strange Providence— WWliim Foster of Newby Coates abt a Mile beyond 
Clapham in Craven, haveing bene travelling abroad and returning home over 
Bentham Bridge, leading his Horse, and haveing on a thick Cloak, ye wind being 
very high blew him over ye Bridge into ye water, and he was carryed doune ye 
stream a full Mile and He was not found till after three days and three nights, but 
then a Maid going to water some cows, she spy'd some parte of his foot, and calling 
some persons they found him covered with stones and sand, they took him up, 
carried him to a little House near at hand, and stripped him, supposing him dead ; 
but a Servant woman standing near his heade cryed out there was some life in him, 
for 6he thought she saw his hair stirr. Mrs. Fetherstone a Minister's wife then 
present replyed it cannot be, but observing him more wistly, they resolve to use 
some meanes for his recovery. Accordingly they laid him before ye Fire and 
chafed him — And in lesse yn three houres time he recovered so far as to speake to 
them, and lived after this three years and had a Daughter by his wife. This 
strange Providence being noysd abroad many persons called to see him as a 
wonder, he living in ye high road to Kendall. It was thought that his Cloak was 
instrumental! to save his life, for it was found wrapt abt his head 3 or 4 folde so 



187 

almost invariably spoken or written Bentham, Bentame, Bentum, and 
the like. It is not improbable that the Norman scribes misread the final 
am for ain. Although in the Nomina Villarum (a.d. 1815) the name is- 
actually written Denton, a still very obvious error in transcription. 

Yet in spite of all this ancient importance, it is astonishing how little 
has been recorded of Bentham. Dr. Whitaker devotes but a few desultory 
lines to it, apparently for the reason that no families of note were ever 
settled here. 

The past history of the manor is in part coincident with that of 
Ingleton, both having been acquired in the reign of Queen Elizabeth by 
the family of Cholmley or Cholmondeley, who shortly after the dissolution 
of monasteries, obtained a lease for twenty-one years of the abbey lands 
in the neighbourhood of Whitby, and subsequently (in 1545) received a 
grant of all the possessions of that house. Sir Richard Cholmley, lord 
of Bentham and Ingleton, was born in 1580, and in 1624 was High 
Sheriff of Co. York., and M.P. for Scarborough. He resided at Whitby, 
and died in 1681. Sir Richard Cholmley, of Roxby, in the parish of 
Spofforth, his grandfather, joined the expedition under the Earl of 
Hertford, against the Scotch, and so gallantly distinguished himself that 
after the burning of Edinburgh he was knighted at Leith, 11th May, 
1544.* 

The following conveyance was effected in the 37th year ot Elizabeth. 
The exchange stated being for a render of 400 marks of silver : 

a.d. 1595. Plaintiffs : Thomas Metham, esq., Ralph Salven, esq., and Francis 
Met ham, esq. Deforciants : Richard Cholmeley, esq., and Richard Cholmeley, 
gent. Manors of Ingleton and Bentham, and the advowson of Bentham church. 

The plaintiffs to this transfer were of the ancient and knightly 
family of Metham, of Howdenshire, while the Saivens, of North Duffield, 
and Croxdale Hall, Co. Durham, have for many centuries ranked among 
the chief gentry of the Palatinate. The following transaction may also 
be cited, as shewing what families were connected with Bentham at this 
time : 

A.D. 1598-9. Plaintiffs : Thomas Wyldman, Steph. Husband, Wm. Cumberland, 
Robert Tatham, Thos. Huganson, John Teates, Edmd. Hogeson, Jane Robynson r 
widow, and Francis Plumer. Deforciants : John Gybson, Doc. of Laws, and 
Margaret his wife, and John Gybson, gent. Seven messuages with lands in 
Bentham, Burton and Thornton. A Warrant against the heirs of Marmaduke 
Gibson, deceased, the brother of Doctor John Gibson. 

The little hamlet or domain of Gibson's Green, near Bentham, wa& 
named after this old family, and the Dr. Gibson here referred to was a 
celebrated Elizabethan divine, and a Canon Residentiary of York. Dean 

Vide Forster's Pedigrees of Yorkshire County Families. 



188 

Hutton, afterwards Archbishop of York, writing in May, 1582, to the 
Earl of Huntingdon, who was at that time Lord President of Her 
Majesty's Council in the Xorth, styles him " my good frend," and adding, 
" I have alwaies wished him well, and verie lothe wold I be to joyne with 
his enemies ; which had bene done before this tyme, yf it could have 
bene compassed." Dr. Gibson, though non-resident, drew the stipend 
of a Canon Residentiary, and this letter was in respect to an appeal for 
him to retain the profits of residence, or " quietiie enjoy his prsebend 
and dignitie, thoughe he be absente," a proposal advanced by the good 
doctor and his friends which does not seem to have succeeded. The 
Gibsons resided in this neighbourhood from at least the time of Queen 
Mary, and at Gibson's Green, between Calf Cop and Oysterber and the 
Burton road, there is an old house of theirs with the initials and date, 
J. A. G., 1680, carved above the doorway. Among the wills of the 
Registry at Richmond, there is also the following curious injunction 
concerning a member of this family : 

Jhesus, 7 Muy, 1554. Rychard Gybson of Yngleton — to be buried in the 
churche of Saynt Leonard at Yngleton, ny unto the place wher I have kneled — 
Item, I will that ther be vi masses the day of my buryall, and every prest to have 
iiijd. — Item. I will that my son Christopher have my jacke, a pair of splyntes, a 
sconse, a yoke and bowes.« 

With respect to the other families concerned in the above deed, that 
named Husband occurs frequently in the registers two centuries ago, or 
from the time they have been preserved, and it appears to be the only 
family name inscribed therein to which the Latin word ijenerosus, the 
equivalent to tfc gentleman," is attached, thus: 

Maria filia Willmi Husband, generosi, sepulta Maii 19, 1686. 
Stephanus Husband, gener., sepultus erat Sept. 14, Ano Dni 1689. 

* AyVicAv, sometimes called an acketon or hoqueton, was a defensive jacket or doublet quilted 
with leather ; splynts, or »pUnta % were armour plates for the protection of the inside of the arms ; 
and a sc»usf was a metal skull-cap or head-piece, without vizor. It is interesting to note that the 
possession of these accoutrements shew the above Richard Gibson to have been a man of some 
consequence, as by the famous Statute of Winchester, passed 18th Edward I., (a. d. 1284) every 
man was bound to provide and keep armour and weapons, according to his estate or goods. The 
armour and weapons directed by this statute to be kept by persons of different possessions, were 
thus allotted : (1) Every one possessed of lands to the yearly value of 15 pounds and 40 marks 
in goods, to keep a haubergeon, an iron head-piece, a sword, knife, and horse. (2) Those having 
from 10 and under 15 pounds in lands and chattels, or the value of 40 marks, the same as the 
preceding class, the horse excepted. (3) Persons having 100 shillings per annum in land, and 
upwards, were to keep a doublet, a head-piece of iron, a sword, and a knife. (4) From 40 shillings 
annual rent in land, and upwards to 100, to keep a sword, bow and arrows, and a knife. (5) He 
that had under 40 shillings in land, was sworn to keep faulchions, gisarmes, daggers, and other 
small arms. (6) Persons possessing less than 20 marks in chattels, to have swords, daggers, and 
other inferior weapons, and all others authorised to keep bows and arrows might have them out 
of the forests. 

A review of these arms was to be made twice a year, by two Constables out of every hundred, 
who were to report defaulters to the justices, and they to present them to the King in Parliament. 
This statute was repealed in the first of Philip and Mary, ( a.d. 155S), and another enacted, wherein 
armour and weapons of more modern date were inserted. See Grose's Military Antiquities, Vol. 1, 
page 12. 



189 

Among the marriage entries there is one of Elizabeth Husband and 
Thomas Inglebie, armiger, on August 11th, 1717. As the baptism of 
the said Elizabeth took place at Bentham, on Nov. 4th, 1700, she must 
have entered upon her career of u weal and woe " at a very youthful age. 
The first-born of this union was a daughter, Elizabeth, baptised at 
Clapham, March 14th, 1718, and married in 1747 to James Carr, of 
Stackhouse. The Inglebys, as related elsewhere, were an old Catholic 
family, seated at Lawkland and Austwick, and a branch of the family 
of Ripley Castle. In the Registration books of the names and real 
estates of Papists in the West Riding, for the years 1717 to 1734, there 
is this entry : " Thomas Ingilby, of Austwick, Co. York, Esquire ;" 
doubtless the same as the above. 

The subsequent history of the manor is apparently a conjoin ture with 
that of Ingleton. Both properties were held by Gerard Lowther, of 
Penrith, a Bencher of Lincoln's Inn, who was M.P. for Cumberland in 
1602 ; and afterwards, by the marriage of Catherine, daughter and 
heiress of Henry Bouch, of Ingleton Hall, with Edward Parker, J.P., 
of Browsholme, (who died in 1721) transmitted to this ancient historic 
family. The Parkers, I may add, for many generations held the office 
of Bowbearers of the Forest of Bolland. Thos. Lister Parker sold the 
advowson of Bentham Church to James Farrer, of Clapham, on July 
27th, 1810, retaining the next presentation, which was accordingly made 
to the Rev. John F. Parker, in 1825. 

The church at Bentham is, as stated, a pre-Norman foundation, but 
of this early structure nothing has been saved but a fragment of a Saxon 
Crucifixion, which for some centuries was concealed beneath a thick coat 
of plaster in the east wall of the tower. The stone is about 1 8 inches 
square, and bears a crude and slender representation of Our Saviour with 
extended arms, and upon His head a crown of thorns. A few years ago 
it was rescued from the risk of decay and placed in its more protected 
position inside the church, by the present Rector. 

As api)ears by a remission of taxes granted by Edward II. in the 
18th year of his reign (a.d. 1319), the church at Bentham was almost 
wholly destroyed by the marauding Scots during one of their raids after 
the battle of Bannockburn in 1814. Amongst the towns specified by 
the Act in the wapentake of Ewecross are Bentham and Clapham. On 
the south wall and tower of the church there are, moreover, stones which 
shew unmistakable evidence of the action of fire ; and it is also apparent, 
from very recent discoveries in the church, that it was rebuilt shortly 
after this time, for on raising the floor of the chancel in preparation 
for the restoration which was completed in 1878, the stone coffin of the 
founder of the chancel was laid bare to view. At the head of the coffin 
was placed an oblong fragment (unfortunately only a fragment) of a 



192 

« 

younger son of Alexander Fetherstone, Esq., of Fetherstone Haugh, 
Northumberland. The inscription, in Latin and English, is neatly if 
somewhat playfully expressed. Observe the humour on the words 
Feather and Stone. 

" Conditur hac parva generosus Rector in urna. 
Corpus terra tegit, spiritus astra colit, 
Pluma refert an imam, sic Saxum corporis umbram. 
Pluma vol at, Saxum nunc jacet hoc tumulo. 

Who list to know who lyes under this stone, 

Sometimes a man ; but now is fled and gone, 

His soul like to a Feather flyes aloft, 

His body stone like to his Center soft, 

What I have beene thou art ; and thou shalt bee, 

What now I am, loe this is Destinie. 

Chri8toferus Fetherstone, artium Magister, Rector ecclesiae deBentham incumbens, 

succumbens ; obiit Octobris Mto anno 1653.'* 

The tablet is surmounted by the coat-of-arms of the Fetherstone 
family, which also has a reference to the name. In one of the upper 
windows of the old rectory there were several beautifully emblazoned 
quarries of old glass with the same coat-of-arms and crest. These have 
been carefully preserved, and have been re-leaded and placed in a 
prominent position in a window of the drawing-room of the present 
rectory, with a suitable inscription, detailing their history. 

Near this old brass there is one recording another rector, the Rev. 
Thomas Lupton, who died in 1719-20, aged 80, and who was rector of 
the church 56 years, and his wife, Mrs. Mary Lupton, who died in 1696, 
aged 55. Nothing appears to be known of these, excepting a comment 
of dubious import, in the year 1690, when a complaint was laid by the 
parishioners of Ingleton against Thomas Lupton, Rector of Bentham, 
for not allowing their curate a competent stipend ! Near the font is a 
memorial brass to Anna, wife of Stephen Husband, gent., who died in 
1683. We have already referred to this family. And another neat 
brass commemorates anonymously the placing of the clock and chimes 
in the tower, July 14th, 1885, by "one who hopes for Heaven in 
Eternity." 

Among the remaining antiquities now preserved in the church is an 
old erased tombstone, recovered from the debris of the u restoration " of 
1823, and which bears the arms of the Mason's Company, a chevron 
between three castles, and the motto, " In the Lord is all our trust." 
The present Rector, Mr. Joy, has, at the suggestion of the Society for 
the Preservation of Ancient Monuments, placed this interesting tablet in 
the east wall of the Font Chapel, and the stone which formerly held the 
brass tablet of the Rev. Thos. Lupton and his wife (mentioned above), 
but which has until lately been used as one of the steps leading to the 



heating apparatus, has been restored to its place and the brass fitted into 
its old quarters again. Another curious stone erected near it, wag taken 
out of the river, but unfortunately this slab, from long neglect and 
exposure, is in a broken and fragmentary condition. The inscription is 
in raised letters of the middle of the 17th century, and is apparently a 
memorial stone, — possibly a grave-atone. The portion that is legible 

reads, " Of John , Kirkebecke W Two Days 

Befo Departubere Her Greatest A " 

The handsome reredos is in Caen stone, with marble panels, 
containing sculptured emblems, in relief, of the fonr Evangelists. It was 
made and carved by Mr. Earp, of London, The lectern, presented by 



Bentham Church Font. 
Henry Hall, Esq., of Alton, in Hampshire, and the carved oak pulpit, 
are also very beautiful objects. The latter was presented by John 
Ellerahaw, Esq., of Headingley, a representative of an old Bentham 
family. The large and beautifnl font must be noticed at greater length. 
as it is quite unique. Tt was designed by Mr. W. R. Lethaby, a pupil 
of Mr. Norman Shaw, R.A., and is referred to in an article on 
" Architecture at the Academy," in the Spectator of June 7th, 1890. 
The several parte of the whole structure are au emblematic interpretation 



206 

Earl, (13th Elizabeth, a.d. 1570), for his share in the great Catholic 
" Rising in the North," the whole of the vast possessions of this ancient 
line were confiscated, and the old Barony of Neville, of Raby, and the 
Earldom of Westmoreland, were also rendered null and extinct ; the 
noble Earl taking refuge abroad, and dying (a.d. 1584) in comparative 
poverty, on a small pittance allowed him by the King of Spain. 

The admirable situation and various remains of high antiquity of 
our Yorkshire Ingleton, yield the best proof of its occupation at a very 
early period. While the poor and barbarous native cave-dwellers do not 
appear to have penetrated these inhospitable wilds, but to have harboured 
principally the lower parts of Craven, there is no doubt that on the 
migration westward of the first invaders, the Goidelic and Brythonic 
Celts, this commanding position and look-out post was quickly seized 
upon and held by successive tribes up to historic times. In ascribing 
this remote appropriation of Ingleton, it must be remembered that while 
many towns and villages owe their origin and names to later settlers, the 
great natural features of the country, such as the mountains and rivers, 
were already named by the earliest Celtic tribes. The Baal or Beltane 
fires blazed on the peaks, and here, on Ingleborough, the huts or 
habitations lay on the summit, (for summer habitation), and close to the 
foot of the mountain, on the sunny side, for winter occupation, some 
remains of which we may still see. The Roman conquerors who 
established themselves among the ruins of the native races, erected their 
fortresses and continued the watch and signal fires on the great hill, 
under which ran their constructed highways out of Wensleydale and 
over Cam Fell to Ribchester, Lancaster, and the station at Overborough, 
called Brenietonacae, only a few miles off to the west, which will be 
described later on. 

From the prominence of these .Celtic-Roman ingle or beacon fires, and 
the borough, or castra exploratum of the Romans, it is not unlikely the 
hill received its name, while the village erected at a later period on its 
present site, became the ton, town, or enclosure of the fire or beacon-hill. 
Gale assumes that Bremetonacae meant the same thing, from the old 
British words, Bre Meinig Tane^ i.e., the hill of stone and fire, in allusion 
to the outpost on Ingleborough. The Pagan Britons frequently lit fires as 
thank-offerings to their deities, and they had great faith in their efficacy or 
power to prevent famine, plague, or disease. And it is certainly curious 
how this belief has survived at Ingleton even to our own day. Within 
the last thirty years or so it was a common practice in this neighbourhood 
to kindle the so-called Need-fire by rubbing two pieces of wood briskly 
together, and setting a-blaze a large heap of sticks and brushwood, which 
were dispersed, and cattle then driven through the smoking brands. 
This was thought to act as a charm against the spread or development of 



207 

the various ailments to which cattle are liable. It is a singularly 
interesting custom, which is still kept up in some parts of Britain with 
the same object. 

With this explanation it seems almost needless to discuss the relation 
of the Saxon and Danish Conquests with the origin of Tngleton. But I 
may point out, what does not seem to have been considered, the historic 
importance which the Danish invasion has given to this neighbourhood, 
as testified in part by the remains of earthworks, &c, and by the numerous 
existing place-names of that origin. These bold and fearless Norsemen 
carried their warlike enterprises from the sea-board of England to the 
very mountain fastnesses of Yorkshire, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, 
leaving behind them ample evidence of their conquests and habitations 
in the numerous scars* garths, dales, forces, gilte, hinds, thwaites, and 
btfs, which abound in these parts. Of the single suffix by (a town), it 
may be mentioned, that in the north-west of Yorkshire and in the two 
adjoining counties of Westmoreland and Cumberland, fully one hundred 
examples may be cited of names formed of this Danish terminal. 

But with all deference to these Danish Conquests it is, perhaps, 
nothing more than a verbal coincidence that the celebrated Yngvi or 
Ingvi, bon of the great King-god Odin, has bequeathed in his name 
some resemblance to the appellation of the later Danish settlement of 
Ingleton. The comparison may, perhaps, end here, but it will not be 
going out of our way to draw a few inferences from the analogy. The 
triumphant battle-march of Odin from the Caspian to the Baltic, and 
his subsequent conquest of Denmark and Scandinavia, excited the fear 
no less than it won the tribute and homage of nations, and by common 
consent the regal title and office was eventually bestowed by the Swedes 
upon his son Ingvi and his posterity, and thus sprang the long and 
renowned dynasty of the Inglingians, a name by which the Kings of 
Sweden continued to be known until the seventh century, and the Kings 
of Norway, from that period until the fourteenth. Of the fabulouB 
power of Odin, the mystical father, we have some rare and curious 
instances. He could sing, we are told, airs so tender and melodious, 
" that the very plains and mountains would open and expand with 
delight, and that the ghosts attracted by the sweetness of his songs, 
would leave their infernal caverns, and stealing up to the dulcet sounds, 
stand motionless about him. 91 The legend of the historical Odin is 
founded on the authority of the Inglinga Saga, which forms the first 
book of Snorr's " Heimskringla," or " Chronicles of the Kings of 
Norway." 

To this remarkable personage and his successors are probably owing 
the names of many places and districts to which their conquests extended. 
In Denmark and Sweden the name appears to be most commonly 



208 

commemorated, and it is also in these countries that cairns, barrows, 
and tumuli, similar to our Yorkshire ones, are perhaps more numerous 
than anywhere else in the world. Such, for example, is the famous 
Inglinge Hog, about 1 \ miles south of Vexio, in Sweden, which is a large 
and ancient tumulus, commanding a wide view, and was undoubtedly 
once a place of assize, similar to that which the name (with camp) of 
our own Yarlsber at Ingleton, already described, seems to imply. Again, 
may be mentioned Ingelsholm, in Denmark, in the vicinity of many 
antiquities, Engelsberg, in Sweden, between Dalarne and Stockholm, on 
the shores of Lake Amanningen. It is noteworthy that our Ingleton is 
in old charters sometimes also written Engelton, and Yngleton. In 
Domesday (a.d. 1086) it is, however, Inglestune, i.e. the fire town. 

To quit, however, the region of speculation, let us now quote this 
valuable historic record. The locality is thus defined : 

Manor, in Witeune (Whittington), Earl Tosti had six carucates of land to be 
taxed. 

In Neutune (Newton) two carucates ; Ergune (Arum, or Arkholme) six 
carucates ; Ghersincture (Gressingham) two carucates ; Ho turn (Hutton) three 
carucates ; Cantesfelt (Cantsfield) three carucates ; Irebi (Ireby) three carucates ; 
Borch (Overhurrow) three carucates ; Lech (Leek) three carucates. 

Borctune (Burton-in-Lonsdale) four carucates ; Bernulfeswic (Barnoldswick) 
one carucate ; Inglestune (Ingleton) six carucates ; Castretum (Casterton) three 
carucates ; Bercbrune (Barbon) three carucates ; Sedberge (Sedbergh) three 
carucates ; Tiernbi (Thirnby or Thornby), six carucates. 

All these villages belong to Witetune (Whittington). 

Although Ingleton was but a dependent village of Whittington, yet 
the large extent, at least 600 acres, of cultivated land here, (small, indeed, 
in comparison with the total area,) and the absence of any mention of 
waste within the manor, says something for the peaceful occupation of 
the Danes, whose clemency had probably been purchased by the native 
Saxons, and their churches and houses spared ; as also of its isolation 
from the after ravages of the Norman Conquest. The capital Saxon 
town, Whittington, now a small village, (2 miles south of Kirkby 
Lonsdale), and a parish of some 350 souls, was, I suppose, so called 
from its being conspicuously constructed of stone, while the surrounding 
villages consisted, as was the custom then, of an assemblage of wooden 
huts. Churches, indeed, when first built of stone, were often designated 
white churches, to distinguish them from those built of w T ood. 

The above Earl Tosti, who was the last Saxon to hold the manor 
before the Conquest, was chief minister to Edward the Confessor. Of 
his tyranny and cruelty, when ruler of Northumbria, the following 
citation by Roger of Wendover affords remarkable testimony : " Tosti 
quitted the King's court in a rage, and coming to the city of Hereford* 
where his brother Harold had prepared a great feast for the king, he cut 



209 

off the limbs of all the servants, and put an arm, or some other member, 
in each of the vessels of wine, mead, ale, or pickle ; after which he sent 
a message to the King, that on coming to his lodgings, he would find 
the food seasoned to his mind, and that he should take care to carry 
away the delicacies with him !" Such were the wages of the servants of 
Royalty at that happy period ! Earl Tosti was slain in the deadly 
conflict for the supremacy of England, at Stamford Bridge, Sept. 25th, 
1066, and three weeks later his brother Harold, King of England, fell on 
the memorable field of Hastings. 

On the accession of William the Norman, the land was parcelled out 
amongst his followers, and the powerful Roger de Mowbray acquired an 
extensive tract in these parts with other possessions in Yorkshire, notably 
in that part of the county now known as the Vale of Mowbray. In 
Ewecross the lands of this house extended from the north-west of Craven 
to the borders of "Westmoreland, and Burton-in-Lonsdale was the head 
and stronghold of this western barony. In the 35th Edward I., a.d. 
1806, John de Mowbray obtained a charter for a market and fair within 
his manor of Burton-in-Lonesdale.* On the 1st June, 18th Edward I., 
A.D. 1290, the Parliament granted an Aid of 40s. from each Knight's 
Fee in the kingdom, for the marriage of the King's eldest daughter, 
which, however, was not collected until twelve years afterwards. Among 
the donations to this Aid in the wapentake of Ewecross are the sums of 
6s. 8d. each contributed by the villa of Ingleton and Bentham, prescribed 
as follows : 

Ingleton. De Johanne filio Hugonis pro tribus car. terrae in Ingleton, undo 
xviij car., etc. vjs. viijd. q. 

Bentham. De eodem Johanne pro tribus car. terrte in Bentham. unde, ut 
Bupra vja. viijd. q. 

The Inquisition post mortem of the above John Fitz Hugh, who 
married Isabella, daughter and heiress of Michael de Ryhill, was taken 
13th Jan., 34th Edward I. The jurors say that — 

" HenricuB Alius Johannis filii Hugonis est propinquior haeres ejus, et fuit 
fie tat is trium annorum ad festum Sancti Edmundi Regis et Mart) tub proximo 
prseteritum." Est etiara nova inquisitio ad inquirendum quis sit dominus de 
Burton in Lonesdale, de quo manerium de Ingleton tenetur in capite : — "Johannes 
filius Rogeri le Moubray est dominus de Burton qui infra aetatem est et in 
custodia domini regis. Et Roysia, quae fuit uxor Rogeri le Moubray dotata est per 
ipsum dominuui regem de prsedicto manerio de Burton.''* This particular Roger 
de Mowbray, it should be stated, was the third baron of that title. 

In the Nomina Villarum^ of 9th Edward II., A.D. 1315, or return 
made by the sheriffs of England of the wapentakes or hundreds, and who 
were the lords thereof, we find the same Henry Fitz Hugh possessed of 

• Cal. Hot. Chart., 138. f Cal. Gen. II, 679. 

O 



210 



" Denton* and Ingleton (2 villae)," and 44 Dent and Sadburgh (2 
villas)," in the wapentake of " Youcross." 

Passing through various hands up to the dissolution of religious 
houses, we find that in the 21st of Henry VIII. (a.d. 1529), the 
44 Manor of Ynglcton with lands in Yngleton and Benton,* and the 
advowson of Benton Church," were transferred from Sir William 
Pickering, Kt., unto Sir Edward Guildford, Kt., Sir Edward Boynton, 
Kt., and Richard Page, Esq., for a consideration of £600 sterling. In 
the reign of Elizabeth the manors of Ingleton and Bentham passed, as 
already stated, to the distinguished family of Cholmondeley or Cholmeley, 
one of the most important families in the north of England at that 
period. Sir Richard Cholmeley, who was brother-in-law to Henry 
Neville, 5th Earl of Westmoreland, married twice ; 1st, a daughter of 
Lord Conyers, and 2ndly, a daughter of the Earl of Cumberland. He 
entered into a protracted and costly litigation with the inhabitants of 
Ingleton with respect to their customary tenant-rights, and which 
dispute was carried on by his son, Richard Cholmeley, the succeeding 
lord of the manor, with so much severity that the township for a time 
seems to have been almost ruined. 44 For where the said Tenants had 
always heretofore used and been able to keep above four-score draught 
oxen upon their said tenements within the said Manor, they were so 
spoiled by the said hard and extream Dealings of the said Defendant 
and by multiplicity of Suites that there was not one Tenant within the 
said Lordship that had one Ox of his own, or almost any other cattle, 
but were enforced to Sell up all their goods and Chattels to defend their 
said customary Estates and Tenant Right against the said Defendant ; 
and although there were then within the said Lordship a hundred able 
persons for Her Majesty's Service, if need should require, yet among 
them all there was very few or none at all able to furnish one man fit for 
service by reason of the said hard dealings of the said Defendant, which 
would tend to the utter undoing and beggaring of the said poor 
customary Tenants, their poor wives and children, in short time, if some 
remedy were not therein speedily had and provided." 

These ancient rights and hereditaments of the tenants of Ingleton, 
as set forth in the time of Queen Elizabeth, are interesting, and shew 
the favourable manner under which the farmholds were occupied subject 
to the military feud : 

li The Custom of which said Manor of Ingleton is, and time whereof the memory 
of man was not to the contrary, had been that the said Tenants of the said Manor 
for the time being should and had used to pay at the end of every seven years, one 
year's rent for a tine to the Lord of the said Manor for the time being, for and in 
the name of a Running Grossom or Town Term, payable at three Court Days next 
ensuing after the end and expiration of the said seven years by even portions. 

* A misprint for Bentham. 



211 

Together with one Tack Penny at the change of every Lord and Tenant, and no 
other Fine or Grossom until encroachment was made of late time within Memory, 
and that by the same Custom there allowed and used always, the several tenements 
of every tenant within the said Manor, after the death of the said Tenant ought 
to descend to the next Male of the body of such deceased Tenant lawfully begotten, 
and for default of such issue Male, then to the eldest of the heirs Female of such 
Tenant so deceased, and to the Heirs Male of such issue female lawfully begotten, 
and for default of such issue, to the next of kin of the nearest blood of such 
Tenant so deceased, and of his heirs for ever ; and that by the same custom, it 
was and always hath been well and lawfull to and for every or any Tenant within 
the same Manor to grant, alien, or Sell his or their several tenements with the 
appurtenances by Deed, Will, or Surrender to any person or persons whatsoever, 
without the License or consent of the Lord of the same Manor for the time being, 
or any of his officers, and the same alienation to be presented and entered at the 
next Court holden at the said Manor before the Steward there." 

By Decree of the Master of the Rolls in the Court of Chancery, and 
of the Right Hon. Sir John Pickering, Kt., Lord Keeper of the Seal, 
dated 23rd June, 34th Elizabeth, (a.d. 1591), these differences were at 
length adjusted, and put on a strictly legal basis, the lord to exercise his 
right and control over the said lands and appurtenances, while the 
tenants retained most of their ancient prerogatives, claiming turbary 
and repair from the lord's woods and wastes, or " from time to time, as 
need shall be, to have and to take competent Fire Boot, House Boot, 
Plough Boot, Cart Boot, Hedge Boot, and all necessary Boots to be 
necessarily expended upon their customary lands and tenements within 
the said manor without any waste, spoil, or sale to be made thereof, as 
well as out of the Common Woods within the said Manor by the delivery 
of the Lord or Lords of the Manor for the time being, or of their 
bailiffs or other officers as heretofore accustomed." 

From Richard Cholmeley, the manor, along with that of Bentham, 
was leased to the Lowthers, of Lowther Hall, Co. Westmoreland, as 
narrated in our account of Bentham, and from that family it passed to 
Henry Bouch, and afterwards by marriage to the Parkers, of Browsholme. 
Various members of the distinguished Lowther and Bouch families were 
long resident at Ingleton Hall, and there are numerous entries relating 
to them in the Ingleton church registers. Sir Gerard Lowther, Kt., of 
St. Michar's, Dublin, 4th son of Sir Richard Lowther, Kt., of Lowther 
Hall, (a.d. 1530 — 1607), and nephew of Gerard Lowther, M.P., of 
Penrith, was Chief Justice of the court of Common Pleas in Ireland, 
and eventually, in 1654, Lord High Chancellor of that Kingdom. He 
was thrice married ; his first wife being Anne Welbury, widow, — daughter 
and co-heir of Sir Ralph Bulmer, of Wilton, — who appears to have died 
at Ingleton Hall, as the parish registers, under date, Oct. 13th, 1619, 
record the burial of Lady Anne, wife of Sir Gerard Lowther, Kt. 
Sir Gerard's younger brother, William Lowther, J.P., lived at Ingleton 
Hall, and had a numerous family. His eldest son, Sir Richard Lowther, Kt., 
-of Ingleton, Barrister-at-Law and J.P., 1638, was Col. of a regiment of 



212 

Foot in the Civil Wars, Governor of Pontefract Castle, and Master of 
the Ordnance to King Charles I. He died at Newcastle. Another of 
William Lowther's sons was Robert Lowther, Chancellor of Carlisle in 
1666. lie also left two daughters ; Anne, subsequently the sole heiress, 
married to T. Heber, Esq., of Marton and Stainton ; and Eleanor, 
married first to William Newby, Esq., of Draughton, near Skipton, and 
secondly to Henry Currer, Esq., of Kildwick. The above Sir Richard 
Lowther, of Ingleton, left a family of sons and daughters, of whom 
Henry Lowther, the 2nd son, resided at Ingleton and at Lowther Town, 
Cockermouth. Leaving an only daughter, the Ingleton estates were 
disposed of to the family of Bouch, as stated above. 

Of Mr. Edward Parker, who succeeded his father as lord of the 
manor of Ingleton, and who died in 1794, we have an interesting note 
from the poet Gray. The celebrated author of the " Elegy," in 
describing his journey from Poulton, or Morecambe, to Ingleton, in the 
autumn of 1769, remarks, "Now, our road began gradually to mount 
towards the Apennine, the trees growing less and thinner of leaves, till 
we came to Ingleton. It is a pretty village, situated very high, and yet 
in a valley at the foot of that huge monster of nature, Ingleborough." 
Here, it seems, he took refreshment at the inn, and met there, " Sir 
Bellingham Graham, and Mr. Parker, lord of the manor, — one of them 
six feet high, and the other as much in breadth ! " 

The Manor of Twisleton and Ellerbeck appears always to have been 
distinct from that of Ingleton, and the same differences likewise arose 
between the then lord of the manor, Richard Sherborne, Esq., of 
Twisleton, and the tenants, concerning the fines, customs, and service 
due from the tenants in respect of their feudal tenements and lands, 
about the time of, or consequent upon, the dispute with the Ingleton 
tenantry, above described. The Twisleton claims were settled by Decree, 
dated October 1st, 1625, by which, amongst other arrangements, the said 
Richard Sherborne, lord of the manor, undertook to enclose and improve 
90 acres of waste, to remain to himself and his heirs and assigns for 
ever ; while 190 acres of waste were to be improved and enclosed by the 
various tenants, and " to remain to them and their heirs and assigns for 
ever, according to the several proportions by the valuation of their 
several tenements." As shewing who were resident in the district at 
this time (a.d. 1625) it will be interesting to add the names of the 
parties to this important agreement, viz., Richard Shereborne, of 
Twisleton, in the County of York, Esq., Lord of the said Manor, of the 
one part, and John Green bank, of Twisleton, Leonard Greenbank, the 
Brother of the said John, Richard Bathe, Thomas Greenbank, William 
Greenbank, Thomas Calvert, John Craven, William Wood, Leonard 
Weatherhead, William Bathe, Peter Foster, Marie Heard, widow, on 



213 

behalf of her daughter Jennet, William Tatham, William Comeinge, 
Thomas Charneley, Leonard Wetherhead, of Scales, Leonard Procter, of 
Ellerbeck, and Alexr. Procter, of Skirreth, in the said County, 
husbandmen, on the other part. The Writing in full was confirmed by 
Decree, dated 12th Oct., 17th Charles I. (a.d. 1631). 

Amongst the oldest Ingleton families, as cited in the parish register, 
which commences with the year 1G07, are those of Procter, Carr, 
Balderston, Gibson, Foxcroft, Butterfield, Craven, Redmane, Cansfield, 
Kidd, Beasley, Bouskill, Downham, Charneley, Thompson, Tatham, 
Lawson, &c. The names of Lowther and Shereborne, which also occur, 
have already been specially noticed. In a later book of registers, a.d. 
1723 to 1792, we meet with a number of rather uncommon names, such 
as Rumla, Griffeys, Tolmin, Blenckhorn, Faldrath, Kubbage, and Koon. 
There is a smack of the old Dane in some of these. 

In the Assessment of the wapentake of Ewecross for the year 1 584, 
Ingleton, Dent, and Sedbergh are each assessed at 4s., Bentham, 
Clapham, and Austwick at 2s. 8d., Horton-in-Ribblesdale and Burton- 
in-Lonsdale at 2s 6d., and Thornton at 2s. 

The parcchial chapel at Ingleton is of undoubted antiquity, but of 
its origin we have no record. It was formerly in the parish of Bentham, 
and a dependency of the See of Chester. The date of the tower is 
usually assigned to the 15th century, but the church, with this exception, 
has been since several times rebuilt. The body of the last fabric, erected 
in 1743, was pulled down in 1886-7, and the present structure, which is 
of mountain limestone, built up to the old tower on its site. During 
the restoration at the tower end, a large plaster fresco was uncovered, 
but the subject is partly erased and difficult to determine. There is a 
painted Royal Arms of the time of George IV., many beautiful 
stain-glass windows, and a pulpit in Caen stone with Connemara marble 
pillars, of very neat and chaste design. The latter was the gift of Mr. 
Alfred S. Kirk, ot Greenwood Leghe, who also presented the choir-stalls, 
each of which has been carved in a different pattern by Carlisle, of 
B;irbon. The oak reredos, presented by Mr. R. B. Cragg, is also by the 
same artist. But the most remarkable object within the church is the 
Norman font, which is of circular form, and exquisitely sculptured in 
sections with many illustrative designs from the history of Christ, 
including the Virgin and Child, the presentation of the Magi, the 
Massacre of the Innocents, &c. Portions of the carvings are unhappily 
disfigured, and their subjects cannot be properly identified. This 
beautiful and unique relic of the first Norman building was fortunately 
rescued from a sacrilegious destruction by Dr. Whitaker, the historian. 
The font, when he found it, was thickly encrusted with lime, and had 
been used as a trough for mixing mortar, and afterwards as a whitewash 



214 

bowl for daubing the columns and arches of the old church. Perhaps it 
is this species of " decoration " which is referred to in the Minute-book 
for 1747, wherein it is stated, " the said Chapel being now lately rebuilt 
is in good and sufficient repair, and well beautified." A large and 
ancient gilt sun-dial, which was fixed above the old porch, bears the 
appropriate motto, " Dum spectas fuyio" meaning, "whilst thou lookest, 
I fly." The church clock, according to the above Minute-book, dates 
apparently from about 1750. 

The following peculiarly interesting account of some Ingleton 
notabilities is related by the Rev. W. D. Thompson, late vicar of St. 
Saviour's Church, Preston, in the Preston Chronicle of Aug. 10th, 1889. 
" In the West Riding of Yorkshire there is a village under the shadow 
of Ingleborough Hill [Ingleton.] It is a small place now ; it was very 
small three and forty years ago. Well, you expect pretty considerable 
results — something worth thinking about — from big places : but you 
don't, and can't expect anything worth a line from a tiny out-of-the-way 
spot like this one in the West Riding. But, listen ! Forty-three years 
ago there were going to school, all at the same time, in this small place, 
sundry very rough, rollicking lads, and they turned out in after years 
thuswise, — No. 1, became the first Vicar of St. Saviour's, Preston ; 2, 
got to be Master of the Village School, and he is now a Vicar in 
Westmoreland ; 3, is one of the principal Ministers in Scotland, and he 
was second in the running, when the last vacancy occurred, for the 
Episcopalian Bishopric of Aberdeen ; 4, is the Proprietor and Editor of 
a Lancashire newspaper ; 5, is a Sub-editor of a leading journal in 
Cumberland ; 6, a Solicitor ; and 7, is a Colliery manager. A rather 
extraordinary band to be all going to school simultaneously in a little 
out-of-the-way Yorkshire village." The master of the school at this 
auspicious period was Mr. Robert Danson, who was instituted in Jan., 
1838, and died prematurely by a throw from his horse at Martinmas, 
1855. 

Among the several private mansions in the neighbourhood are 
Greenwood Leghe, the seat of A. S. Kirk, Esq., who has recently 
built the handsome residence called Moorgarth Hall, at . Rarber ; 
Ingleton Hall, rebuilt near the old homestead of the former manorial 
lords ; Storrs Hall, now a high-class ladies' school conducted by the 
Misses Brown ; Halsteads, at Thornton, of which more anon, and others. 
All these mansions are delightfully situated, and their windows command 
views of great interest and beauty. 

There is, however, nothing specially noteworthy in the way of public 
buildings at Ingleton. It is a long, straggling village, climbing the 
road to Ingleborough, which guardian peak rises just 1900 feet above it 
to the north. The village is built chiefly of limestone, and there are 



215 

some very old dated houses. One of the oldest is the Cross farm-house, 
for nearly two centuries used as the parish workhouse. Another is the 
Blue Hall (date, 1668) opposite the National School, and another near 
the church, formerly an inn called the Black Bull, has the lintel over 
the door inscribed 1710. But the oldest is probably that known as the 
Cock inn, on the Ingleton Hall road, below the railway bridge. It was 
formerly a well-known trysting place of cock-fighters, and it is said that 
more than one dark deed of crime has been perpetrated within its rooms. 
One of its old .floors shewed many ominous blood stains, which no 
amount of scrubbing could ever remove. The house, of three gables, 
was probably built in the time of James I., but it has been much altered 
and improved. A carved oak partition inside bears the date 1616, — the 
date, by the way, of the immortal Shakespeare's death. 

And now, was it not this great bard who thus daintily wrote, 

I know a bank whereon the wild thyme blows, 
Where ox-lips and the nodding violet grows ; 
Quite over-canopied with lush woodbine. 
With sweet musk roses, and with eglantine. 

But we must reserve our reference to these sweet scenes of local beauty 
until a succeeding chapter. Nowhere in the world does the poet's " wild 
thyme " grow more luxuriantly or fragrantly than on the posied "banks" 
around Ingleton. 

Since the formation of the " Improvement Association/' seven years 
ago, the place has become extremely popular as a health and pleasure 
resort, and there has been a considerable extension of building operations 
in the neighbourhood. The village is approached by two branch lines 
of railway, the Midland, and London and North Western ; their stations, 
a few hundred yards apart, being separated by the southern embouchure 
of the deep and romantic glen, formed by the Greta, above which 
Ingleton stands, and which is spanned by a lofty viaduct of eleven arches. 

There are several good large hotels and temperance inns, besides 
innumerable private houses where ample accommodation for day-visitors, 
or families prolonging their stay, can be obtained. It is to be regretted, 
however, that while the facilities of access have been greatly increased, 
the erection of various boxes and stalls, and huge advertisement-boards 
and printed placards, are becoming a much too conspicuous eye-sore 
upon the great natural charms of the place. A large dam, or lake, in 
one of the sweetest natural glens in England has even been talked of, 
but surely such an artificial intrusion upon the grandeur of Nature 
cannot be a sober projection. The next move, perhaps, would be to lay 
metals up Ingleborough, and run a hydraulic tram to the summit ; then 
the ruin of Ingleton would l)e complete. But a truce to the thought ! 
That is surely not prosperity which seeks aggrandisement while it 
degrades rather than elevates the nobler instincts. 



216 



CHAPTER XIX. 




Scientific aspects of the Ingleton Scenery. 

Causes of the scenery about Ingleton — The various rock formations — The Ingleton 
Coalfield — The great Craven Fault— Sub-divisions of the Fault — Their several 
directions explained — Immensity of the downthrow— Analysis of the Ingleton 
Faults— The age of the Craven Fault — Igneous Dykes — Effects of the Ice Age 
at Ingleton— Glacial drift and boulders — An extraordinary fragment— Ancient 
lake — Examples of ice-borne boulders. 

UR aim in this chapter will be to make clear the causes of the 
magnificent scenery of the neighbourhood of Ingleton. 
Although, in order to do this, we must have recourse to the 
language of science, vet we shall endeavour to arrange our 
facts as simply and concisely as possible. 

The foundations of the district range upwards from some of the 
oldest known British rocks, — the Lower Silurian, or Upper Cambrian of 
Sedgwick, — .with some remarkable injections of volcanic dykes, to the 
most recent superficial deposits. The main mass of strata, however, is 
the Mountain Limestone, (of marine origin), which is here about 700 feet 
thick, and which attains on the south-west side of Ingleborough an 
altitude of about 1500 feet. Over this are laid the Yoredale beds, — 
including a complication of shales, sandstones, and limestones — capped 
with the lowest of the Millstone Grits, or fresh-water beds, which on the 
south side of the great Fault, to be presently mentioned, is overlaid with 
a representative of the Permian series, and some of the Lower Coal 
Measures. These various strata, which form the structure and general 
arrangement of the whole of the mountain ranges of the district, have 
been displaced by a number of faults, and have been subsequently worn 
down by denudation, that is, by the action of wind, rain, and frost, so 
that what we now see is the mere wreck and residue of their former 
primal aspects. Indeed it is probable that the whole of these great 
mountain masses, now isolated by water erosion and atmospheric 
denudation, were once a continuous and undivided area composed of the 
same measures, and that the analogous coalfields of Wigan, Ingleton, 
and the South Tyne were co-existent and united, and that vast areas 
have, in the slow course of ages, been broken up and denuded away. 



217 

"With respect to the Ingleton and Burton coalfield, Mr. R. H . Tiddeman, 
M.A., of H.M. Geological Survey, observes, " There are great difficulties 
in the way of an accurate diagnosis of some of the area, and on the 
whole an acknowledged ignorance will be safer than a rash confidence in 
dealing with these parts. 

Commencing with what we know as absolutely certain, we may say 
that so far as the exploration of the Coalfield has progressed, it contains 
two good workable coal-seams, the Four-foot or Main, which is the best, 
and the Six-foot or Deep Coal, and that the former lies about 85 feet 
above the latter. Both of these beds have been worked along the outcrop 
from near Black Burton to a little south of Ingleton in numerous 
" hand-pits," and subsequently the Four-foot has been worked by deep 
shafts in several places. 

The extent of the Coalfield is unknown and so far untried. It 
certainly does not exist west of Burton,* nor further east than the 
Craven Fault near Ingleton, but of its extent to the north it is difficult 
to judge. The southern extent is of course well defined by the worked 
outcrop, but not so the northern boundary ; that can be but conjectural, 
considering the absence of sections and the thick spread of Drift to the 
south-east of Kirkby Lonsdale ; Coal-Measures, however, being distinctly 
shown in Leek Beck." 

Turning now to our old friend and venerable companion of many 
a diverting ramble, the well-known Craven Fault, so-called, or what is 
rather a complication of faults, which give rise to the main features of 
scenic interest in the neighbourhood, let us first of all hear what our 
government surveyors have to say on the subject about Ingleton. 

u The Craven Fault consists of two parallel lines of fracture, each 
with a downthrow west, and distinguished as the North and South 
Craven Faults. Between the two lies a mass of Carboniferous Limestone, 
dipping generally to the south-west at a high angle, but not infrequently 
turning over and dipping east or north-east near the North Craven Fault. 
The position of this northern branch is got pretty accurately both in 
Jenkin Beck and in the Dale Beck, in both of which the thrown-down 
Carboniferous and the Silurian rocks aire seen near each other, but it is 
more fully exposed in Thornton Beck, at the angle north-east of Thornton 
Hall, where its course coincides with that of the stream for some distance. 
It hades at 30° or 35° from the vertical, and the beds near are a good 
deal smashed. A trial level has been made here, apparently for lead, but 
without result. Further to the north-west the fault seems to divide, the 
main part going by the point marked 882,| at a junction of roads, [half- 

* The Coal-seams of Farleton, Lowgill, Caton, &c.,to the south and Bouth-west 
belong to the Millstone Grit Series. 

t Ordnance Map, AVw Series, Sheet 50. 



218 

mile north of Thornton Hall,] while a branch passes by Hunt's Cross, 
probably without* much ' throw,' but marked by much dun limestone 
with calcite along its course. 

" The position of the South Craven Fault is exactly given in Jenkin 
Beck, where we find sandstone (Coal-Measures) on the west side opposed 
to the limestone on the east, but north-west from this we infer its course 
from the ending off of the limestone along a well-defined line. There 
was an indication of shale having been got out in making the chimney 
of the Mealbank Limeworks, on the west side of the fault. South of 
Jenkin Beck the courses of both faults become obscure, owing to the 
Drift. 

u The throw of the North Craven Fault seems greatest about Jenkin 
Beck. Near it the section on the west side is somewhat complicated 
apparently by other faults, but a mass of shale seen in one place and 
apparently sandstone in another, indicate the presence of Yoredale Beds, 
which are opposed to Silurian rocks on the east side of the dislocation, 
so that the throw must be greater than the thickness of the Great Scar 
Limestone, or over 600 feet. A little to the east of the fault we find 
dun limestone along a north and south line. A similar vein, with traces 
of iron and copper carbonates, lies near the South Craven Fault. Close 
by, on the north side of Jenkin Beck, a remarkable set of narrow joints, 
like a rough kind of cleavage, traverses the limestone, the planes striking 
N. 40 W. and dipping at 55° to the N.E." 

These displacements are by some authorities regarded as lateral 
branches or disturbances resulting from the great Pennine system of 
faults, the main line of which, corresponding with the Pennine elevation, 
runs in a direction N.N.TV. to S.S.E. from Dumfriesshire to about 
Brough or Kirkby Lonsdale. At the last-mentioned place, according to 
Prof. Phillips, the Pennine Fault ends and the Craven Fault begins, but 
Prof. Sedgwick begins the Craven Fault some distance further north, at 
Brough. The courses of the three main divisions of the Craven Fault 
may be thus shortly elucidated : 

1. The North Craven Fault runs from the north of Ingleton and Clap ham, by 
Feizor, Stainforth in the Ribble valley, Malham Tarn and Threshfield, to and 
perhnpB beyond Pateley Bridge. 

2. The Mid Craven Fault runs through Ingleton, ouly a short distance south 
of the other, and traverses Claphnm, Austwick, thence below the .picturesque 
Giggleswick Scars, through the village of that name, and Settle to Malham Cove 
and Gordale. 

3. The South Craven Fault branches off from this near Settle, and taking a 
more southerly course, passes by Scaleber Force and- Holmes Gill Green to 
Gargrave and Skipton. 

At Ingleton the Faults may be traced in their several parallel branches, 
intersecting and breaking the horizontalitv of the beck courses to the 






219 

north of the town, in a direction from N.W. to S.E. And on the south 
and west of the escarpment, the underlying coal measures, which crop 
out and thin off southwards, along with the associated Permian beds, 
both of which in reality overlie the grits of the top of Ingleborough, 
Whernside, <fcc., and represent a downthrow to the west of about 3000 
feet,— a tremendous displacement, which is continued northwards for a 
distance of nearly 45 miles. These faults at Ingleton occupy a space 
about a half-mile in width, and may be thus further analysed : 

1. The Twisleton Fault, the most northern of the series, enters by the depression 
north of Hunt's Cross (a remarkable crescentic scarp forming the southern 
boundary of Greygarth) and taking, as previously stated, a south-easterly course, 
crosses the Twiss by Pecca Falls, thence behind the Twisleton Manor House* 
across the Dale beck to the south of the slate quarries nearest Ingleton, and by 
Skirwith Farm across the Storrs to Jenkin Beck above the Ease Gill waterfall. 
Along this line the Mountain Limestone is thrown down at a steep angle against 
the upturned Silurians, the total downslip being estimated at about 300 feet. 

2 & 3. From 82 to 100 yards south of the preceding, and almost parallel with 
it, another fault or line of convulsion is evident, in which two or three irregularly 
constituted dykes of dark mica-trap appear. Again, 60 to 65 yards to the south of 
this the horizontal Mountain Limestone is brought up at a moderate angle against 
the shales of the Lower Silurian (Coniston) Limestone. It proceeds from Tow 
Scar, on the south-west of Greygarth, crossing the Twiss below Pecca, and the Doe 
by Beasley Grange, where the Carboniferous Limestone dips S.W. into the bed of 
the river at an angle of 15°. This is called the Tow Scar (Mid Craven) Fault, and 
is conjoint with that just described, which is apparent by the double anticlinal 
lines converging at their north-western extremities. 

4. The Thornton Hall Fault coincides in its direction with the above, and 
passes from Thornton Hall across Broad wood, north of the Weir, and Meal Bank \ 
behind Blue Hall, the Court House, and the depression above Yarlsber and 
Slatingber, to Cold Cotes and New by, whence it divides eastwards, forming the 
southern branch of the Craven Fault. 

At Hollin Tree, some 600 to 700 yards south of the last-named, Mr. 
Robert Balderston, of Ingleton, finds indications of what may be another 
fault, as the red beds, he observes, " are suddenly found dipping north 
at an angle of 36°5, indicating a fault of double angular displacement 
of very considerable extent, and running from Hollin Tree to Greenwood 
Leghe." 

With regard to the age of the Craven faults they are usually 
considered to have been formed at the end of the Carboniferous period, 
or before the deposition of the Permian beds, and if not concurrently at 
any rate within the same geological epoch. In a short paper read at the 
Newcastle-upon-Tyne Meeting of the British Association in 1889, Mr. 
Tiddeman made this advance : " The great denudations," he observes, 
" which are well known to have taken place in Carboniferous rocks 
between their formation and the deposition of the Permian rocks, have 
rendered possible the deposit of the latter on various members of the 



220 

-Carboniferous System at different horizons. Before these could be 
effected, many of the earth movements must have taken place which 
folded and bent the Carboniferous rocks. So great are these movements, 
iflo enormous the denudation, that there is every probability that they 
began their work early. 

" This corroborates the view that the faults were in the main acting 
■during the deposition of the rocks ; though they probably went on before, 
and certainly after that period. There are other sections in the 
.surrounding country, apparent unconformities in the Carboniferous 
rocks, which are difficult to understand under any other supposition." 

Having alluded to the curious eruptive dykes, or solidified lava-flows 
in the up-tilted Silurian strata at Ingleton, which are the only igneous 
Tocks of the kind exposed in Yorkshire, (and are said to be of Old Red 
Sandstone age) I shall again quote the official Survey Memoirs, as 
■affording the best authoritative explanation that is given of these 
complicated and most interesting features : 

The only igneous rock seen in the Quarter-Sheet occurs in the Lower Silurian 
strata near Ingleton. Portions of a dyke or dykes appear in three or four places. 
The most westerly of these lies in Thornton Beck near the large fault which brings 
the Scar Limestone against the Silurian beds. The dyke is visible for 10 or 12 
feet above the middle of the bend of the stream, which here runs S.E. It seems 
to be about 4 feet wide, but may be more, and is only found in the bed of the 
stream. 

Again in the road south of Skirwith a dyke of mica-trap appears for a short 
distance, and is also noticeable just over the wall on the south side of the road. It 
is only a few feet wide, and like the preceding is much weathered at the surface, 
so that it is difficult to get a good specimen for microscopic examination. Here 
Again the dyke lies very near the fault mentioned before. Between these two 
places a dyke of somewhat similar character projects from the south bank of 
Ingleton Beck into the stream. More of it is exposed than in the other two cases, 
so that one can clearly detect its bearing, viz., £. 40° S., and determine its width 
to be 8 to 9 feet. This dyke lies a good way from the fault, but it is possible that 
.all three are parts of one kersantite dyke, much decomposed at the surface. 
Professor Hughes has noticed another dyke of a similar character and 9 feet broad, 
further down the stream, near a sharp bend, and Sedgwick mentions two dykes in 
Ingleton Beck*, but only the upper one was visible in 1883. Phillips also mentions 
two dykes as seen in Ingleton Beck.f 

Petrological notes on specimens of the dykes described above are 
furnished by Mr. F. Rutley, in the Memoirs of the Geological Survey 
{1890), pp. 16—17. 

I fear this chapter is becoming unduly long, but whilst dealing with 
the scientific aspects of Ingleton a word or two should be added about 
the extraordinary deposits of glacial drift, which invest ,with a special 
interest this romantic neighbourhood. The very striking and remarkable 

• Ordnance Map, X*w Series, Sheet 60. 

+ Mr. R, R. Balderston notices upwards of fifty exposures of the Ingleton Traps in an 
•exhaustive article on the subject in the Naturalist for 1889, pp. 131—142. 



221 

phenomena produced by the remote Ice Age in Britain display here the- 
same characteristics as in other parts of the Yorkshire Highlands, and 
which have been already alluded to*, and these may be studied at 
Ingleton with even greater perspicacity than in the glacier-ridden Alps- 
of Switzerland at the present day. 

There is little doubt that during the first Glacial Period the whole of 
this district was a barren, frigid, and coalescent wilderness of ice and 
snow, the tops of the mountains, perhaps, alone appearing through the 
vast, solitary ioe-sheet. Glacial drift is found on the south-east side of 
Inglebbrough at an altitude of 2000 feet, and on the north and west 
sides at 1600 to 1700 feet. Consequently the ice in Chapel-le-Dale 
must have had a thickness of nearly 1000 feet, while it was much thicker 
further north, and the tremendous power of this immense frozen mass, 
which ground its way slowly southwards, may be readily ascertained on 
viewing the thick deposits of clay or till, morainic debris, and boulders, 
(many of prodigious weight,) which have been left behind. Such, for 
example, may be mentioned, an enormous block of white encrinital 
limestone, — being one of the largest stones known to have been moved 
by that agency in Kngland, and which lies at White Stones, on the south 
of Simon Fell. It is nearly 70 yards long and about 40 yards at its- 
greatest breadth, and is in all probability a fragment of the Main 
Limestone detached from the fell top by the descending ice. 

Ingleton itself is built on a great thickness of this glacial drift, and 
the gills in the neighbourhood have been wholly filled with it. About 
the middle of the town it is some 70 feet deep, but to the west, in Enter 
Banks and the Broad Wood Bank approaching Swilla Bottom, it is at 
least twice that depth. There are also in the neighbourhood evidences 
of dried-up lakes. On the west side of the station there is a pretty 
extensive peaty flat, adjoining an old gravel terrace, which is, no doubt, 
the site of a post-glacial lake. The local drift is composed of sand, 
gravel, and some clay, mixed with boulders of varying size and 
composition. The streams have cut through its whole thickness to the 
rock below, and denudation has further widened the ravines, dislodging 
the boulders, which have fallen into their beds, while many of them have 
been broken up and reduced to small pebbles by the action of the 
descending torrents. 

The boulders consist montly of local rock detached by the glaciers 
which descended the valleys of the Twiss and Dale Beck. Some of them 
may be seen with their smoothed surfaces embedded in, or peeping 
above the drift, while others, rough from exposure to the weather, stand 
upon the bared surface. None of these are very large, rarely exceeding 

* See Norber Boulders, Victoria Cave, &c. 



222 

six or eight feet in longest measurement. One such may be seen close 
to the road leading to the Skirwith limestone quarries, and just below 
the gate. It is of a porphyritic character, containing numerous felspar 
crystals, and the stone measures 6^ by 4 by 4^ feet. Similar bouldera 
may also be found in situ in the quarries of the so-called Ingleton 
Granite Company. On the edge of the stream at the foot of Storrs 
Common, about half-a-mile above Ingleton, may be seen a number of 
felspathic or lava-trap boulders. They are of a dark grey colour, rough 
in texture and compactly crystalline, and vary from two to four feet in 
width, and six to seven feet long. 

Others of an interesting character consist of a peculiar hornblended 
porphyry, syenite, or " metamorphic gneiss," which are classed with the 
Borrowdale series of the Ordnance Survey. They are very numerous in 
the watercourses, being co-extensive with the ancient glacier-flow, to the 
west of Ingleton, and are also found up to an altitude of about 800 feet. 
They have no doubt been derived from a band or ridge about 400 yards 
in width, which stretches across the Chapel-le-Dale valley, about two miles 
to the north-west of Ingleton, and at an elevation not above their highest 
point of deposit. The rock is now being worked for road metal by the 
so-called Ingleton Granite Co. The derivative outcrop may be examined 
to advantage in some fields on the south-east side of the river, opposite 
to the Twisleton Dale House, and also from 50 to 100 yards north-west 
of the same building. At the stream-head here a capital section of the 
conglomerate is exposed, and some 150 yards further to the west, 
brecciated conglomerate and dark-grey limestone, with corals, are met 
with in alternations of 6 or 8 inches to 2 feet in thickness. The 
boulders lie in the bed and along each side of the Doe, up to 800 feet 
elevation, and some fine examples are lodged in the stream just below 
the Cat Leap waterfall, where the Skirwith streamlet enters the Dale 
beck. Others of the same type, and of varying dimensions, occupy an 
enclosure above Fell End, and adjoining the Bull Copy above the road 
on Storrs Common. One of the largest of these ice-moved boulders 
measures 10 feet long and 6 to 7 feet in diameter, and stands in a field 
belonging to Skirwith Farm, on the north-east side of the highway. 
Another large one, of Mountain Limestone, 12 by 9 by 4^ feet, may be 
seen in the same area, west of Skirwith. 



223 



CHAPTER XX. 




The Ingleton Glens and Waterfalls. 

Gray, Southey, " Barry Cornwall," and Adelaide Anne Procter at Ingleton — Turner, 
the painter, at Wethercote Cave, &c. — Recent "discovery" of the Ingleton 
glens — Formation of an Improvement Committee — Confusion in local 
nomenclature — Place-names explained — The glens and scenery described — 
Rare plants— Reautiful views— Scientific peculiarities of Thornton Force — 
Raven Ray — An ancient lake— Keld Head- Beasley Glen— Geological aspects 
— Rack stone Gill Gorge— Glorious prospect — Silurian Slate quarries— Return 
to Ingleton. 

T was the great Lord Byron, — poet, dilettante, and globe-trotter 
— whose discriminating taste, and extensive acquaintance 
with foreign countries, led him to observe that there were 
scenes among the Derbyshire hills equal to anything in 
Greece or Switzerland. He was also familiar enough with Scotland, and 
loved to ramble among the grand, purple-blossomed mountains, which 
he declared were the beginning and source of all his poetic inspiration. 
But it does not transpire that he ever visited our Yorkshire Highlands, 
or was ever at Ingleton. If he had come this way, his admiration would 
probably have been expended in a series of eloquent sonnets, which, 
appearing in his collected works and finding their way into the 
guide-books, would have been the best advertisement that Ingleton could 
have had. But neither Byron, Wordsworth, nor any of the great 
" Nature poets " came here ; if we except, perhaps, Gray, Southey, 
** Barry Cornwall," and Adelaide Anne Procter, of whom more anon. 
Southey gives some delightful descriptive touches in his book called The 
Doctor, of the adjoining Clmpel-le-Dale,— the birthplace of Doctor Daniel 
Dove, and his progenitors, " all Doves and Daniels, in uninterrupted 
succession from time immemorial." Gray, to whom we have before 
alluded, simply passed through the village, which he designates "pretty," 
on his way to Settle, but like the others, he saw and knew nothing of 
the romantic glens to which Ingleton owes no small share of its fame. 
Had Turner either, the prince of landscape painters, discovered these 
divine scenes, on the occasion of his visit to Ingleton, how his 
imagination, working through his magic pencil, would have raised them 



224 

to a wonderful Alpine sublimity ! But no, he took the road like the 
rest ; and walked clean by them to Wethercote, which he sketched among 
other places round about. 

But the fact must be told, these glens were unknown then, even to 
the inhabitants themselves, many of whom looked with doubtful surprise 
on the first descriptions of them in the papers. The mystery-brooding 
ravines, dark, narrow, and precipitous, and ploughed by innumerable 
cataracts, were practically inaccessible to any but the most adventurous 
explorers, or to foxes and other small game that sought the seclusion of 
their recesses without fear or risk of discovery. And in this condition 
these wild glens remained until the " Improvement Committee " was 
formed in 1884-5 for opening them out, and laying paths and 
constructing bridges for their safe and easy exploration. Before this 
time the author remembers penetrating Swilla Bottom from Broadwood 
up to Pecca Falls, and thence to Thornton Force, and meeting with such 
obstructions of rock, and water, and hanging forest, as well-nigh baffled 
progress. In some places it was necessary to swing from tree to tree, 
and spring with the utmost caution on to projecting bosses of rock, lest 
a false step should have launched him into some yawning watery gulf, 
deep below. Not long after this the register of fatal accidents began. 

Happily now such improvements have been matfe that the two glens 
are accessible to even infirm pedestrians, — the wielder of a crutch may 
safely venture — and the scenery of them both, which involves a walk of 
some four or five miles, viewed with ease and composure in the course of 
a summer afternoon. 

Ingleton, indeed, is one of those places which an enlightened and 
observant traveller, like the poet Byron, just mentioned. w T ho has eeen 
the Alps and other grand climacterics of continental scenery, may visit 
again and again with no misgivings of reviving interest, or of detriment 
to the recollection of greater scenes. Excepting, perhaps, the noble 
scenery of Devil's Bridge, near Aberystwith, I know of no place in this 
kingdom where mountain, forest, aud water are more sublimely or 
effectively combined than in the two glens formed by the streams of the 
Twiss or Doe, and Greta. 

A word now as to the nomenclature of these streams, which has 
given rise to much confusion, and not a little unfortunate wrangling as 
to what really are their proper names. In legal documents relating to 
the neighbourhood, in the Ordnance Maps, and other Government 
publications, as well as in local guide books, the greatest variance prevails* 
In the oldest map procurable on the district, namely Saxton's, (a.d. 1577), 
the western beck is called Kinesdale, and the eastern or Chapel-le-Dale y 
the Greeta. Whitaker, who wrote nearly a century ago, also called the 
stream, which flows through Chapel-le-Dale, Greta ; and Goldsmith, in 



225 

the first volume of his Natural History \ speaks of the " river Greatah, 
in Yorkshire, running underground and rising again ;" but this, although 
doubtless intended for the same stream, would apply either to the western 
or Kingsdale Beck, or that in Chapel-le-Dale. Indeed the Chapel-le-Dale 
beck has been called the Greeta by all our early topographers, while the 
Kingsdale beck was regarded merely as a tributary. Both streams have 
been, however, indiscriminately designated Greata, Greeta, or Gretah, 
(i.e., the great stream), which no doubt arises from the fact that the main 
water from its confluence at Ingleton to its junction with the Lune is, 
and has been always, known by that name. Therefore, in following the 
river up above its bifurcation at Ingleton into the two glens, which run 
somewhat in the shape of the letter Y, the same name has been carelessly 
and irrespectively applied to both. 

It must also be noted that in all the older maps the hamlet now 
called Chapel-le-Dale appears as Wisedale, and the little chapel as 
Wisedale Chapel, and is so referred to by Sir Henry Spelman in the 
"Villare Anglicanum" (a.d. 1678.) Thus the water flowing through 
this valley from the Chapel Houses downward, is called by some 
topographers the river Wease, Wase, or Wise, not, as has been supposed, 
that it is a contracted form or modification of the word Twiss, which is 
the name of the Kingsdale stream, but is simply so designated from the 
ancient name of the hamlet as just stated. And Wease, or Wisedale, is 
undoubtedly so called from the A.S. Woes, or modern German, Wiese, a 
pasture or meadow, in reference to the plots of cultivation that prevailed 
at this part, when the surrounding dale in the Saxon period was probably 
untenanted and barren. 

Concerning the two upper streams, which united form the Greta at 
Ingleton, these have borne, and certainly do still bear, distinct and 
separate names, although a great deal of confusion has arisen between 
them ; the name of the one being, as above remarked, indiscriminately 
applied to the other. I see, however, no difficulty in making this matter 
perfectly clear. According to the oldest orthography the Chapel-le-Dale 
stream has been always variously identified as the Weas, Dale, Chapel, 
or Ingleton Beck, and that from Keld Head and Thornton Force 
downwards the Twiss, Doe, or Kingsdale Beck. The confusion with 
respect to the Doe seems to have arisen mainly from this name having 
been erroneously applied by previous Ordnance surveyors to the Chape! 
or Dale beck, and as such it appears on the old maps. But the above 
allocation is, I may observe, historically correct, and so far as I am able 
to determine, etymologically apposite. The frequency of Scandinavian 
place-names above Ingleton has already been referred to, and Twiss is 
simply an abbreviation of the Scandinavian word tu'istle, meaning a 
boundary, which the stream in reality is ; thus Twisleton is the town or 

p 



226 

enclosure on the boundary, and the like of Twisleton Scar, &c. But 
the meaning of its alias. Doe, (sometimes applied to the Weas or Dale 
beck) is not so evident. It may be from the Scand. dyr or doer, a wild 
animal (whence our English, dear) or from the British dhu or du (pron. 
doo) black, or dhoan, brown,* in allusion to the dark, hidden, and 
mysterious course of the stream through Kingsdale, or to the common 
discolouration of the water from the wide sweeps of peaty moorland 
which it drains. Or, again, what seems not improbable, it may be a 
contraction or dialectic form of the British word, dehew, signifying 
right-hand, or west, a compound term so translated by Dion Cassius and 
other old Roman historians. In any case there is no doubt that the 
Kingsdale stream is the Doe, while that to the east, or nearest the town, 
is the Weas, Dale, or Ingleton Beck. But the upper portion of the 
latter stream seems, from the township maps, to have been long known 
as the Little Dale Beck only. 

In the previous chapter we have explained the origin and causes of 
the physical aspects of these grand chasmed dales, let us, therefore, now 
say something of their artistic or spectacular merits. They were first 
open to the public on Good Friday, April 3rd, 1885. Familiar as they 
are now to thousands of health-seekers from the busy towns of West 
Yorkshire and Lancashire, there are still many people in distant parts of 
the country who know nothing about them. 

We ought to have a firm, dry day for our pedestrian exploitations, 
otherwise the paths may be slippery and uncomfortable walking. When 
the ground is a little wet many tourists who come for the day, or even 
for an afternoon to Ingleton, prefer to follow the romantic road up 
Ohapel-le-Dale as far as Weathercote Cave, and back, a distance out and 
home of eight miles. Weathercote at any time is a marvellous sight, 
and there are also other curious caves and " pots " in the immediate 
vicinity, well worth seeing. 

To descend from Ingleton to the valley of the Twiss, or Pecca Fall 
Glen, as it is frequently now distinctively called, you go by some cottages 
below the Ingleborough hotel, and leave the disused cotton-mill on the 
right. This large mill was built and worked by Mr. J. T. Coates, J.P., 
of Holme Head. It was erected after a fire, about forty years ago, on 
the site of an old flax mill, but has been standing now some years. 

Now we cross the bridge and enter a stile on the right, which opens 
into BroajJ Wood, an extensive verdant expanse, spoiled, unfortunately, 
by huge placards, through which the path proceeds a short distance to 
the ticket-box. Here you are called upon to " stand and deliver " — the 
sum of 2d., and an additional 2d. on entering the other, or Beasley Fall 
Glen. This " surprise " overcome, other "surprises " of a different and 
* See Moore's " Place Names of the Isle of Man." 



227 

doubtless more acceptable character now attract attention. You enter 
the ravine of Creeping Steads, where a path has been constructed along 
the shelving wooded bank, and presently descends by means Of a ladder 
into the narrow defile below. Here the scene is wonderfully grand. 
The river, in its contracted bed, tumbles among moss-grown boulders, 
and the precipitous banks on each side are mantled with a variety of 
profuse vegetable life. Opposite, up tower, to an immense height, huge 
walls or ramparts of wood-crowned rock, their ledges and crannies, and 
steep-rifted declivities affording a precarious root-hold for a perfect 
forest of native growth, amongst which the dark foliage of the yews 
contrasts finely with the tender green of the birches and other trees. 

Our route along Swilla Bottom continues beneath flowery and ferny 
glades, now climbing, now descending the banks of the rock-fermented 
stream, and revealing at every turn glimpses of wood and water, and 
upreared bosses of rock and cliff, of the most pleasing and majestic kind. 
Hereabouts we perceive the interesting Herb Christopher, showy Herb 
Paris, and not a few plants of the beautiful Lily-of -the- Valley. Many 
kinds of Orchids also grow wild about this spot, and amongst them was 
formerly the very rare and curious Lady's Slipper, but it is now long 
extinct. We have, however, seen it in fine bloom in private gardens at 
Ingleton, whither it had been transplanted. 

And now we look round and observe the ever-deepening bed of the 
river, strewn with innumerable boulders and loose ice-ground stones 
which have tumbled from the crumbling banks of glacial drift, with 
which the valley was once filled. The cliffs ascend to a height of one 
hundred feet and upwards, and are still clothed with beautiful indigenous 
wood, and clumps of fern and many a rare plant, which will attract the 
botanist, and which render such varied scenes, in truth, grand natural 
museums. But how different, as we proceed, is it to contemplate these 
revelations of living beauty, and to feel the invigorating breezes, to 
scanning the stuffed cases and dried " specimens " of the covered-in 
museums in our towns ! What cunning of the hand or palette, again, 
can depict the wonderful majesty, tone, and colour of these bewitching 
scenes ? It is Cowper that says, and says most wisely — 

" Lovely indeed the mimic works of Art, 
But Nature's works far lovelier ! I admire, 
None more admires the painter's magic skill, 
Who shews me that which I shall never see. 
Conveys a distant country into mine, 
And throws Italian light on English walls. ' 

But imitative strokes can do no more 
Than please the eye, — sweet Nature every sense— 
The air salubrious of her lofty hills, 
The cheering fragrance of her dewy vales. 
And music of her woods- -no works of man 
May rival these ; these all bespeak a power 
Peculiar, and exclusively her own." 



228 

Some six or seven yards above the river we pass a rocky projection 
adorned with emerald-bright moss, and from over its top descends in 
diamond drops, or in thin pellucid dripping threads, a little expanse of 
water, appropriately called the Silvery Dripping Falls. A short distance 



Pecca Falls. 

above we reach the Pecca Falls, which, unquestionably, form the grandest 
water scenes along the river's course. The old Pecca Slate Quarries here, 
where the fractured rock is brought into striking prominence by the 
tremendous Craven Fault, enunciated in the last chapter, will arrest the 



229 

attention of the geologist. The first fall is extremely beautiful, amid 
its rocky and verdant environment, thongh of no important dimensions. 
The one above it, however, presents a magnificent scene, leaping, as it 
does, down a wild romantic ravine, graced with trees and shrubs, and 
falling from a height of forty feet, into a contracted gulf, from the sides 
of which the rocks ascend nearly 200 feet. There are few falls in 
Yorkshire more sublimely beautiful than this in a time of flood. 
Sometimes we have seen it from top to bottom a mass of white curling 
foam, contrasting splendidly with the dark hues of the circumjacent 
strata. In Autumn, when the changing colours of the trees, and the 
clusters of scarlet berries of the mountain-ash, along with patches of 
projecting heather and decaying fern, encompass the grand sounding 
fall, the scene is, indeed, most captivating. 

Higher up the stream several other fine falls chase each other in quick 
succession, and by ascending the rocky steps by the water's brink and 
continuing above, good views of these may be obtained. Seats have also 
been placed at favourable points of the path for viewing the scenery ; 
and from these the deep woody water-lashed gorge below, backed by a 
continuous panorama of beetling crags, with the not very distant summit 
of cloud-wrapt Ingleborough beyond, present an endless variety of bold 
and effective scenes. On certain occasions, when many visitors are 
present, we may look far back and descry them emerging from a canopy 
of trees high above the mountain ravine, or appearing on some distant 
part of the jutting path, which seems to run like a mere riband along 
the precipitous and giddy heights. 

Now we come to a kind of island in the upper reach of the river, and 
the wet banks on this side of it are starred over with the beautiful 
flowers of Parnassus and other uncommon species of plants. Just above, 
at a curvature of the river, is Thornton Force, one of the most beautiful, 
and at the same time most interesting, waterfalls in the district. It 
stands in the open, and is well seen some way off. Geologically it is, 
perhaps, unique, as we see here in fine section the several distinct and 
well-defined beds of Silurian and Carboniferous rocks, previously 
described, and which give such remarkable pronouncement to the 
scenery. The water falls over an edge of horizontal limestone, overlying 
a thickness of 4 to 5 feet of coarse conglomerate containing pebbles, 
chiefly Silurian, and this again overlies an exposure of highly inclined 
slates. The perpendicular height of the Fall is 63 feet, but the rocks on 
the left are fully 30 feet higher. It is a fine spectacle when there is a 
good rush of water, and the cascade may be passed from behind as it 
arches over the face of the cliff. There is another smaller fall near it 
issuing from the breast of the scar, to which point it has descended 
through the perforated limestone above. Some aged yew trees, hollies, 



230 

hazels, and thorns grow about this wild spot, and when these in winter 
are delicately feathered with hoar-rime, and the half -frozen waterfall is 
hung round with long bars and fleecy curtains, and dependent fringes of 
translucent ice, it is a perfect " fairy-scene." 

To reach Thornton Force without traversing the above-described 
ravine of the Twiss, you should take the high-road to a little beyond 
Thornton Hall, and turn in at a gate on the right. 

This side of Thornton Force we mount- the hill and soon arrive at 
the bridge which spans the stream, enabling us to cross, if necessary, to 
the eastern ravine or Ingleton Beck. Tourists, however, who wish to 
follow Kingsdale up to Yordas Cave (3 miles), or Dent (8| miles), should 
keep this side of the stream by the ravine of Raven Ray into the road. 
Here the torrent has cut through a chasm of impending limestone, 
which, from some points of view, has the appearance of a huge natural 
bridge, the central part of which has fallen in. The rocks,— once the 
haunt of ravens,— considerably overhang, and on the east side rise to a 
height of nearly thirty yards above the river, their bases being strewn 
with the fallen debris of innumerable centuries. Above the ravine, 
whence there is an excellent view of Greygarth and the distant hills, the 
valley widens, and the stream courses through an expanse of old alluvium, 
which has no doubt been the bed of a large, shallow lake. A short 
distance above, a turn to the left is made, and the stream is seen issuing 
in a pool under the wall close to the highway. This is Keld Head, so 
called from the old Scandinavian word for a well or spring. Experiments 
have been tried, and it is found that this stream is the same as that 
which disappears in a fissure just above Yordas Cave, and pursues an 
underground course of nearly two miles. 

But as we mention this again in our account of the trip from 
Ingleton to Dent, we will return to Thornton Force, and continue our 
explorations of the Beasley Falls Glen. Beasley, I may here mention, 
is evidently so-called from the name of a former tenant of the land in 
which the waterfalls of that name are situated. There is considerable 
variation in the present local spelling of the name, but in the Ingleton 
registers of the 17th and 18th centuries it is written Beaxley. 

On crossing the bridge, above mentioned, an old lane is entered, which 
you follow to the right under Twisleton Scars by Beasley Farm and 
Twisleton Manor House. Visitors can here obtain refreshments, and 
then proceed to the head of the magnificent, narrow glen through which 
the impetuous Chapel-le-Dale Beck, with ever-restless surge dashes 
along beneath tree-crowned height and shivered rock, and blowing its 
" hoarse-trumpet " through gorge or canyon from cataracts of the wildest 
character. Passing a little prairie of wild flowers, in which the Butterfly 
Orchis, among other rarities, grows most luxuriantly, we descend a 



231 

winding path in the shady ravine to the fine Beasley Falls, of which 
there are several. Here a fan-shaped sheet of foaming water is spread 
over a bed of massive rock, that rises to a height of 20 feet, and, which 
crumbles like wind-tossed snow, the beautiful fall into soft white showers. 
We may now cross the bridge in the contracted ravine, high above 
the fuming water, and pursue the zig-zag path along the umbrageous 
declivity opposite. The torrent, sounding deep below, forms a succession 
of spouts, leaps, rapids, and eddying pools, sometimes hidden from view, 
and sometimes affording by the projecting bosses of rock spectacles of 
rare grandeur. The stream runs for a great part of the way through a 
rugged channel of up-heaved or pillared bands of dark Silurian slates, 



Backstone Gill. 
and which are a prolongation of the slate-bed already noticed at the 
base of Thornton Force. Then follows a baud of greenish-grey grit, 
with only a few thin slates, which, according to the Ordnance Survey, 
must be at least 600 or 700 feet thick, and can be traced continuously 
across the valley of lugletou Beck from the S.E. to near Long Chimney, 
when it disappears nnder drift. 



282 

The boisterous and confined waters now enter the romantic gorge 
known as Backstone Gill, or Baxen Gill, which is a long alley of upreared 
rock, through which the darkened stream is ploughed into a double fall. 
The solid flanks of the huge ravine are beautifully bronzed and tinted 
with various mosses and lichens, and the whole shrouded in the gloom 
of impending forest trees, make this, truly, one of the grandest and most 
singular water-passes in the district. In times of heavy flood the water 
rises very considerably in the chasm, and rattling the rocks in its course 
makes a sound like the booming of cannon. Below it is another grand 
fall, which may be viewed by descending a flight of steps on to a grassy 
promontory where the valley opens. The scene that is now expanded to 
the vision is one of the finest that can be imagined. What a magnificent 
swell of ancient forest rises skyward from the declivities of the glen 
opposite ! Dense, beautiful, and majestic, it can only be compared with 
such scenes as one beholds but now and again in the glens of Wales, or 
the Highlands of Scotland. 

A little further on and we descend round the lofty old slate quarries, 
where the walls of rock, going vertically upwards to a great height, 
present a wonderfully interesting spectacle. The slates, says Prof. 
Sedgwick, are coarser than the fine greenish-blue slates of the central 
group of Cumberland, but resemble them in colour. Some of them are 
marked with " beautiful dendritic coverings of pyrites, and occasionally 
studded with large, bright cubes of that mineral." They are co-extensive 
with those at Pecca, on the Thornton Beck, but the latter are spoiled by 
joints and fractures, and have long since been abandoned. Our path 
hence from the slates leads across the Craven Fault by the limestone 
quarries and the rocky Storrs Common, with many an open and pleasant 
view southwards ; and as we wend our way back to Ingleton we must 
feel that our trip has been a most enjoyable one, and that we are 
carrying away with us impressions of beautiful scenes that can never 
fade from remembrance, and that must often help to cheer and brighten 
hours of gloom while dwelling, perhaps, amid the walls and streets of 
some distant smoke-black city. Is it not Wordsworth who expresses 
the sentiment somewhere ? 

" Though absent long, 
These forms of beauty have not been to me 
As a landscape to a blind man's eye, 
But oft in lonely rooms, and, 'mid the din 
Of towns and cities, I have owed to them, 
In hours of weariness, sensations sweet, 
Felt in the blood, and felt along the heart ; 
And passing even into my purer mind, 
With tranquil restoration." 



233 



CHAPTER XXI. 




Ingleborough : Its Origin, History, and Scenery. 

Up Ingleborough — Its extent and character — The oldest mountain in Yorkshire — 
Comparison with Snowdon— Physical structure explained — Sectional details 
— Botanical aspects — List of native flowers and ferns— The creeping things — 
Advent of Man — Ancient beacon — Celtic huts on the summit — Roman 
occupation of Ingleborough — Analysis of the prospect—" Jubilee " tires. 

ND now for the ascent of Ingleborough ! This is undoubtedly 

the most popular mountain in Yorkshire ; its favour amongst 

climbers, in comparison with the rest of our Highland 

mountains being probably as 100 to 1. This is mainly owing 

to its central and accessible position, and to the glorious view obtainable 

from its noble crown. 

It possesses, however, other and varied fields of attraction second to 
no other Yorkshire mountain. Geologically it may be said to date, so 
far as this part of England is concerned, from the very foundations of 
the world, its limestone base resting on the oldest rocks in the county. 
Its slopes are, moreover, covered with the remains of the presence of 
ancient ice-fields, and its rocks and scars and various vegetable earths 
are clothed with an infinitude of Alpine and other rare and curious 
plants. In other respects, too, it is not less interesting. In its human 
associations its history is unequivocally recorded from the period of the 
immigration of the primitive British Goidels, or northern Gaels, who 
were the first great branch of the original Celtic settlers in this part of 
our island. But more will be said of this presently. 

Ingleborough is, indeed, in all respects a mighty mountain. 
The superficial circumference of its base is about 25 miles, which 
includes a tract at once grand, wild, and solitary, and, if we except the 
single house at Crina Bottom (1100 feet) which lies in the south-western 
lap of the mountain, there itfan expanse of nearly 20 square miles, or at 
least 12,000 statute acres, without a permanent habitation, an extent of 
houseless and uninhabited territory possibly without parallel in England. 
There is, forsooth, no cause for complaint of " smoke nuisance " about 
here, as the tourist imbibing, as he may, the invigorating breezes at 
every step, ascends the wide sweeps of bird-haunted heather, and grassy 



284 

or rock-broken fell, rising tier above tier, and scar on scar, until the 
wide summit is gained, 2373 feet above the adjoining sea, which he 
can plainly descry. 

The mountain stands, like Snowdon in Wales, an isolated and solitary 
mass, its lofty summit constituting a well-defined object from various 
parts of Yorkshire and the surrounding counties at a distance of 40 to 
50 miles ; and by its easily-recognisable outline bulked singly and alone 
against the sky, is a familiar landmark for mariners at sea, and it also 
serves, when viewed from afar, as a kind of key by which to identify 
many points of the surrounding landscape. Owing, perhaps, to this 
commanding and imposing aspect, old geographers have vastly over-rated 
its altitude. Hurtley gives it at 5280 feet, or considerably higher than 
the actual height of either Snowdon (3571 feet) or Ben Nevis (4406 
feet), the highest mountains respectively in Wales and Scotland. John 
Housman, writing in the early part of the century, states that its 
altitude above the sea, " as taken by a neighbouring country gentleman, 
is 3987 feet." However, put to the latest test of the most approved 
instruments, its height is found to be not more than above stated, viz., 
2373 feet. 

Snow often lies on some parts of the mountain when many of the 
trees and shrubs in the gills at its feet are in full leaf and flower. We 
might, indeed, almost say of it, as Moore says of heaven-aspiring 
Lebanon, — 

" Its head in wintry grandeur towers, 
And whitens with eternal sleet ; 
While Summer, in a vale of flowers, 
Is sleeping rosy at its feet." 

We must now say something of the structure of the mountain, which, 
as remarked, presents a grand and entertaining field of study. The 
main mass consists of Scar Limestone, 600 to 700 feet thick, above 
which come the variable series of Yoredale rocks, about 800 feet in total 
thickness, overlaid with a cap of Millstone Grit. This grit, which forms 
the top of Ingleborough, is coarse and pebbly, and hades to the E.N.E. 
According to Mr. Dakyns, of the Ordnance Survey, this grit is without 
doubt the same bed as one which years ago was mapped in Wharfedale 
as Millstone Grit, and so coloured on the published maps, because it was 
believed to be the equivalent of part of the Kinderscout Grit. At the 
same time, he says, there is no doubt that in other parts of the country a 
different horizon has been taken as the base of the Millstone Grit. For 
the Ingleborough grit, as Phillips pointed out, is the same bed as that 
on Penyghent below the coal, and this coal is probably the same seam as 
one which elsewhere has been taken as the base of the Millstone Grit.* 

* Sec " Memoirs of the Geological Survey, Explanation of Quarter Sheet 50," 
page 74. 



285 

These grits underlie the coal measures, thrown down by the great 
fault, or series of faults, on the south-west of the mountain, and indicate 
a drop in the strata on that side of fully 8000 feet, or a subsidence and 
levelling equivalent, say, to the whole height of a mountain like 
Skiddaw or Heivellyn ! 

The Carboniferous basement beds, and old conglomerate resting 

immediately upon the inclined Silurian rocks, which form the floor of 

Ingleborough, are laid at horizons above sea-level of 700 to 800 feet.f 

Above these, in chronological order, the strata are thus piled up : 

Feet. 
Millstone Grit of summit ... ... ... ... 60 

U/UU0I ... ... ... ... ... ... 1*0 

Main Limestone ... ... ... ... ... 50 — 60 

Sandstone, tvith some shale ... ... ... ... 200 

Shale, with some sandstone ... ... ... ... 130 

Limestone (with shale J ... ... ... ... 8 — 10 

Shale and sandstone ... ... ... ... 6o 

Middle Limestone ... ... ... ... ... 15—20 

Sandstone and shale ... ... ... ... 150 

Simonstone Limestone ... ... ... ... 25 — 80 

Sandstone and shale ... ... ... ... 100 

Hard raw Scar Limestone ... ... ... ... 80 — 40 

Shales and limestone ... ... ... ... 30 

Great Scar Limestone ... ... ... ... about 600 

This section, according to the Ordnance data, details a thickness of 
about 1600 feet. The Lower, or Scar Limestone, is stated by the same 
authority, to attain its highest point above the sea (about 1500 feet) on 
the south-west side of Ingleborough, near Newby Moss, whence it falla 
to about 1200 feet at Southerscales Fell and South House Moor, in a 
distance of nearly three miles, which equals a fall of 1 00 feet per mile 
or 1 in 53 nearly, not much more than a dip of 1° on the average, but 
in places, of course, the dip becomes steeper. It is a nearly solid masa 
of greyish or light blue limestone, with but few partings of clay or shale, 
except near its base, and occasionally near its upper boundary. The 
upper beds contain a very large percentage of carbonate of lime, and 
are well adapted for burning and agricultural purposes, while the lower, 
being hard, compact, and more fissile, are better suited for building 
purposes. The Main or Twelve Fathom Limestone, is placedby Phillip* 
as the topmost bed of the Yoredale series, including the measures above 
it in the Millstone grits. On Ingleborough it has a thickness of only 
about 50 feet, and thins away eastward. The Underset Limestone, next 
below it, does not appear either on Ingleborough or Penyghent, although 

f The base of the Carboniferous series lies at an elevation of 725 feet at God's 
Bridge and Thornton Force, nor in Chapel-le-Daledoesit anywhere rise more than 
150 feet above this, but in Ribblesdale and Crummack it is more variable in height. 
Vide " Survey Memoirs." 



236 

it is found as a very thin bed on the flanks of Whernside, The whole 
of these beds are very erratic, rapidly alternating, and difficult to follow. 
They are also frequently furrowed with swallow-holes and caverns of 
large extent. 

Let us turn next to the botany of Ingleborough. As might be 
expected from the variety of its rocks and elevation, there exist along its 
slopes and edges numerous and many uncommon, kinds of plants. 
Amongst the latter may be mentioned the beautiful Purple Saxifrage, 
which fringes the limestone scar near its western summit for a considerable 
distance. Its small, densely-clustered leaves and delicate purple flowers 
may often be seen bursting into life and beauty while the snows of winter 
linger about the hoary head of the mountain. On this account it is well 
worth making the ascent of Ingleborough in the early Spring to see this 
pretty gem blossoming in one of its few native English haunts, where 
for ages (how many we know not*) it has maintained a vigorous existence, 
nourished by the pure glistening dews and rains that are being 
continuously distilled upon its rocky bed. It is strictly Alpine in its 
natural habits, and occurs in but one or two other places in Yorkshire. 
In the Swiss Oberland and higher Jura it may frequently be met with, 
and it has also been " swum down " to the shores of Lake Constance, 
where (as "Wordsworth observes) 

14 — Cleaving to the ground it lies, 
With multitudes of purple eyes, 
Spangling a cushion green like moes." 

As it is impossible to describe every plant and flower in detail, I shall 
give a list of the more interesting species of the summit, furnished 
and prepared by Prof. J. G. Baker, F.R.S., F.L.S., of the Royal 
Herbarium, Kew, as follows : t 

PLANTS OF THE INFER-ARCTIC ZONE ON INGLEBOROUGH : 

Springs below the Main Limestone Scars, 2200 feet. Mont la fontana, 
Achillea Millefolium, Juncus effusus, Scirpus catspitosus, Cynosurus cristatus. 

On the Main Limestone Cliffs, 2200 to 2300 fekt. Card amine 
pratensis, Viola sylvatwa, Armaria vcrna, Trifolinm repens, Alchemilla vulgaris. 
Potent ilia TormentUla, Saxifraga oppositi folia, Sedum Rhodiola, Scabiosa 
Columbaria, Galium sylrestre, Taraxacum officinale, Campanula rotundifolia. 
Thymus Serpyllum, Rumrx Acttosa, Carcx stellulata, Sesleria ca>rulea, Poa 
pratensis. Qystoptcris fragilis. both type and var. dentata, Asplenium viride, 
Lastrea Filix-mas, Lastrea dilatata var, coll in a. 

On the Gritstone Ridge, at 2800 to nearly 2400 feet. Ranunculus 
repent, Draba verna, Cerastium triviale, Sagina procumbent, Stellaria media, 
Oxalitt Acctosella, Saxifraga hypnoides, Galium saxatile, Scnecio vulgaris, 
Vaccinium Myrtillu*, Euphrasia officinalis, Rumex Acctosella, Juncus squarrosus, 
Lnzula campextri*. Carexjfava (/*) Aira ctespitosa, Agrostis vulgaris, Poa annua, 
Festuca ovina, Nardus stricta, Lycopodium Selago. 

* It was observed here by Ray as early as the year 1677. 
t See the XaturalUt for Nov., 1889. 



287 

With respect to the ferns of the mountain, these have unfortunately 
been so diligently sought for, that year by year they are becoming 
significantly fewer. Having previously commented on this unhappy 
destruction, their habitats need not here be specifically defined. But 
the Harts-tongue, Bladder-fern, Parsley-fern, Wall-rue, and Black and 
Green Spleenworts are still tolerably abundant ; the Prickly Shield-fern, 
Moon-wort, and Limestone Polypody, less so. 

And now a few words about the " creeping things " of the mountain, 
which, if more obscure and neglected, are assuredly not less interesting 
among God's creatures than the wild flowers and ferns ; and they are 
equally indicative, from a scientific point of view, of the natural 
distribution of the lower forms of life at varying altitudes. The 
following useful sketch, copied by permission from the Naturalist* 
is from the competent pen of Mr. J. W. Carter, a well-known Bradford 
entomologist. 

SOME INGLEBOROUGH COLEOPTERA. 

During two ascents of Ingleborough — one on the 11th of April, 1884, in 
company with Mr. H. T. Soppitt, of Bradford, and Mr. J. A. Butterfield, of 
Lewisham, and again on April 3rd, 1885, also in company with Mr. Soppitt— 
several species of coleoptera, some of exceptional interest, were collected, the 
following list of which may be of interest. 

Those marked * are new county records. 

Cababus abvensis F. One on the side of Ingleborough at an elevation of 
about 2,000 feet April, 1884 (J.A.B. and H.T.S.) Only once previously taken in 
the county, viz., at Strensall Common (Ent. Trans. Y. N. U.). 

Notiophilus aquaticus L. In boggy ground at the foot of Ingleborough, 
April, 1885. A blue-black variety occurred with the type. 

Notiophilus palustbis Duft. One at the base of Ingleborough, April, 
1885. This and the preceding species are new to the north-west portion of the 
county. 

Notiophilus biouttatus F. Common about Ingleborough and the 
neighbourhood, 1884 and 1885. 

Nebbia oyllenhalii Sch. Very abundant on the summit of Ingleborough, 
April, 1884. Amongst them were three or four examples with the elytra " entirely 
rust-red," a form mentioned by the Rev. Canon Fowler in his admirable work on 
" British Coleoptera." 

Clivina fossob L. At the baBe of Ingleborough, 1885. 

*Patbobus assimilis Chaud. In great abundance on the summit of 
Ingleborough, April, 1884. I think that everyone who has examined large 
numbers of this form from varying altitudes cannot but agree with Mr. Fowler in 
regarding it as " merely a highland variety " of P. excavatus Payk. I have taken 
it at an elevation of from 900 to above 2,000 feet, those taken at the highest point 
being the most pronounced asrimilu, while at lower elevations, forms not agreeing 
exactly with either, but partaking of the characters of both, are often met with. 

Ptebostichus nigrita F. Common in the neighbourhood of Ingleborough, 
1884 and 1885. 

^Ptebostichus jETHIops F. One each by Mr. Soppitt and myself, at the 
base of Ingleborough, April 3rd, 1885. 



238 

Badisteb BiPU8Tur,ATU8 F. One given me by my friend, Mr. T. Hey, of 
Derby, taken on Ingleborough, 1887. 

Calathus melanocephalus L. Common in the neighbourhood of 
Ingleborough. 

* Var. nubigena Hal. On the sides and at the foot of Ingleborough, 

1884 and 1886. 

Anchomenus albipeb F. At the foot and in the neighbourhood of 
Ingleborough, common. 

Byrrhus fasciatus F. Not uncommon on the summit of Ingleborough, 1884. 

The common frog, it may be noted, occurs in pools on Ingleborough 
at near 2000 feet. 

The summit of the mountain is a bare, or grass-covered plateau, 
nearly a mile in circumference, where in former times horse-races were 
held, but on one of these occasions, now nearly two centuries ago, it 
seems that a spirited animal bounded over the precipice on the north 
side and was killed, so the sports were discontinued, and have not since 
been resumed.* 

As I have had several times occasion to point out, this valuably- 
prominent peak was secured as a beacon and signal, and probably as a 
Bel hill, by the Goidelic or earliest foreign immigrants, who settled in 
these parts, and to whom we unquestionably owe many existing 
place-names in the district. For the purposes named, the mountain 
continued to be used down to the Norman invasion, and even for 
centuries afterwards fires were kindled on its summit as alarm-signals 
during times of war and tumult. 

The fortifications, traces of which still exist on the top of the 
mountain, are, I think, referable partly to the late native Celts and 
partly to the Roman usurpation. Near the south-western edge are the 
remains of some circular ramparts and watch-towers, that possibly 
originated from the Roman garrison at Overborough, which will be 
described later on. One of these constructions formerly consisted of a 
stout gritstone wall, about 20 feet long, 4 feet wide, and perhaps 12 feet 
high. It was ascended by a stone stair, and was no doubt used as a 
beacon. 

The summit of the mountain was, moreover, encompassed in part 
by a strong gritstone wall ; the area enclosed being, according to 
Mr. Farrer, 15 acres, 1 rood, 37 perches. It was in form an irregular 
square, 490 feet across from east to west, having three entrances or 
openings, viz. : to the north, south-west, and east ; the two first-named 
being 50 feet wide. Ancient trackways led up to each of the openings. 
The wall, says Phillips, writing in 1854, is remarkably low for about 
30 yards at the north-east corner, and there the hill runs out into a sort 

* " Several persons now living say they have seen races upon it." Vide 
Grntlcman't Mag.,, vol. xxxi., p. 126 (a.d. 1761). 



239 

of natural bastion. Within the enclosure there were 19 horse-shoe 
shaped huts, each about 30 feet in diameter, with only one opening to 
the south-east, that is to say the backs of the houses were built against 
the north-west, or the quarter most exposed to high winds and snow 
storms. 

These were, as I have stated above, in all probability the habitations 
of the native Celts, who occupied the site during the encroachment of 
the Romans, and with whom, we have no doubt, a tough struggle took 
place, before the new comers obtained full possession of the beacon. 
The position, form, and regularity of these foundations do not denote 
them to be the work of barbarous hands, — of the poor cave-dwellers or 
of the earliest immigrants, — nor is it likely that any later invaders, such 
as the Danes or Saxons, tenanted this elevated and exposed spot. The 
Saxons were peaceably settled in the district, and the Danes, too, as 
previously explained. They may, however, have had an outpost or 
signal on the mountain, like the Romans. The peculiar horse-shoe form 
of the huts has not been observed elsewhere in this country, and they 
were apparently so built with a critical knowledge of such a design 
offering the best resistance to the prevailing wind. It is, however, also 
possible they were planned in the belief, that by adopting the horse-shoe 
shape of building, their houses would be secure against the attacks of 
enemies. This is an old Celtic superstition, which seems to have 
originated in the East, where the horse-shoe arch, as well as the circle, — 
symbolical of the visible heavens,— prevailed in oriental architecture at 
an early period. Still, it may be assumed that they had something to do 
with the horse races once held on the summit, above alluded to, but 
there is no recollection or tradition among the inhabitants of the district 
that such has been the case, nor are they mentioned in connection with 
the subject by any of the old writers. Phillips gives a plan of the camp 
and huts, which shews a small tutelary spring on the west side, about 
50 feet from the summit, called St. Anthony's Well. 

I may further add, that Rauthmel, in his Antiquities of Overborough^ 
(1824), seems to think the fortifications are of Roman origin, and gives 
the following reasons. " The word Ingleborough," he says, " signifies 
the same in the Saxon which the word Bremetonacae [Overborough] 
signifies in the British tongue, namely, rocky-hill fire-station. Hence 
we learn that the Roman garrison at Overborough, erected a beacon, 
fire-house, or watch-tower upon the rocky hill of Ingleborough, and 
appointed watches or centinels there. TheBe centinels, by their signals 
of fire, were to give notice and alarm the soldiers of the garrison upon 
their discovering the approach of the enemy. The use of beacons or 
watch-towers upon hills to alarm the country was an ancient custom, for 
we read of beacons in the Old Testament, and to confirm all, this beacon or 



i 

i 

j 

i 



240 

fire-house of the Romans has to this day its ruins upon Ingleborough, 
which is a remarkably rocky hill ; and the Roman watch-tower is situate 
on that side of the summit of the hill which looks towards Overborough." 
There are some considerable remains of ancient earthworks and 
entrenchments near to the Lund Holme farm-house, about a mile to the 
west of Ingleton, which may have been a fort of the Roman Guard of 
Ingleborough, but I am inclined to think that both this and the camp 
at Yarlsber, to the east of the town, were outposts of the Danes prior to 
the Saxon secession. 

We will now conclude our somewhat prolonged notice of Ingleborough 
with an account of the view from the top. There are not many 
mountains that command a wider panorama, although it must be 
confessed that this very distance destroys much of the sense of wildness 
and impressive ruggedness that belongs to more closely-encompassing 
peaks, such as one experiences from some lesser view-points around the 
heads of the Yore, Wharfe, and Swale. Turning to the west, the eye 
descries a wide expanse of sun-lighted sea, stretching from High 
Heysham and Morecambe on the south, to Amside and Oartmell Fells 
northwards. Looking across the Bay directly westward, the smoke 
rising from the town of Barrow may be distinguished at a distance of 37 
miles, and beyond is the Irish sea again, with the dim cone-shaped 
outline of the Isle of Man discernible when sufficiently clear. This is 90 
miles off, and is the furthest point visible westward. It is impossible to 
determine the coast of Ireland, as some writers have imagined, although 
from Black Combe, and perhaps other points of considerable elevation 
on the west, the Wicklow and Mourne mountains are discernible. The 
intermediate area this way is occupied with many objects and features of 
interest. Warton Crag, above Carnforth, an old beacon-hill (which 
received the light from Ingleborough) and Lancaster Castle (18 miles) 
are plainly seen ; also the valley of the Lune, with the beautifully 
wooded vale of Wenning, and the silvery, flowing Greta that runs to 
meet it, relieving by their aspects of verdure and surrounding cultivation, 
the wildernesses of fell and mountain beyond. 

Deep at our feet dashes the picturesque, wild little beck through 
Chapel-le-Dale, but from our elevation, looking little more than a silver 
streak " frozen by distance," while on the farther side of the Dale rise 
the grey walls and miniature turrets of Twisleton Scars. Up again 
from these, but more to the north, gradually ascend the eastern flanks of 
Wheraside, its long, green gable, the " roof " of Yorkshire, reared 
massively and majestically against the sky, and forming as it does a 
noble background to the wide undulating morass and plain that stretches 
between it and Cam Fell. Beyond it, northwards, we have Crag Hill 
and the County Stone, the long and lofty viaduct of the Settle and 



241 

Carlisle railway at Ribblehead, and Rise Hill, below which runs the 
grand old road to Dent. Further behind is the picturesque high boss of 
Baugh Fell, the Howgill Fells grouped above Sedbergh, and some of the 
Lake mountains, including Coniston Old Man, Black Combe, and the 
two Langdales, Helvellyn, Skiddaw, and beyond Fairfield, the peering 
summit of Scafell Pike (8210 feet), the loftiest of all the English 
mountains. The array of hills in this direction is very fine, but a very 
clear atmosphere is essential to discriminate and identify, with the aid of 
a good map, the numerous points named. Northwards, but nearer at 
hand, rise Wold and Widdale Fells, abutting on the desolate tracts of 
Blea Moor, and on the right Cam Fell, Dodd Fell, Wether Fell, and 
the Wensleydale hills, including the isolated summit of Addleborough, 
are conspicuous. Eastward, soars the straight-backed edge of Fountains 
Fell, with the whole of Penyghent towering proudly out of Ribblesdale 
to the north of it, and looking so near as to seem almost within a giant's 
stride. Far behind, again, rises Great Whernside above higher 
Nidderdale, and Buckden Gable, with Ryeloaf peering up between the 
Malham Moors and the white road coming down from High Side to 
Settle. Southward are the hills and fells of Lancashire, including the 
Bowland Knotts, the mammoth bulk of Pendle, and Longridge, as far 
as the estuary of the Ribble. Housman (a J). 1810) says that "the 
blue mountains of Wales strike the eye as the farthest terrestrial object," 
and Wm. Howson (1850), brother of Dean Howson, of Chester, confirms 
the opinion by observing that " in the far distance may be distinguished 
the Flintshire Hills and the Great Ormes Head." Allen (1830) also 
says that Snowdon is " clearly visible." Although in the clearest 
weather we have been unable to verify these important declarations, nor 
have we found the person who could, yet from the open character of the 
country in the direction indicated there is no reason why, under 
exceptional conditions of the atmosphere, the Welsh peaks should not be 
discerned. The distance from Ingleborongh in a bee-line to the Great 
Ormes Head is 88 miles, and to Snowdon 110 miles. I may add, 
how r ever, that Allen's statement is undoubtedly borrowed, and the " blue 
mountains of Wales" assumption by Housman receives no better 
credential than his own admission, to the effect that u a thick fog on 
the top of the mountain " prevented him from having the pleasure of 
seeing them, or even of ascending the mountain at all ! His words are, 
apparently a copy of those of Hutton, who in his Tour to the Caves 
(a.d. 1781) remarks of the view that " the blue mountains in Wales 
terminated our further progress, after we had traced out the winding of 
the coast all the way from Lancaster, by Preston, and Liverpool." The 
atmosphere in those days must have been less commonly obscured by 
haze than is the case now, owing to the growth of the smoky pall 

Q 



242 

of commerce in South Lancashire. Charles Kingsley climbed the grand 
old summit on the evening of July 5th, 1858, — he being then the guest 
of Mr. Morrison, at Hainan) Tarn House, — and in one of his letters he 
writes : " Last night we went up Ingleborough, and saw the whole world 
to the west, the Lake mountains, and the western sea, beyond Lancaster 
and Morecambe Bay, for miles ! There was a cap on Scawfell, forty 
miles away, which has ended in heavy rain to-day." 

There is an old saying, which is also said to be a true one : 



By " sap " is meant a heavy downpour of rain. Warton Crag, as before 
observed, was anciently the next beacon to Ingleborough. 

On the memorable night of Her Majesty's Jubilee, June 21st, 1887, 
a hnge bonfire was kindled on Ingleborough, the illumination of which 
I was able to descry from Raw don Billing, to the west of Leeds, a 
visual distance of 40 miles. About twelve tons of material were used 
for the fire, including a cask of paraffin, and it is stated by those who 
witnessed the conflagration from the summit that upwards of 60 fires 
were discernible upon the tops of the higher hills, and extended from 
Skiddaw and Saddleback on the north, to Pendle Hill and the Lancashire 
Pen ines south wards. The night, as will be remembered, was remarkably 
fine and clear, and before sunset it was possible even from Ingleborough 
to descry vessels at sea. 



243 



CHAPTER XXII. 




In Chapel-le-Dale. 

A remarkable dale — A Yorkshire Wonderland — Storrs Caves — Erratic Boulders — 
Ingleton " granite " — God's Bridge— The capital of Ingleton Fells— Interesting 
little chapel — Hurtle and Gingle Pots— Weathercote Cave — Turner and Westall 
— Douk Caves— Barefoot Wives' Hole— Mere Gill — Tatham Wife Hole — Up 
Whernside — Extraordinary caverns — Gatekirk. Bruntscar, Homeshaw, and 
Ivescar Caves — Scar Fall— Irruptions of the Scots— Discovery of coiiiB — Rare 
plants— The Ice Age in Yorkshire — Stone circle— Sepulchral cairns. 

T is, perhaps, no exaggeration to affirm that the romantic and 
highly-interesting stretch of country between Ingleton and 
Ribblehead, — a length of six miles, — contains a larger number 
of natural wonders than is to be found in any area of similar 
extent in England. Mountains and waterfalls ; cliffs and chasms ; 
caves and swallow-holes, of remarkable and unique design ; cairns, 
tumuli, and other pre-historic antiquities ; fine sweeps of dale scenery, 
with their diverse rock-relics of the Great Ice Age ; and a rare profusion 
of natural history objects besides, make this altogether one of the most 
entertaining excursions we have to describe. This little dale is, indeed, 
one of the wonders of Yorkshire. 

The direct carriage-road to Ribblehead, which may be continued 
forward by the mountain-road into Wensleydale, runs between ranges of 
magnificent grey and white scars, terraced on either side of the valley at 
an altitude above the river of 600 — 1000 feet ; those on the left, under 
Whernside, being called the Twisleton Scars, and those on the right, 
under Ingleborough, the Raven Scars. These imposing flanks of 
Mountain Limestone are rent and furrowed with numerous watercourses, 
some of which find their way by secret passages underground, to emerge 
again and discharge their limpid currents into the main stream below. 
The road from Ingleton to Chapel-le-dale (4 miles), or as it was anciently 
called Wise or Wease Dale* (A.S., wiese, a meadow), is pretty level, 
700 — 800 feet, but beyond the Chapel Houses it rises, and at Ribblehead 
reaches an altitude of nearly 700 feet. Formerly there was part corn 
grown about Chapel-le-Dale, and the land having been early reclaimed, 

* In the old Ordnance Map I find a portion of the road marked Bouch Dale. 
This is evidently a local innovation from the name of the lord of the manor 
last century. 



244 

probably originated its Saxon name a thousand years ago. But I have 
already explained this and the names of the various becks, &c, in a 
previous chapter. 

Having described the beauties of the Dale Beck as far as the Beasley 
Falls, we will now quit the village by the Dale road, leaving the common, 
which is crossed to the lane by the " Devil's Grave " up to Ingleborough, 
on our right, and proceed a little further as far as Storrs Hall. Here, 
by the highway near the Hall, are a couple of caves, which have been 
lately cleared and made available for visitors. As yet, their penetrable 
length is not great ; but the lower cave, which is descended by a number 
of rudely-formed steps, is ascertained to extend for a very considerable 
distance downwards, one branch evidently going in the direction of Fell 
End. The upper cave is accessible for a length of about 50 yards, and 
is entered by a gallery about 15 — 20 feet wide, and nearly as much in 
height. There are, however, several cross fissures, forming chambers 10 
to 12 yards in height. The caverns contain no stalactites, or other 
beautiful encrustations, and their initial formation may be due to the 
natural convulsion or Fault which passes by Storrs Hall, before described, 
and which have been subsequently enlarged by the action of water. 

Pursuing the road, various erratic boulders will be passed, some loose 
and some built into the adjoining walls by the way-side. These we have 
already mentioned. Now we come in sight of the " Granite Quarries," 
with their peculiar intersecting veins of slate. The rock, also before 
noticed, is variously described as a u basalt ;" a " felspathic trap ;" and 
a " pyroclastic rock built up of the denudated products of a metamorphic 
area, enclosed in a matrix of felspathic ash." The Ingleton folk, 
however, are content to call it simply " granite," and as such it is crushed 
and sold for road metal. But technically, as we see, it is not a granite. 

The vale we are traversing now assumes a most romantic character. 
Far away below us, in the sober sunlight, glides the now gentle stream, 
to bound ere long o'er crag and dell and by many a lofty waterfall, to 
" greet " at last its far-travelled comrade, the mountain Doe or Twiss, at 
Ingleton. Down on our left we pass the Dale House, one of the few 
dwellings seen on our way, and about \ mile beyond, the road crosses the 
effluence of a small stream which courses down to the Dale beck just 
below. Here, if you are geologising, or are at all interested, stoop down 
and you will see the calcareous conglomerate, we have before alluded to, 
resting on the upturned slate. Just above is God's bridge, so-called 
because it was not fashioned by human hands. It is a long natural 
bridge of carboniferous limestone, overlaid with turf, and concealing for 
a distance of about 200 yards the waters of the Dale beck, which, on 
emerging, are joined by the stream above mentioned, which descends by 
a subterranean passage the western flanks of Ingleborough, and is 



245 

doubtless the one that enters the chasm of Mere Gill. By its side is 
another coming from the opposite direction. Above the " bridge " the 
open watercourse is usually dry ; the stream seeking a lower stratum, and 
dodging curiously in and out along its honeycombed bed it eventually 
leaves the limestone a few hundred yards below the "bridge," and 
courses then over impervious slates down to the great 'fault, half-a-mile 
above Ingleton, where it again forms a channel in the carboniferous rocks. 

A short distance above God's Bridge and we arrive at the picturesque 
and retired hamlet of Chapel-le-Dale, which, like a little Bethoron walled 
in by the mountains, is the chief holy-place and " capital " of the 
chapelry of Ingleton Fells, comprising an area of over 10,000 acres. 
The population is about 150, or, say, 70 acres to a soul — ample 4k elbow- 
room" indeed ! Its little church is a neat stone edifice, with sittings 
for about 100 persons. As a chapel-of-ease to Ingleton it is of 
considerable antiquity, but its origin is not, apparently, known. It is 
comprised within the ancient parish of Bentham, and its living, a 
perpetual curacy, is in the gift of the Rector of Bentham. In Saxon 
times, from which the place undoubtedly dates, the inhabitants probably 
worshipped at Ingleton. In the time of Edward II. the dale was infested 
with hordes of Scots, who committed great ravages on local property, so 
much so that in the 13th year of that reign (a.d. 1819) the taxes on 
certain neighbouring churches were very considerably reduced. In these 
specially-ordered writs of remission no mention is made of Wisedale or 
Chapel-le-dale Chapel, although those of Twisleton* and Ingleton are 
included. 

From what we are able to gather, fires would appear to have been 
lighted on I'ngleborough to alarm the natives on the approach of the 
mischief-meaning Scots. The inhabitants of the dale thereupon took 
refuge in the caves, where they also concealed their money and valuables. 
Coins of that period have frequently been discovered in one or two of the 
caves in the district, of which we shall speak later on. 

In 1864 the chapelry was formed into a separate ecclesiastical district, 
and a few years afterwards th£ little church was restored and beautified. 
A brass plate within the interior reads : 

'• To the glory of God. Amen. This ancient church at Chapel-le-Dale was 
beautified at a cost of £500 in 1869. Ebenezer Smith, Oxon., Vicar. 

Beati qui habitant in domo tua domine 
In ssccula sseculorum laudant te." 

There are several neat stain-glass memorial windows, and the altar- 
cloth, cushions, and stools, are very beautiful. The design of the 
cushions is a cross and fleur-de-lis alternately, and is a copy of that, so 

* The foundation ruins of this ancient building are still traceable on the rocky 
promontory between Twisleton Hall and the Manor House. 



246 

much admired, in the old Priory Church at Cartmel. The dimensions of 
the church, it may be interesting to add, are 48 feet long by 22 feet wide.* 
The church and little "God's Acre" outside, where the "rude 
forefathers of the hamlet sleep," have been rendered famous by Southey's 
exquisite description in the Doctor. The average annual interments, 
according to the registers for a century back, have been but two. The 
picturesque situation and peaceful retirement of the hallowed spot might 
make one,— as poor Keats said of the beautiful Italian cemetery in 
which he is now at rest, — in love with death. We are, forsooth, while 
thus meditating in these quiet shades, involuntarily reminded of those 
divine lines of Moore : 

Go, wing thy flight from star to star, 
From world to luminous world, as far 

As the universe spreads its flaming wall ; 
Take all the pleasures of all the spheres, 
And multiply each through endless years, 

One minute of heaven is worth them all. 

Southey makes mention of a porch to the church, which, however, 
never had any existence ; and the " low stone wall," also referred to in 
the Doctor,] is now no longer the same, for since the restoration of the 
building the church-yard has been extended, and the wall done away 
with, which became necessary in consequence of the heavy demand upon 
its little space for interments from the works at Batty Green, during the 
construction of the Settle and Carlisle Railway.^ 

There are several very astonishing caves or chasms within a short 
distance of the chapel. About 70 to 80 yards on the north side, high 
up on the right bank of the stream, is Hurtle Pot, a deep oval opening, 
which may be entered by a cleft in the rock on the south side, and a 
steep descent made by a series of steps, with the assistance of a hand- 
rail, to the dark, gruesome pool which fills the bottom of the breach. 
This pool is ordinarily 25 to 30 feet deep, and when agitated by throwing 
in stones, or by a rapid accession of water, it hurtles against the choked 
fissures of the limestone, and produces a curious throb-like noise called 
by the dalesfolk the " Hurtle Pot Boggart." The greatest depth of the 
hole is 90 feet, and its width from 30 to 40 feet, and in times of flood it 
sometimes " boils over," and then the roar of the confined waters as they 
are being churned within the open-mouthed rocky cistern is tremendous. 
The impending rocks and trees add much to the impressive gloom of the 
place, and especially if you should be here when 

— the cowled and dusky-sandalled eve, 
In mourning weeds, from out the western gate, 
Departs with silent pace. 

Small black trout are said to be caught sometimes in the pool. 

* Compare with other small churches, mentioned on page 140. f ^ r °l *» P- &7. 

\ The average number of burials here then exceeded 40 per annum. 



247 

Gingle Pot is another great natural rift, situate a short distance 
higher up the glen, and close to the surface bed of the stream. This is 
generally dry, but in floods the chasm, unable to carry off the excess of 
waters received by its subterranean channels, overflows, and an 
accumulation of pebbles (many of large size) and mud, forced upwards 
from the bottom by the powerful rush of the water, may be observed on 
its under or down-stream ledges. The Pot is at the foot of a rugged, 
shrub-decked precipice about 50 feet in height. Round about it the 
pretty Blue Moor-grass (S. cwrulea) grows in some profusion. The 
hole is 48 feet deep on the north side ; about 70 feet long, and has an 
average width of 10 feet. Stones thrown into it produce a peculiar 
gingling sound as they rattle down its sloping sides, hence the name of 
the Pot. 

But the most surprising and wonderful abyss of this group is the 
famous Weathercote Cave, close to Gingle Pot. As an example of a 
large, Nature-formed, abrupt, and profound hiatus in the rock, receiving 
a cataract of majestic proportions, it is a marvellous production, and is 
certainly without rival in England. The spectacle is all the more 
astonishing as the huge rift is perfectly accessible, and may be viewed 
from the bottom, at the foot of the fall. Until quite close to the chasm 
the tourist is not conscious of its existence by any indications around or 
upon the adjacent surface. The fissure, or pit, as it really appears, opens 
horizontally on the top, and occupies a rather low situation, enclosed by 
a circular wall, and is overshadowed by numerous trees and shrubs. 
There is a charge of Gd. for admission to see it, as it is situated in 
private property, and judiciously protected by the owner, Mr. Metcalfe, 
whose house (the original of Daniel Dove's in Southey's story of the 
Doctor) is close by. 

Immediately on entering, the visitor is struck with the strange and 
forbidding aspects of the grim scene, which are sensibly increased by 
the deep-toned roar and swirl of the everlasting cataract as it plunges 
wildly into the contracted abyss below. The cavern, which is in the 
mountain limestone, and is entirely worn out by water, has no doubt at 
some period been covered in, and the water, now open to a subdued 
day-light, has then descended in darkness. It is divided into two parts 
by an immense natural bridge ten yards long and four in width, from 
which spring side vaults or recesses fissured by subterranean waters. A 
descent is made by a rude stair, passing on the right a bridge of two 
arches, and on the left, at the base of the fall, a tremendous rift or 
chamber about 10 yards in width and 25 yards in length. To the left 
a small torrent of water comes down a narrow ruin-ljke opening in the 
rock, appropriately called the " chimney," above which, in dry weather, 
the watercourse may be penetrated some little distance beyond. A 



-248 

farther descent of about 60 steps brings the tourist to an angle of the 
chasm and to the foot of the fall. The rocks here ascend to a vertical 
height of 108 feet, and the water is seen leaping from a large cavity 
83 feet below the surface, and 
expanding into a misty sheet of 
bright dissolving particles, drops 
75 ft. below with such tremendous 
violence into the stony whirlpool 
at our feet, that the noise and 
reverberation of the clashing 
waters render conversation an 
impossibility. Such a body of 
water in such a peculiar situation 
makes, indeed, a sublime and over- 
powering sight, and particularly 
so after a moderate supply of 
rain. In flood the watercourses 
become surcharged and precipitate 
their contents by numerous under- 
ground crannies in the rock, 
while the usually dry bed of the 
river to the north is also glutted, 
and ponring its volume over the 
summit on to the cascades below, 
fills the cave to the brim, leaving 
its wreckage upon the impending 
ledges and trees. 

Below the point of effluence 
of the fullisaciiriously-suspended 
rock, shaped somewhat like a 
sarcophagus, and on this account 
is called Mahomet's Coffin. It 
has retained this position from 
time immemorial, and though 
Weathercote Cave. apparently supported by the 

frailest ledges, is ascertained to be perfectly secure. These lines in 
The Ceni-i of Shelley, may be aptly applied to it. 
" And in its depth there is a mighty rock 
Which haa. from unimaginable years. 
Sustained itself with terror and with toil 
Over a gulf, and with the agony 

With which it seems to cliug eeeinn slowly coming down." 
The water ordinarily escapes by a low, tunnel-shaped cave at the 
foot of the fall, to re-appear, as before stated, in the Dale below. It is 



249 

ail additional attraction to visit the cave while the sun is shining into it 
towards mid-day, for then a most beautiful rainbow is formed by the 
ascending sun-lit spray, which for size and brilliance, we do not 
remember to have seen equalled by such display upon any English 
waterfall. The celebrated artists, J. M. W. Turner and W. Westall, 
have painted the scene under this striking aspect. 

Upon emerging from the darkness and uproar of the rugged torrent- 
lashed chasm, what a contrast the fresh, tranquil scene upon the 
surrounding landscape presents ! Says Robert Story, the Craven poet : 

" What calmer, what holier emotions prevail 
In the breast that beholds thee, sweet Chapel -le- Dale ! 
And oh ! when I think on the struggle, the strife, 
The pomp, and the pride, and the nonsense of life, 
And know that all ends, when the turmoil is past, 
In the quiet and calm of the churchyard at last, — 
The toils of the learned, and the feats of the brave, 
Seem the vain noise of waters in Weathercote Cave !" 

Before continuing our ascent of the romantic Dale, we must point 
out and explain the series of important caverns, rifts, and gulfs which 
honeycomb the western flanks of Ingleborough, and which we have 
passed on the borders of our journey up the Dale. The first of these is 
Great Douk Cave, a remarkable subterranean vault, which almost rivals 
the famous Clapham Cave in its penetrable extent. It lies within a 
hollow in the third pasture south of the Hill inn, about a half-mile from 
the road, whence its situation may be identified by a conspicuous bend 
in the wall. The tourist enters a long and immense funnel-shaped 
depression, about 100 feet wide, and enclosed with perpendicular cliffs 
60 to 70 feet in height. A mountain torrent descends into the cave at 
its upper end, which is now open over part of its course, as the rocks 
have fallen in, and issues at the small cascade, near which an entrance 
may be effected. There is a small fault observable in the strata, having 
a downthrow north of 3 to 4 feet, and coinciding with the present 
stream-bed. On clambering into the cave, the tourist encounters an 
accumulation of water, which soon intercepts the forward path, but this may 
be avoided by passing through an opening on the right ; and proceeding 
along the rock-strewn gallery a distance of 70 to 80 yards, a deep, 
natural shaft will be entered, into which weird, shadow-making daylight 
streams down from an opening high above. This is called Little Douk 
Cave, where frequently the bones and other remains of sheep and rabbits 
that have met with a treacherous fate, are found rotting in the sunless 
depths of the chasm. The huge shaft is nearly 50 feet high, and 
looking up we observe that it gradually narrows to the top, where it is 
partially concealed by bushes. Beyond this point the cavern may be 



250 

explored a distance of several hundred yards. In some places it is wide 
and lofty, reaching a height of even 40 to 50 feet ; in others narrow and 
long, so that a stooping posture is necessary, and the broken, rocky, 
water-logged bottom has to be traversed with caution. There is, however, 
no real danger so long as the explorer is well equipped with lights, and 
with shoes and garments that will stand a little wetting. Towards its 
upper end the cavern branches into several contracted fissures that run 
into the desert heart of Ingleborough, at an altitude of about 1700 
feet. They are, everywhere, the channels of underground streams, liable 
to sudden floods, and should not be explored except in settled weather. 
The roof and sides of the cavern are in many places richly encrusted 
with a variety of curious petrifactions, but many of these, it is deplorable 
to relate, have been either ruthlessly broken, or wholly carried off. 

On the same mountain plateau, a little distance to the south, is Far 
Douk Cave, a deep, narrow cavity in the limestone, which receives a 
flow of water at its eastern or more open extremity, but this gloomy 
hiatus is too steep and slippery to be descended with safety. A few 
hundred yards to the south of this, again, is another huge opening called 
Barefoot Wives' Hole, or Braithwaite Wife Hole, according to the 
Geological Survey. It is a large, dry, circular opening, 170 yards 
round, and 25 yards dee}). Glacial drift, composed of clay and gravel, 
is exhibited to a depth of about 20 feet, below which is the limestone, 
and, says Mr. Tiddeman, at the junction of the two, on the S.E. side of 
the Pot, were to be seen glacial striae, indicating ice-movement in a 
south-westerly direction. 

Mere Gill, about £ mile south-west of the last-named shake-hole, is a 
terrific rift in the Great Scar Limestone, running up to the Hardraw 
Scar Limestone, which forms Black Shiver Edge. It lies high up (about 
1300 feet) on the sears ^ mile south-east of the mile-stone opposite 
God's Bridge in the Dale road, and on the low or south side of the long 
wall which comes straight down this side of Ingleborough, The swift- 
descending beck which falls into it rises some £ mile above, in a spur of 
the mountain called Swine's Tail (2000 feet), and when there is a good 
body of water coming down the scene at the head of the Gill is in the 
highest degree romantic. The torrent falls "by a succession of low 
cascades, and is then precipitated in one grand, final leap of 45 feet into 
the yawning profundity of the abyss.- The gap or fissure, which is about 
80 yards long, is in some places so narrow that a child might jump 
across it, and on this account, in fogs and in winter, when it is sometimes 
snowed level with the adjoining ground, it becomes a trap of no small 
danger to unsuspecting shepherds and their flocks. The depth of the 
chasm is fully 100 feet, and nearly half of this, or from 40 to 45 feet, is 
ordinarily in water. Trout of large size have been taken from this- 



251 

Cimmerian pool, and it is also said that bones of animals, if not of human 
beings, as well as articles of value lost by visitors, lie buried in its 
ice-cold depths. It is possible to descend at one point by a yielding 
sandy slope, even to the brink of this abysmal lake, but there is nothing 
to be gained by such bold enterprise, and the risks of a watery grave 
will, we opine, be no temptation even to the most intrepid searcher into 
Nature's mysteries. The waters of the pool are supposed to emerge, as. 
before stated, at the foot of the hill, where they flow into the Dale beck 
near God's Bridge. 

The next, southward, of this extraordinary series, is Tatham Wife 
Hole (1400 feet), situate about £ mile west of the centre-summit of 
Ingleborough. It is a tremendous sink-hole, 120 yards in circumference 
and 18 yards deep. It is somewhat singular that so many chasms of 
this kind should go by the name of Wife Holes. Local tradition has- 
preserved in one or two instances an explanation, elsewhere given, of the 
names of these abysses from long-forgotten suicides, or accidents having 
befallen the parties so designated. At Tatham Wife Hole the whole 
thickness, nearly 40 feet, of the Hardraw Scar Limestone is thrown up 
by a fault running E.S.E. to the gap above Foals Foot, where the fault 
bifurcates. At Foals Foot the mountain is rent and fretted in a peculiar 
manner, and forms some pot-holes among the broken rocks of similar 
interest. 

But let us now for the present give up " fault " finding, and turn 
round and direct our steps from Ingleborough up the Dale, along the 
eastern or opposite flanks of Whernside, where many a surging hill- 
beck and cloud-born torrent have formed wondrous caverns of surpassing 
interest. To see these the tourist is recommended to take the cart-road 
from a gate on the left about midway between the Chapel-le-Dale post 
office and the Hill inn. By this route Gatekirk, Bruntscar, Homeshaw, 
and Ivescar Caves are passed, emerging near Batty Wife Hole at 
Ribblehead. 

Gatekirk Cave is along the course of the Dale Beck, and may be 
reached by following the usually dry bed of the river up to its debouchure. 
The water is lost through various underground channels, and in the 
course of its hidden passage receives the Ellerbeck and its tributaries 
from the slopes of Whernside, which, united, form the grand cataract 
previously described in Weathercote Cave. The tunnel-sha]>ed entrance 
is in a wooded gill, and is about 7 feet high, but rapidly increases in 
area as we proceed. After a freshet the floor of the passage is choked 
with water, and at all times there are places where the stream spreads 
and collects into falls and pools, which require adroit stepping. The 
cavern is also piled up with many huge masses of limestone which have 
fallen from the roof, and at intervals this is open to the light. Some of 



252 

these rocks are stranded in peculiar positions, and by their shape and 
situation exhibit the most remarkable features ; some resembling great 
stone coffins enclosed in natural vaults, and reared upright or laid flat 
along the scared ledges. The higher parts of the roof and ledges are 
curiously embellished with lustrous spar-tracery and stalactites, but 
wherever these have been attainable, they have fallen a prey to the 
ruthless hand of the despoiler. Formerly, it is said, a portion of one 
side of the gallery formed a continuous shelf of Nature-wrought statuary, 
where the mysterious genii of the cave had api>arently fashioned out of 
the crystal lime-drops images and resemblances of marvellous design 
and beauty ; and when, too, you held up your light at many points the 
delicate encrustations sparkled like stars in the dark vault. The cavern has 
several extensive branches, and the subdued and sullen roar of, doubtless, 
large cascades may be heard far up in the heart of Whernside. Owing 
to the difficulty of access these have not been fully explored, the passages 
being in some places blocked with immovable boulders of limestone, 
bridging deep pools. After proceeding about 80 to 100 yards the 
cave-hunter may conveniently emerge by a circular cleft in the rock to 
the outer world. During these subterranean voyages it is well to be 
amply provided with dij)s and matches, which should not be carried in 
one box or pocket, as a single, sudden spout of water may extinguish, or 
render useless the whole lot. Metal match-boxes are also the best for 
this purpose. 

Now, leaving the playful beck to gambol at hide-and-seek a-down the 
Dale, the tourist, on striking westward across the pastures in the direction 
of Whernside will, in a few minutes, reach Bruntscar House. It is a 
substantial, pleasant old building, with a nice bit of garden in front, and 
over one of its doors is carved the date 1689, and initials P.P., M.P., 
with roses, thistles, and fleur-de-lis also cut on each side. The initials 
are those of Peter Proctor and his wife ; the Proctors being a very old 
local family, already several times mentioned by us. They were originally 
connected with Fountains Abbey, and came into Craven when the monks 
had their bercary and browsing flocks on Fountains ^ Fell. Some 
members of the family were long resident at Boardley, near Malham, 
and others were settled at Gargrave, Clapham, &c. 

But the most peculiar thing about this house is that for nearly two 
centuries the inmates were unaware that their back-door, or rather back- 
wall of the dwelling was built against a cavern of wondrous and 
unknown extent. Up against this side of the house is a long natural 
rockery, clothed with moss, ferns, and various shrubs, and as the 
rumbling of underground waters had frequently been heard beneath the 
house, it was decided to break through the limestone barrier close to the 
rear wall of the building. This was accordingly done in 1865 by the 



253 

owner, Mr. F. Kidd, of Blue Hall, Ingleton, and the mysteries of this 
vast underground vault were thereupon in part disclosed. 

Permission having been obtained, the tourist must go round to the 
back of the premises, as there is no door on this side, and clambering 
down the steps, descend into a cellar-like cavity below the foundations of 
the house, in which is a pool of water containing a tame trout. The 
active little fish seems in no way disconcerted with its darksome prison, 
and will allow itself to be fed by the hand. On entering the cave by an 
iron gate, which is kept fastened for the preservation of the stalactites, 
the tourist is soon made aware of the presence of a copious supply of 
water running through the cave, and must be prepared for a wetting. 
Yet some portions of the passage have been blasted, so that progress is 
not difficult so far as mere elbow-room is concerned, and also in ordinary 
weather, by cautious stepping, the clothes and boots may be kept 
comparatively dry. It is as well, however, to be prepared. Some little 
distance in there is a fine double cascade, and the roof and walls of the 
spacious cavern glisten with a variety of large and beautiful encrustations. 
High above the stream there is a narrow opening, richly decorated with 
many opal-like transparencies, and extending at right angles to an 
unknown distance. We heard of two young dalesmen who had lately 
penetrated this lonesome gallery a considerable length, and after the 
dripping roof had repeatedly extinguished their candles, they were about 
to re-light them, when, by mischance, they let fall their matches into the 
water, and were left in total darkness to make the best of their way out. 
This Avas no easy matter, as the roof being low, projecting masses of 
rock and impending stalactites thwarted every step, and no little damage 
was done to the latter, not to mention the wounds inflicted by contact 
with the heads of the adventurous explorers. After some hours of 
uncomfortable incarceration they managed to reach the waterfall, much 
bruised, and with not a dry " rag " on, and here they were fortunately 
met by a rescue party who, becoming concerned at their long absence, 
had entered the cave to make out, if possible, what had befallen them. 
The lesson to be derived from this adventure is, we may repeat, not to 
carry all your matches in one box. 

The streams which flow underground from the south-eastern buttress 
of Whernside form several cascades in the cavern, at altitudes of 1300 — 
1400 feet, in the mountain. On reaching the second waterfall, the long 
gallery expands into a fine, lofty chamber, appropriately termed the 
church. Here, there is a so-called organ, which when gently tapped 
produces a variety of harmonious sounds ; a belfry, with lengthy 
suspended bell-ropes ; and a font brimming over with crystal water. 
The scenery of this portion of the cave is as wonderful as it is exquisite. 
There are to be seen all manner of grotesque images and resemblances. 



254 

as if carved in pure ivory, such as heads and limbs of various animals ; 
birds with expanded wings ; bee-hives ; and fairy-gardens with branching 
•columnar masses of spar, like ever-frosted trees and shrubs. A piece of 
magnesian wire may be burned with advantage in this part of the cave, 
which cannot be wholly illuminated with candles, as it contains so many 
and curious features of attraction. 

On emerging into daylight the next points of greatest interest are the 
Boggart Holes at Ivescar House, one mile distant. A path along the 
enclosed fell-side leads by Broadrake farmhouse, and in proceeding 
towards the conspicuous Ivescar farmhouse, the tourist passes on his left * 
a rather fine waterfall, which comes over the face of the scar a little way 
from the path. Ordinarily it is a mere dust-shower precipitated in one 
leap of 30 feet, but after much rain it is a white, sounding volume, a 
yard in width, which falls with grand effect among the shading foliage 
around. A short distance above it, near the Scar Top farm, is a rude 
shake-hole, encompassed with trees, which opens into a couple of long, 
low, narrow cavities. These are the Homeshaw Caves, but the descent 
into them is rugged and steep, and, especially in wet weather, not without 
danger. They proceed for an unknown length, and are diversified with 
numerous low cascades. 

We now come to Ivescar House, (Jve being from the Danish hief, 
steep), which is a good two-storey erection, built about 14 years ago ; the 
old dwelling hard by being now abandoned. Close to the house, in 
the face of a picturesque limestone scar, are the famous Boggart Holes, 
or Ivescar Cave. They were formerly conjoined, but that on the left, a 
few yards in, has got dammed up with flood-wreck, so that only a small 
volume of water now emerges from it ; the main stream coming from 
the opening on the right. On no account should this cave be entered in 
very wet or unsettled weather, as the increase of water that flows through 
it is sometimes sudden and prodigious. In passing a short " staircase " 
by a moderate-sized chamber, the main gallery continues about 200 yards 
into the mountain. There are also several branch passages, but their 
roofs are low, and the bottom and sides are everywhere much broken, 
and bear evidence of the passage of violent floods. During several 
floods in the early part of the present century a number of silver coins 
of the reign of Edward I. were from time to time washed out of this 
cave. It is very probable they were portions of treasure concealed by the 
natives during the Scottish raids after Bannockburn, when the inhabitants 
of Ingleton, and, in fact, the whole district, suffered much from these 
predatory attacks, as previously mentioned.* It is also said that gold 

* A silver penny of the same age (Edward I.) has been found in au old lead 
working near Hawkswick in Littondale. The coin is now in the possession of the 
Ven. Archdeacon Boyd. 



255 

coins of later date have been washed out of the same opening. There 
is a tradition that " loads of gold " lie concealed somewhere in this cave ! 
But many a search has been made, and never a coin has been found. 
They are apparently only to be dislodged by old dame Time on her 
washing-days ! 

Only about a stone's throw above Ivescar is another extensive opening, 
partially concealed by shrubs, called Browside Cave. It occupies a 
depression excavated by a stream flowing down eastwards to the cave. 
It is not very easy of access, and winds about a good deal, yet the seeker 
after adventure may find some interest tending, perhaps, to develop his 
bump of discovery, and, if not careful, his cranium too, by tracing the 
rapid sinuosities of the cavern. 

The tourist has at this point ascended half the height of Whemside, 
and the summit (2414 feet) may be conveniently reached by striking the 
acclivity in front, and walking along the gable northwards to the top. 

Should he not proceed any higher than the cave at Ivescar, let him 
follow the well-marked path through moist meadows, gemmed as they 
are with many choice flowers, &c, such as the Grass of Parnassus, and 
the pretty Bog Asphodel ; and crossing the Dale beck by a wooden 
bridge, follow the road which runs between Gunnerfleet and the white 
house at Winterscales, going under the long viaduct, and round by 
Batty Wife Hole on to the main road at Ribblehead. 

Here, at the summit of the watershed between the Ribble and the 
Lune, may be observed on the Chapel-le-Dale road, about 1 00 yards or 
so from the viaduct, a dark gritstone erratic left by the great glacier that 
descended the Dale between Ingleborough and Whernside untold ages 
ago, — or, to be as exact as we can, according to recent hypotheses, the ice 
encroached upon our dales 24 — 25,000 years ago, and had finally retreated 
5 — 6000 years ago, so that glaciers filled our dales for the comparatively 
short period, say, of 19,000 years.* This is very different from the 
commonly accredited duration of the Ice Age in Britain for a period of 
at least 100,000 years, — an astronomical deduction based, as is well 
known, on a supposed extraordinary variation in the eccentricity of the 
earth's orbit round the sun. But the later and more likely theory of the 
second rotation of the earth, conforming as it does with well-ascertained 
geological facts, leaves a strong probability that our Yorkshire uplands 
endured an Arctic climate at no very enormous distance of time, and 
that, in fact, existing glaciers in the Mid-Continental Ali)s are the 
wasting vestiges of that remote catastrophe, yet which is much more 
recent than is usually supposed. f 

* See " Edinburgh Review," ccclx. (April, 1892). 
f See our remarks on denudation at Norber, p. 171. 



256 

Other stones like the iibove occupy the surrounding pastures. Over 
the wall on the right there is a long, broken limestone pavement, and nt 
its north-west angle one such large upright boulder may be seen with its 
longer axis (x>ise<1 on the limestone in the direction of the valley. 

Nearer the wall there are indications of a rude, double circle, 
artificially formed of these dark, weathered grits. The inner circle is 
about 2(1 yards in diameter, and the outer one forms a narrow aisle 
surrounding it, with an outlet to the north ; but some of the stones have 
been removed, probably to build and repair the adjoining fences. The 
situation is open, and commands the country on all sides between the 
lofty moors and summits that hem in the dale-head. On the opposite 
side of the road are the remains of a couple of large cairns. They are 
presumably Danish. One was opened about a century ago, and found to 
cover a rude stone coffin containing an entire human skeleton. The 
other large pile does not appear ever to have l>cen examined. It is more 
than probable that many a furious battle has been waged here, as the 
possession of this prominent ridge, which dominates so many particular 
outlets, must have been of capital importance to every hostile tribe. 



257 



CHAPTER XXIII. 




Through Kingsdale to Dent. 

Character of Kingsdale — Danish occupation — Keld Head — Braida Garth— 
Grey garth Boulders — Various Pot- Holes— Row ten Cave ; a tremendous chasm 
—Other" Pots"— Yordas Cave -Braida Garth " Pots "— Pre-historic cairn— 
Kingsdale Head — Grand view — The Dent Fault, and glacial evidence. 

GAIN we will set out on another inspiriting cave-hunting 
expedition, for the scars that bound the dales around 
Ingleton teem with these great natural curiosities ; and yet 
how few people know anything about them ! Although they 
are all formed mainly by the same process, namely, the undermining 
action of water, yet the caprices of this element upon the yielding 
limestone are so various that no two are alike. Also in respect to 
situation, size, and aspect, they frequently widely differ, while each 
possesses features that must often strike the beholder with surprise 
and awe. 

Our tour of discovery will take us through lonely Kingsdale to Dent, 
a journey from Ingleton of about 10 miles. And it is worth every inch 
of the distance, not only in interest, but in point of mileage, too, for the 
road rises from Ingleton (500 feet) to nearly 1500 feet at the summit of 
the pass, and then descends, with magnificent views, 1000 feet into the 
romantic out-of-the-way little village of Dent. 

This Kingsdale is a wild, solitary valley, with only a couple of houses 
in it, — old steadings once farmed by the warlike Danes — and even in 
summer-time there is a look of wintry desolation about it. Yet it has 
many attractions to the summer-day tourist, as we shall presently point 
out, and in winter, — taking a dry, cold, bracing day, — what an 
impressively grand walk you may have through this secluded dale ! 
The grim snow-wreathed mountains, now spotless and serene, sparkle 
along their upper zones against the bright blue sky, and the silent, 
far-extending glen is beautifully and wholly mantled in the whitest of 
Nature's robes, — saving where tassels and bars of silver-like ice fringe the 
bare grey scars, and which shine with ever-changing radiance in the 
mellow sun. Miniature avalanches, likewise, with their tumbled wreck, 
here and there bank the slopes along the edges of the dale. Perhaps at 

B 



258 

the top of the pass your road is cut through deep drifts of snow, and 
you begin to descend in the teeth of an ice-cold blast— a veritable whiff 
from the Pole — that seems to freeze your very bones, but when you 
reach the deep shelter of the valley, how the invigorated blood is suffused 
with a warm, ruddy glow through your whole frame. Your pace then 
naturally quickens, and at last arrived at your inn, what a foray you make 
on the home cheese and haverbread, taken with a glass of rich new milk, 
or, perhaps, a mug of spiced ale, which you heartily declare to be the 
finest repast you ever had in your life ! No need to go to Switzerland, 
say you, with grand dales and snow-peaks like these investing with so 
much interest our much too-neglected Yorkshire Highlands. 

The dale is covered with morainic drift and alluvium, and was once 
filled with lakes, left by an immense glacier, and various inflowing 
streams, thousands of years ago. The ice must have been 600 to 700 
feet thick, filling the whole width of the dale, grinding against the crags, 
and dropping huge boulders on its path just as we see them pitched about 
the scars to-day. The becks and springs play the same underground 
antics as in other dales we have described. 

To get into Kingsdale there are various ways. (1) By Broad wood 
and through the grand Pecca Fall Glen to Thornton Force, whence, 
keeping the stream on the right, enter the dale road £ mile above. (2) By 
the main road to Dent (9 £ miles) from Thornton Church. (3) From 
Broad wood there is a path ascends the plantation behind a photo-studio, 
and leading through the fields, comes out on the main road at Thornton 
Hall. This is the shortest route in point of time, but is not so interesting 
as going through the glen. Ascending the road from Thornton Hall 
you shortly pass a grassy cart-road on the left, which goes under Tow 
Scar towards Masongill. This road may be followed to its junction 
(| mile) with the turbary road on to Greygarth, and ascending it on the 
right you soon come to where the wall runs singly on to the fell, and 
here, on the east side, is a yawning break in the limestone, about 12 
yards deep. This is known as Little Pot, not so very little either, but 
still a mere sugar-basin compared with what we shall see further on. 

Over the wall to the north a small plantation will be observed almost 
within a stone's throw up on the fell side, and here there is, half -hidden 
from view, a frightful rift in the mountain called Marble Steps Pot. A 
small torrent descends into the gulf over a rude, slippery " staircase " on 
the east side, a depth of 18 yards, and then plunges into darkness nearly 
30 yards further of perpendicular depth. Another small stream enters 
on the opposite side, beside which a descent to the final great plunge can 
be made into the Pot, but great caution must be exercised, and most 
tourists will be satisfied with peering into the abyss from the top. It is 
about 10 yards wide, and beautifully fringed with moss and shrubs. 



259 

As it takes us rather out of the way to view the above objects by the 
ordinary route to Dent, we may, without loss of time, follow the 
Kingsdale road without making this divergence, and when in the bottom, 
about 100 yards beyond the sheep- wash, and the bridgeless beck at the 
foot of Twisleton lane ; pass on the right, close beneath the wall, the 
famous Keld Head. Here the main volume of the Twiss, which forms 
Thornton Force and the Pecca Falls, comes from under a low breast of 
limestone, after an underground, and somewhat precipitous flight of 
nearly two miles from above Yordas Cave. The spring bubbles up in 
great volume, and receives in the course of its extraordinary journey a 
number of tributary becks, which carve and fashion deep mysterious 
channels and caverns in the flanks of Greygarth, and must tumble in 
many a grand cascade in the dark entrails of the mountain. It is, 
indeed, not improbable that an immense cavern extends some distance 
behind the outlet. The pebbly river bed above the spring is ordinarily 
dry to near its junction with the Buck and Gaze Gill becks, two miles 
higher up the valley. The main, or Buck beck, it may be remarked, 
springs high up on a western spur of Whernside, as the Weas or Dale 
beck in Chapel-le-Dale rises on the east side of the mountain. 

The tourist may now, when about 100 yards beyond the way which 
diverges to the farmhouse at Braida Garth, quit the main road by a gate 
which opens on to the fell, and keeping a short distance from the wall, 
he will come in a few minutes to two magnificent limestone boulders, 
perched on bases of the same weathered rock. They are upwards of 20 
feet in circumference, and 10 feet high, and, on a patch of drift, sustain 
three or four species of ferns. They are fine, commanding objects. 
About 200 yards above, you come to the turbary road now to be 
mentioned. 

As Yordas Cave, however, is the gem of the dale, the tourist should 
instruct the guide at Braida Garth, above mentioned, to meet him there, 
say in an hour's time, which will allow of the various objects hereafter 
named being visited. Braida Garth, I may here mention, is pure Norse, 
meaning broad field or enclosure,* a sufficient indication that this part 
of the dale has at all events been tenanted ever since the days of the 
Vikings. The Norwegian word for a farmhouse is gaartl. 

Perhaps the readiest way will be to leave the road about 100 yards 
this side the bridge, which leads to the guide's house, where two or three 
thorn trees grow close together on the scar. On climbing up here where 
the scar tapers off you will come in a few minutes to a solitary thorn tree, 
apparently bent by the blast, at least that is the popular notion. But 
an inspection of this peculiar woody growth, as of any other tree 

* See Moore's " Surnames and Place Names of the Isle of Man," (1890), p. 139. 



260 

similarly inclined in an exposed situation, will reveal the fact that the 
tree has not been bent by the gale, which sometimes sweeps with terrific 
fury across this high moor, but that the branches, have year by year, 
sought shelter as it were, by growing away from the prevailing wind. 
These stretch out from 9 to 10 feet eastwards, — in appearance like a 
turned umbrella, — and on the opposite side the tree is quite straight and 
branchless, being exposed to the prevailing south-westerly gales. Last 
September I picked up, dead, on the rock close by, a fine young herring- 
gull, which had evidently but recently died, while making its way from 
coast to coast. It was a fine bird, in beautiful plumage, and measured 
3£ feet between the tips of its outstretched wings. 

A short distance above this is Kale (A.S. kehl, a gorge, throat, or 
gap) or Thorney Pot, a large orifice in the limestone 33 feet deep, with 
a peculiar cavity at the north corner, which goes down 20 feet further. 
Keeping to the right you come on to the turbary road which continues 
to near Yordas. At the termination of the wall here, which runs 
towards Greygarth, follow the little beck course up about 400 yards, and 
you will come to Swinto Hole or Cave (A.S. swin 9 a wild boar). You 
can, if you like, lower yourself through an aperture about the size of a 
hat-box, and descend into a double- vaulted gallery made by a curtain of 
stalagmite. This may not be a tempting operation to most people, 
but the hole presently emerges into a pretty high chamber, studded 
with columnar spar, and containing a meagre waterfall with a drop of 
nearly 30 feet. 

Proceeding now along the above turbary road, you soon come to a 
gate, and opening it you come shortly to another gate, close to which, 
on the right of the road, is the most awful open fissure on this side of 
the dale. This is Rowten or Rowantree Hole and Cave. It is a terrible- 
looking hiatus about 30 yards long at the surface, 12 yards at its greatest 
width, and barely 4 yards at its narrowest. It is densely hung with 
trees and shrubs, while many ferns and mosses, moistened with the 
continuous vapours that rise from the gloomy vaults below, clothe the 
rifted walls. It is impossible to explore this immense underground 
opening without the aid of ropes, and the explorer would also do well to 
go without stockings, and array himself in any cast-off garments of 
sufficient protection against sudden or spontaneous shower baths. The 
gulf contains a number of rapidly-descending cascades, whose splash and 
spray it is impossible always to avoid. At the north end a short ladder 
enables you to descend the mouth to a narrow platform, from which a 
further drop lands you among the thick shrubby undergrowth at the 
brink of the chasm. The exact extent of the cave has not been 
determined. It goes down to a great depth, and possibly branches on 
the south side, where one gap has been plumbed to a depth of over 200 



-  .— .-_ . ,. 



261 

feet. But Mr. Carr, of Ingleton, states that an exploring party once 
descended one of these breaks to a depth of 351 feet, when following a 
horizontal passage for a considerable distance they met with a 
perpendicular opening, and lowering themselves down by successive 
stages, ultimately reached a depth of not less tlun 600 feet, but this was 
not the bottom ! The uppermost mouth of the cave is about 150 yards 
to the west of the great gulf, and is entered by a spacious rocky arch- 
way, and along the course of the stream there is a fine spout of water 
ejected from a small opening in the rock above, against which the 
tourist should be on his guard. The track has usually for a hundred 
yards or so to be waded over the boot-tops, and then proceeding, with 
due caution, by several cross fissures, the verge of the precipice is 
reached, where, in the semi-gloom of the profound abyss, the water is 
poured over its ledges with mysterious and perpetually echoing din. 

Following the road into the next allotment we come to Gingle Pot, 
another of these abrupt openings, so named from the hollow, rattling 
sound produced by throwing stones into it. The fissure is 30 feet long, 
6 feet across the centre, and tapering towards the ends. Its greatest 
ascertained depth is 146 feet. On the west, a small stream enters a low 
cave, which forms a continuous shallow passage that may be followed for 
a distance of nearly 250 yards. 

On going through the gate and proceeding about 200 yards, the road 
descends and crosses the rocky bed of a mountain burn, which just below 
disappears in another chasm of some depth. This is Bull Pot. The 
small opening is covered in at the top with large fragments of limestone, 
on peering down between which the tourist may see and hear the rush of 
foam-white descending waters. The visible depth, however, is not more 
than 40 feet. 

Hence, by following the road to the gate at the top, or keeping a 
little below, along the scar-line of quickly-succeeding incipient " pots," 
you come in £-mile to the pine plantation, in which is the grand Yordas 
Cave. The rather gloomily -situated, yet picturesque entrance to this 
wonderful aperture lies within 100 yards to the left of the highway, just 
before you rise the hill to Dent, and within a mile of the guide's house 
at Braida Oarth. It is 4^ miles from Ingleton. A descent is made 
down 13 constructed steps into a level porch-like opening, 7 feet high, 
and proceeding along an ample passage, a vast and magnificent chamber, 
of, at first, unseen proportions, is then entered, the like of which is 
certainly unrivalled in England. This is the great Hall of Yordas, — 
the fabulous giant from Norway, — and there we see his throne, his 
bed-chamber, his water-bowl, his flitch of bacon, his mill and his oven 
wherein he ground and baked the big white stones, or, as the guide will 
tell us, the bones of naughty boys and girls, into bread ! How feeble 



262 

and diminutive the dumb-struck beholder thinks himself while gazing 
with rapt wonder around this immense domed vault ! The guide mounts 
a rock, and holding .up a bevy of candles at the end of a fifteen-foot 
pole, reveals something of its grand dimensions. Stone on stone, wall 
on wall, it rises up to a height of nearly 80 feet, extending westward 
190 feet, with an average width of 50 feet. A choir of a thousand 
voices might congregate in this great, church-like alcove, and hymn 
praises to the Almighty Maker while contemplating a scene so divinely 
strange and beautiful. At the north-east corner is a wonderfully- 
fashioned canopy, supported by wreathed and fluted pillars of pure 
stalactite, appropriately called the Bishop's Throne. Other resemblances 
are the Organ and Key-board, the Belfry, Eagle with outspread wings, 
Ram's Head, Brown Bear, White Bear crouched on an iceberg, the 
Gauntlet, Escutcheon, the Ghost, (beware !), and the dead, old genius of 
the cave — grim Yordas, in his coat of mail, with mighty frozen arm and 
clenched fist, raised in seeming defiance of anyone who dared to dispute 
his sovereignty of these priceless, gem-studded halls. 

Illuminated with a Bengal light, the scene within this great chamber 
is exceedingly grand. A narrow opening on the left conducts to another 
smaller apartment called the Chapter House, having a dome-like roof, 
about 40 feet high, supported with slender, spiral columns, and decorated 
with exquisite tracery, and numerous depending stalactites. Into this 
circular-shaped room a musical cascade falls from a rock at the north end 
a height of about 30 feet, and then sinks into the earth to rise, — never 
again, or — according to the local tradition, " nowhere in this nation." 
In floods, the water sometimes rises to a great height in the cave, and 
deposits of sand and mud may be observed nearly 20 feet above the 
ordinary bed of the stream. 

Housman (1812) relates the following peculiar incidents concerning 
Yordas Cave : " About half-a-century ago, a lunatic escaped from his 
friends at or near Ingleton, and lived here upwards of a week in the 
winter season, having previously provided himself with cheese and other 
provisions. Snow being on the ground, he was sagacious enough to pull 
the heels off his shoes, and set them on inverted at the toes, to prevent 
being traced. Since that time, a poor woman, big with child, travelling 
alone through this inhospitable vale to Dentdale, was taken in labour, 
and found dead in this cave." 

On the opposite side of the dale are a few small gaps in the limestone, 
bub hardly deserving of a special visit, after having seen those already 
described. They occupy a nearly straight line on the scar a little to the 
south-east of Braida Garth House. The most northern is the Pin Hole, 
or more appositely the Needle Hole, which is a mere " eyelet," 16 feet 
deep. The next is Bread Pot, an uncouth cavity descending from a 



263 

bowl-shaped depression, 50 feet deep. Below this is Dungeon or Cellar 
Hole, which is 30 feet deep. It can be entered safely on one side, but 
the visitor should beware of the miniature waterspout. Lords Top Hole 
is the last of this series, and is enclosed with a frail fence. It is a 
dangerous and easily-overlooked rift 40 feet in depth. On Scales Moor, 
(1850 feet), a few hundred yards east of the last-named, there are a 
couple of pot-holes, but of no striking dimensions. The deepest is 
barely 60 feet, and contains running water, which becomes audible on 
bending over the chasm. There are a few rowan trees near them. 

Just below the junction of fche Buck and G-aze Gill becks, between 
the Garth House and Yordas, a large round heap of stones can be seen 
from the road in Kingsdale. It is similar to that noticed at Ribblehead, 
and probably marks the site of some buried warrior fallen in battle while 
contesting for the supremacy of the pass. It is hardly likely from its 
situation to be early British ; but as the Danes undoubtedly occupied 
this valley, it is more probably a relic of that age ; for the ancient 
Scandinavians, as is well known, buried their dead under cairns, and also 
occasionally raised such piles by the wayside in commemoration of some 
great victory. On the Ordnance Map it is poetically designated 
u Apron-full of Stones." 

We now ascend the pass under frowning Whemside, by the Kingsdale 
Head House, to the summit, (1500 feet), whence the prospect Dentwards 
is very grand and wild. The sharp outlines of the Howgill Fells stand 
out boldly on the county border to the north-west, with the long, elevated 
ridge of Rise Hill forming an immense barrier-line which bounds almost 
the whole northern extent of the valley of Dent. Close to the road-side 
a rather fine waterfall is passed in the Yoredale rocks, and then a descent 
is made into Deepdale, an abrupt-sided, secluded little valley, which 
strikes into Whernside, and joins the main dale about a mile east of 
Dent. Several long, boulder-clay ridges or glacial drumlins will be 
observed running parallel with the trend of the valley ; and to the 
geologist it may also be remarked that the Dent Fault is here split into 
a number of minor branches, which, according to the H.M. Surveyors' 
report, runs about S. 30° E. towards the head of Deepdale. Unlike the 
Dent Fault they throw the strata down westwards, excepting one or two 
nearly parallel fractures seen in Gastack Beck, (the stream descending 
Foul Moss eastwards into Deepdale), which is a downthrow to the 
north-east. 

The rest of the journey to Dent calls for no special comment. It is, 
as before stated, a grand walk or drive at any season of the year. 



264 



CHAPTER XXIV. 




Between Ingleton and Kirkby Lonsdale. 

Thornton-in-Lonsdale— Site of the village — The church — Ancient burial custom — 
Masongill and the Wallers — Edmund Waller, the Court poet — " Barry 
Cornwall " and Adelaide Anne Procter — Doyle family— Ireby — Over Hall, and 
the Tat ham s— Leek Hall and its pleasant surroundings—Cowan Bridge and 
the Brontes— Coaching days— Among the Leek Fell caves— Ease Gill — Roman 
road— The Devil's Bridge— When was it built? — Recent flood — Legend of 
the Bridge. 

E will now leave the cold, lone regions of eternal night, — the 

realm of cavernous wonders, — and betake ourselves for 

variety's sake along smoother and cheerier paths and lanes, 

and through flower-vested meads, dotted with quiet cot and 

farm, and grey old hall, rich in historic lore, but about which little or 

nothing hitherto has been written. 

From Ingleton to Kirkby Lonsdale— our next trip — direct, it is 6^ 
miles, and the road passes through portions of three counties, viz., 
Yorkshire, Lancashire, and Westmoreland. But the pleasant route we 
now propose adds l£ miles to this. 

Taking the high-road in question, we come in 1 mile to Thornton 
Church. Allen, in his well-known History of tfw County of York, 
describes Thornton-in-Lonsdale as " a picturesque parish town." But 
where, pray, is the town ? We look in vain for anything but the sturdy 
old church, and perhaps equally ancient " pub." close by. The widely- 
scattered farms seem to belong to nowhere in particular, and the old 
Hall and Vicarage are just as " lonesome " and some distance off. There 
is not even so much as a hamlet, although traces of such are discoverable 
a little above the present Thornton Hall, and close to the east side of 
the road. 

The old Hall was a substantial edifice with walls six feet thick, and 

is said to have been blown down by Cromwell, in the time of Major 

John Redmayne, who, according to the epitaph preserved in Thornton 

Church, was 

" Firm in his Faith, and valiant for his King, 
Stout as an Ajax, just in everything." 



265 

He died in 1680. A portion of one of the walls of the old Hall now 
constitutes part of one of the outbuildings of the present farm-house. 
A stone arch, which, at one time covered an open fire-place, is inscribed 
with the initials I B and T B, and date 1659. The public-house, before 
mentioned, formerly called the Church Stile, but now the Marton Arms, 
has an elaborately designed stone above the door, bearing the initials 
and date M T W, 1679. But the original inn is probably co-eval 
with the church. For if, as Dr. Whitaker maintains, the church was 
erected under the influence of the Mowbrays, the members of that 
baronial house, whose great castle was at Burton, a few miles off, would 
need convenient provision for the stabling of their horses and 
accommodation of part of their retinue or body-guard, during their 
attendance at mass. 

The old church of St. Oswald, which, with the exception of the 15th 
century tower, was re-constructed in 1869-70, contains at the west end 
of the north arcade three of the original Norman arches, with 
contemporary embellishments, an appearance somewhat unusual in this 
part of the country, where both arches and capitals are generally plain. 
The tower bells are of the date 1635. There are several ancient 
memorial tablets to the knightly family of Redmayne, of Thornton Hall. 
One of these, placed over the mausoleum of Ralph Redmayne, Esq., who 
died in 1703, aged 62, is a curious composition : 

Speak Tomb ! can Brass, can Marble die? 
They may, my sweaty Fears reply.— 
What then endures ?— Goodnesse alone 
Survives the Brass, the Marble stone 
That warms his Ashes here enshrined. 
That beams the Lustre of his Mind. 
Let his last Generosity 
To Altar. School, and Poverty, 
For ever witness this ; and dead. 
With deathless Laurels crowne his Head, — 
Thus with the actions of the just — 
" Smell sweete and blossoine in the Dust." 

The registers of the church commence in 1576, and they, as well as 
the old parish accounts, contain many curious entries. From among the 
latter may be cited the following : 

" May 12th, 1665. It is agreed and ordered by the sworn men, concerning 
burials in the church, that every corpse that is carried on a woman's head shall be 
sixpence, and every corpse that is carried on a bier three and fourpence, to be paid 
with other dues, either to the minister or church- wardens, for the use of repairing 
the church." 

After a peep under the church-yard wall at the time-stained stocks 
and whipping-post, with its rusty wrist-iron, of unjoyous memory, we 



266 

take our leave of this interesting locality, and follow the high-road 
through Westhouse, leaving it on the right at the first lane past the post 
office, just before coming to the Kirksteads farm, 2 \ miles from Ingleton. 
The lane winds up nearly a mile, with a capital view of Ingleborough, 
to the quiet little village of Masongill, which stands high up, just within 
the Yorkshire border. There are several old dated houses about here, 
but the most interesting building of antiquity at this place was the old 
Hall, on account of its association with the historic Yorkshire Wallers, 
a branch of the family long seated in Buckinghamshire. It stood on 
the site of the present farm-house, which was built out of its ruins by 
the late Mr. Waller, about the year 1822. It was a large, low moated 
grange, with walls of immense thickness ; a* stronghold, doubtless, before 
the days of artillery, but Cromwell's Ironsides made short work of it 
with their field ordnance, when they visited this neighbourhood to 
reason with the malignants. The ancient homestead was then deserted 
by the family, and the present Masongill House erected about the middle 
of the 18th century. Then the Masongill property passed temporarily 
out of the possession of the Wallers, and was purchased by people of the 
name of Eccles, but after remaining in their possession some five and 
twenty or thirty years, it was re-purchased by the former owners, and 
still forms part, of the family estate. When the old Hall was finally 
demolished, soon after the last owner's succession to the property, 
portions of chain armour and fragments of old weapons were discovered 
among the debris, and presented by Mr. Waller to the late Mr. Tatham, 
of Lowfields, who took a lively interest in all matters relating to history 
and antiquities. 

The part played by the Wallers, especially the Kentish and 
Buckinghamshire sections of the family, during the politically distressed 
times of Charles I. and the Commonwealth, will be familiar to most 
students of English History. Of this family was the celebrated Court- 
poet and administrator, Edmund Waller, son of Robert Waller, of 
Amersham (formerly Agmondesham), Co. Bucks. His mother was a 
daughter of John Hampden, and sister to Hampden, the zealous soldier- 
statesman who was one of the great opponents of Charles, and a prime 
mover in the Civil Wars. Edmund Waller was born at Colshill in 1605, 
and at the age of 17 was sent to Parliament. It is singularly noteworthy 
that he lived to see and converse with James I., Charles I., Oliver 
Cromwell, Charles II. and James II., and with the second, third, and 
fourth of these rulers he was politically associated throughout the time 
from their assumption of power until their death. At the age of four-score 
he was returned M.P. for Saltash, in Cornwall, and at the age of 82, he 
died at Beaconsfield, and is buried there. 



267 

The name of Waller appears to have been originally Waltheof, and, 
according to tradition, the family is descended from Waltheof, the father 
of Earl Godwin, father of Harold II. The descent is tolerably well 
established, although the authentic records do not go further back than 
the Battle of Agincourt, where one of the family took prisoner a member 
of the French blood-royal, acquiring thereby, according to the heraldic 
custom of the day, the right to quarter his prisoner's arms, so that to 
this day one of the sixteen quarterings of the old family of Waller is 
the Royal Arms of France. 

The descent of this Yorkshire branch is through the second son of 
the poet, also named Edmund,* who inherited the Hall-barn property, 
near Beaconsfield. Benjamin, the eldest son, was, for some reason, 
disinherited, and sent out to New Jersey. The Masongill estate, which 
is only a remnant of the large possessions of this house, was bequeathed 
to the late Mr. Nicholas Procter, by his great uncle, Bryan Waller, on 
condition that he should assume the name and arms of Waller only, 
which he did, by Royal Warrant, on November 1st, 1816. At that time 
he was a boy of 14. 

Mr. Nicholas Waller's only brother was the late well-known poet, 
Bryan Waller Procter, better known as " Barry Cornwall," who died in 
1874, aged 85. His niece, the daughter of the poet, was the almost 
equally distinguished poetess, Adelaide Anne Procter, who died in her 
80th year, in 1864. The poetic faculty, I may add, is strongly hereditary 
in the family, and has manifested itself in other directions besides those 
named. Both " Barry Cornwall " and Miss Procter were visitors at 
Masongill, and are said to have taken great delight in the beautiful 
scenery of the neighbourhood. But not a little of their pleasure was 
derived from the magnificent library at Masongill House, which numbers 
thousands of volumes, and includes many very valuable first editions, 
presentation copies, &c, while some of them are marked by "Barry 
Cornwall " and other people of note. 

It was only about the year 1840 that Mr. Nicholas Waller became a 
regular resident at Masongill. Before then he lived in London, where 
his family had been settled several generations, in a large old country 
house near Ampthill Square, Hampstead. He was the son of Nicholas 
Procter, and a younger brother of " Barry Cornwall," having been born at 
Hampstead in 1802. He married Amelia Procter, a cousin, and died at 
Masongill in 1877, leaving an only child, Mr. Bryan Charles Waller, the 
present owner of Masongill. Before his marriage, his niece, Miss Agnes 
Procter, who died in 1891, kept house for him, and his young nephew, 
Montagu, afterwards Major-General Procter, who at that time was 
regarded as his heir, also resided with him. 

* Sea u Memorials of Fountains Abbey," Surtees Soc. Pub., Ixvii., page 341. 



268 

Although not an author himself, Mr. Nicholas Waller possessed the 
passive faculty in a high degree, and always took great interest in 
literature, especially poetry, of which he was an excellent judge. Several 
works have been wrongly attributed to him, and among these was 
Southey's Doctor, the scene of which was laid at Ingleton, and which, it 
will be remembered, was published anonymously. He was well acquainted 
with Southey, as also with Wordsworth and the two Colerldges, though 
less intimately than his brother, " Barry Cornwall, 1 ' who knew everybody 
of consequence in the literary world of his day, including Byron, 
Shelley, Keats, Campbell, Moore, Scott, Gifford, Hazlitt, Lockhart, 
Tennyson, Browning, Dickens, &c. Browning, as a matter of course, 
used to lunch at his house every Sunday. It may not be generally 
known that he was the immediate cause of bringing out two of the first 
writers of the day, namely, Thackeray and the elder Hood. The 
former's great novel. Vanity Fair, was dedicated to " Barry Cornwall," 
and Lord Houghton's beautiful Life of Keats, to his wife, Mrs. Procter. 

The sole surviving member of the senior line of this family is 
Mr. Bryan Charles Waller, to whom we have before referred, who is now 
resident at Masongill, where he was born. Like his gifted progenitors, 
he is a skilful and ardent verse-writer, although, in this capacity, he has 
not appeared much before the public. A small volume of poems from 
his pen was, however, published in 1875, by Messrs. George Bell & Sons, 
the title of the book being Twilight Land and other Poems, which is full 
of calm, assuasive thought, redolent of the sweetest imagery, and of the 
real music of song. Until lately, Mr. Waller has been a busy University 
lecturer, and has had little time for literary work, but we understand 
that he has another volume nearly completed. 

At Masongill, many of our readers will be interested to hear, there 
has been living now some time the mother of the now well-known 
novelist, Arthur Conan Doyle. She is sister-in-law of the celebrated 
Richard Doyle, who designed the cover of Punch, and daughter-in-law 
of the famous caricaturist, " H.B." (John Doyle). She has been a friend 
of many famous men, including Thackeray, Williams, (the " discoverer " 
of Charlotte Bronte), John Hill Burton (the " Book hunter "), Speke, 
the explorer, Alexander Smith, Horatio McCulloch, the painter, &c. 

Leaving Masongill, a pleasant walk through upland fields, and over 
the foot bridge that spans the little Ireby Beck, which, above Over Hall, 
forms the dividing line between Yorkshire and Lancashire, and we are 
immediately at Ireby. There is not much in the way of a village, but 
what there is strikes us by its quaint attractiveness. The white-washed 
cottages, big projecting chimney-stacks, odd, irregular buildings, and 
one peculiar, front-verandahed house, across which the sun casts side-long 
shadows towards the flower-banked brook in the road,— all combining 



269 

to invite our fane; to some remote Alpine village, where in the hush 
of noon we catch, as we think we might do here, the tinkle of cow-bells 
and the musical jodel of youthful watchers on the distant fells ! The 
village ia very old, and had, as elsewhere noticed, taxable lands mentioned 
in Domesday after the Conquest. 

Ireby Hall, now called Over Hall, is approached by a short field-path 
from the foot-bridge at the top of the village. It is an interesting old 
edifice, and must not be confounded with the Tottersgill or Nether Hall, 
which is a plain Georgian farmhouse on the low side of the Ingleton 
line, and now goes by the name of Ireby Hall. The former, however, is 



Over Hall, Ireby. 

the original Ireby Hall, or rather a survivor of a still older house. It 
is a sturdy mansion, with walls in some places six feet thick, and has att 
antique-looking square tower, with open battlements at its north end. 
But this tower is comparatively modern, and was added within the 
present century. On entering the ancient stone porch, we pass by a 
ponderous oak door, pegged with wooden nails, which opens into a 
spacious apartment, called the Justice Hall. It was formerly the great 
dining hall, and had a low ceiling, but many years ago it was thrown 
open to the rooms above, and has now a railed balcony connecting the 
same on each side. The stones of the ancient, open fireplace are mason- 



270 

marked, and within present recollection this fireplace contained a very 
large and curious old dog-grate, now unfortunately removed. At one 
time this was used as a court-room, and some oak benches, and the table 
before which the justices sat, are still preserved. The oldest portion of 
the house dates apparently from the earlier years of the 16th century. 
But over the main entrance door is the date 1687, and initials G.M. 
The original initials were O.T., and were erased (we know not for what 
reason) by the late owner, Mr. George Marton, who inserted his own in 
place upon acquiring the property from the Tathams. 

The house was built, or rather restored, by Oliver Tatham, a member 
of a very old gentle family in these parts, whose name occurs in the 
earliest local records. The family still survives in the neighbourhood, 
an<^ belongs the estate of Low Field, near Burton-in-Lonsdale, but the 
owner is non-resident. These Tathams, however, who bear arms, are 
not, we understand, in any way connected with a yeoman family of the 
same name, now resident in the locality, but originally springing from 
Dent. The last of the Tathams, of Over Hall, who was a High Sheriff 
of Lancashire, lies buried under the south wall of the chancel of the 
parish church of Thornton-in-Lonsdale ; this spot having been selected, 
as recorded on the tombstone, at his own request. A sister of his 
married one of the Wallers, of Masongill. 

Over Hall is now the property of Col. Geo. Hy. Blucher Marton, 
D.L., J.P., of Capernwray Hall. The earlier house is said to have been 
very much larger than the present building, and occasionally old 
foundations are met with. It was approached by a handsome carriage- 
drive half-a-mile long, and there is also a legend to the effect that a 
subterranean passage used to exist between the old Masongill Hall and 
Over Hall, but what was its direction, or whether it ever really existed 
we have not had means to discover. 

We may now descend by a delightful, open road, passing Leek Hill, 
a beautiful mansion, and Leek Villa, a good house, on the right, and 
then Leek Hall, the old seat of the Welch family, enclosed with some, 
forty acres of rich park and wood. Going straight along by the Lodge 
Farm an umbrageous lane leads by the Leek Schools, and the handsome 
new Cowan Bridge Church, which is most beautifully and reposefully 
situated. The church was built about twelve years ago. The boys 1 
school was enlarged at the cost of Thomas Welch, Esq., in 1857, and 
the girls' school was erected in 1847 by the surviving sisters of 
R. H. Welch, Esq., "in memory of him and in aid of his designs for 
the improvement of education." He munificently endowed the schools 
with a sum of £1000. 

A turn to the left, under the viaduct of the Ingleton and Kirkby 
Lonsdale line, and we are at the pleasant and famous little village of 



271 

Cowan Bridge. A biggish mountain beck, after many miles of fuming 
and swirling, and plunging among the lonely caverned fells to the north, 
here obtains some amount of rest as it pursues its ampler and gentler 
course by tree-shaded banks to the low-lying Lune, two miles to the 
west. Ordinarily but a small murmuring rivulet, it sometimes swells, 
however, to a mighty volume, as may be judged on scanning the width 
of its rocky bed, and the great number of large stones rolled down by 
resistless, turbid floods. In summer time the smooth, round rocks are 
generally white and dry, and the orchard-smiling meadows and sun-lit 
paths and hedgerows are pictures of Arcadian loveliness. Here it was 
that Charlotte Bronte drew something of the inspiration that brightened 
with the affluence of her heart-pourings the wonderful pages of Jane 
Eyre. " A pleasant site for a dwelling," says she, " bosomed in hill and 
wood, and rising from the verge of a stream." And then again writing 
of Lowood (or Cowan Bridge), in the happy, joyous days of fresh- 
blossomed Spring, — " days of blue sky, placid sunshine, and soft western 
or southern gales," which, she tells us, filled up its duration. Lowood 
at this season " shook loose its tresses ; it became all green, all flowery ; 
its green elm, ash, and oak skeletons were restored to majestic life ; 
unnumbered varieties of moss filled its hollows ; and it made a strange 
ground-sunshine out of the wealth of its wild primrose plants." 

But the Paradise was not perfect. It never is. There was the fell 
serpent in the grass, for the houses were low and apparently ill-drained, 
and Lowood became " the cradle of fog and fog-bred pestilence." The 
house where the distinguished novelists were at school has long been 
used as a Reading-room and Savings Bank. It has old-fashioned 
bay-windows, and stands on the west side of the north end of the bridge. 
A building on the opposite side of the road was used in the Brontes time 
as a dormitory. Formerly the school-house was used as a bobbin-mill, 
and during the construction of the contiguous railway in 1860-1, it was 
temporarily converted into a " public," rejoicing in the sober-suggestive 
title of the Cow inn. But in 1863 it was again transformed into a 
private abode. There were then three " publics " in the village, besides 
the present Red Lion inn, as Cowan Bridge lay on a busy highway, 
which the railway, whirling most of the traffic through, has now left 
behind to bask in semi-somnolent quiescence. But at certain times, as 
on hunt-days, it was a scene of bustling animation, for the late Mr. 
Thos. Tunstall, of Kirk by Lonsdale, who died in 1887, kept a good 
pack of harriers here. 

We must now plunge the reader (in imagination) once again into 
temporary darkness, for there are some grand caverns and gulfs on the 
adjacent fells, which can be conveniently got at from Cowan Bridge. It 
is a rather wild tramp though, and the tourist, thus enterprising, would 



272 

do well from the last of them to follow the fell road to Dent, 5 miles, 
or 9 miles from Cowan Bridge. 

Three miles up the Leek Beck from Cowan Bridge the turbulent 
stream has excavated an immense, hard, rocky ravine between the Leek 
and Casterton Fells, called Ease Gill, which here forms the Lancashire 
and Westmoreland boundary. Another place of like appellation we have 
elsewhere noticed under the south side of Ingleborough, and both gills 
have been fashioned, and received their names, from the same agency, 
namely, the slowly-wearing back action of a waterfall, or eas, as these 
pristine aqueous objects were called in the forgotten tongue of the old 
Celtic inhabitants. The broken, rent, and bushy crags overhang the 
sounding waters at a height of 60 to 70 feet, and thus form a huge 
high- walled, open cavity known immemorially as Ease Gill Kirk. The 
name Kirk is suggestive of an ancient temple or enclosed place of 
worship, extending back, perhaps, to Celtic times. On the right of the 
fall there is a lofty opening called the Choir, which is entered through a 
fine, natural arch, about seven by ten feet, and on the opposite side 
within is a large and peculiarly-encrusted mass of depending stalactite, 
called (we know not how long) somewhat fancifully the " Priest of Ease 
Gill." But the grotesque suspended figure resembles more some unhappy 
wight shuffling off this mortal coil for heinous wrong-doing. And who 
knows but what later comers applied the term in wrathful sarcasm, 
meaning that the said old Priest of Ease Gill deserved no better fate ? 

A short distance below this point are the so-called Witches' Caves, 
from a tradition that mysterious and uncanny sounds, as of numerous 
sybils bent together in solemn conclave, used frequently to be heard 
proceeding from within. But it is not known that the old cronies were 
ever actually seen. The holes can be penetrated with safety by stooping, 
a distance of about 70 yards, when progress is arrested by a" dark, deep 
hole — the witches' cauldron. There are also several minor cavities 
ordinarily filled with water. 

Ascending the mountain eastwards, about half-a-mile, the solitary 
Leek Fell House is reached, and a short distance to the south-west of 
the building there are some rather remarkable " pots " and caves. The 
first lot observed consists of four irregular holes, in two pairs, bridged 
with rock, and denominated the Eye Holes. The deepest is about 50 
feet. In the depression a little to the east of these is the Rumbling or 
Jumble Hole. It is a gruesome abyss, ascertained to be at least 150 
feet down. The top and walls of the huge shaft are, however, beautifully 
fringed with a variety of ferns and shrubs. Just to the south of this, in 
the same pasture, are two unimportant caverns or fissures in the 
limestone, respectively designated the Phial and Cleaver Holes or Caves. 
The passage to the former, which is a treacherous " neck " on the 



278 

surface, is now blocked, but the latter may be warily penetrated a Bhort 
distance, when the floor is found to be rent in twain by a rift ten or 
eleven yards down, like a trap, as if sharp cleft by monster axe or cleaver 
of some Titanic cave-dweller resentful of intrusion into his grim retreat. 
More to the west is Hell Hole, rudely bridged at its eastern margin, and 
descending vertically to a depth of at least 200 feet. But the true 
bottom has never been reached. It is a frightful pit-fall, yet the summit 
and surroundings are sweetly flowered and festooned with trailing ivy, 
ferns, and frail willow-branches, which, like its more awful name- 
sake, does often allure by such showy pleasures to regions of eternal 
gloom ! 

A little way above, but in the next field to the west, is a spacious 
circular opening, 150 yards round, and enclosed with a fence. This is 
Gavel Pot, and its greatest depth is found to be 120 feet. Turning 
now towards the allotment road leading by the Fell House, and crossing 
it about a half-mile to the south, we enter a hollow near the south wall of 
a pasture called " Fenwick's Allotment." Here is the entrance to a 
pretty extensive fissure called Lost Johns' Cave, because, we are told, 
many years ago two men, both named John, were from the folly (so often 
alluded to in these pages) of carrying one box of matches which they 
accidentally dropped into a pool of water, left with extinguished candles 
for the greater part of a day to pick their difficult way out ! About 100 
yards from the mouth there is a waterfall, which in ordinary weather it 
is possible to descend, and pursue the main gallery several hundred yards 
further. The passage, though narrow, maintains a good height, and in 
some places reaches, perhaps, forty feet, but the intrepid cave-hunter 
should take the precaution to " paper-chase " his route, or at all events 
leave some indication of the passage followed, as several lateral alleys 
strike the depths of the mountain on either hand. The cave has a few 
noteworthy stalactites. 

Following westward, the lower of two streams up frdm below the 
Witches' Cave, in Ease Gill, the cave-hunter approaches in a short mile 
Bull Pot House at the foot of the road under Barbon Fell, and that 
which runs forward northwards to Dent. A tremendous chasm, 80 
yards in circumference, lies a little to the south of the house. It is 
generally filled with dead, putrifying remains, — not of bulls, although 
these may at some time have been the engulfed victims, but of sheep 
and smaller animals. The rocky, western face attains an elevation of 
near 100 feet, while the opposite extremity is about 60 feet. A cascade 
of this height is precipitated into the horrible-looking abyss with an 
almost vertical leap. A smaller hole, called Cow Pot, lies some little 
way off in a field to the east. It also is the recipient of a small cascade, 
and may be observed to a depth of 50 to 60 feet. 

s 



271 

From Cowan Bridge to Kirkby Lonsdale town it is a pleasant ran of 
2J miles, but tbe somewhat distantly -situ sited railway station is passed 
in about a mile. At the turn, for half-a-milo before tbe station is 
reached, our way is along what was the old Roman road, mentioned in 
our account of Burrow, which went straight as an arrow's night from 
Casterton southwards, by the white house at High Gate, and long 
afterwards continued to be need as a pack-horse road ; indeed, it was a 
thoroughfare to the Half-way House and Wennington up to quite recent 
years. It is now grassed over. 

The gnide-post at Kirkby Lonsdale station tells us that we are 30 
miles from Appleby, 26 mites from Kirkby Stephen, 11 miles from 
Sedbergh, and 15$ miles from Settle. We now descend the road over 



Devil's Bridge, Kirkby Lonsdale. 

the county border, and cross the Lune by the famous Devil's Bridge up 
into tbe town. This curious relic of antiquity has a fine and striking 
appearance when viewed from the river's banks below. Its symmetry 
and strength are at once apparent, and there is no doubt at the time it 
was built it must have been very greatly admired and considered a grand 
triumph of engineering skill. And, indeed, admiration at the present 
day only ceases when passing vehicles put the bridge to tbe test ; being 
as it is of such restricted width as almost to merit the taunt cast upon 
the " Auld Brig of Ayr," — " Where twa wheelbarrows trembled when 
they met." But it must be remembered that its narrowness for defensive 



276 

or strategical purposes was all-important in remote times of almost 
continuous internecine strife. It must assuredly have been regarded as 
a model for bridge-builders, and we have elsewhere in our district noticed 
other bridges of like pattern. It is said that when old Blackfriar's 
Bridge, in London, was about to be erected, the architect came to Kirkby 
Lonsdale to examine this bridge, and approving of it adopted the same 
style of building. The Kirkby Lonsdale bridge is formed of three very 
lofty semi-circular arches, the material used being a beautiful white, 
fine-grained freestone, looking as good and durable to-day as when it left 
the mason's hands. The span of the two outer arches is 55 feet each, 
and of the central one 28 feet ; the apex of the latter rising i feet higher 
than the others, and from the foundations in the river-bed to the central 



The Lithe in Flood at Devil's Bridge. 

parapet it is 52 feet. Bnt when the river is swollen this elevation to the 
level of the water is reduced sometimes as much as 15 to 20 feet. 
For instance, during the great and almost unparalleled flood in August, 
1891, the river rose fully 16 feet above ordinary water-level, and filled 
the whole expanse of the river bed with a rolling deluge that rose above ' 
the sills of the bridge. It was a striking and remarkable sight, and one 
which we shall not soon forget. We were at that time, as elsewhere 
related, water-locked in Dentdale, and came round here on the following 
day, when the river, however, had somewhat subsided. But on the 17th, 
when the water was at its greatest height, Mr. R. L. Simpson, of Kirkby 



276 

Lonsdale, came down and photographed the scene, which, by his courtesy, 
I am fortunately enabled here to reproduce. One engraving depicts the 
beautiful and quiescent river in its normal state, and the other as it 
appeared on August 17th, 1891, when the water, as above stated, rose 
within 25 feet of the parapets, or to the X marked on the engraving. 
The scene here at any time is always picturesque. 

The soffits, or under surfaces of each arch, are composed of four ribs 
or groins composed of single stones, very exactly wrought and admirably 
fitted, with single stones also, 22 inches to 24 inches wide, filling the 
intervening spaces. The flanks being supported by stone sills, each 13 
feet 2 inches long, or extending through the diameter of the bridge, and 
with terminal projecting buttresses. 

As to who built the bridge, or concerning the date of its erection, 
we have no record. The proximity of the Roman highway have led some 
topographers to conclude that it is Roman. But this is not probable, 
as the Romans built few, if any, arched stone bridges in Britain. The 
abutments of Roman bridges were often, as Wright tells us, of a size 
and strength to withstand the thrust of the waters without the aid of an 
arch, and consequently a horizontal roadway of timber was sometimes 
laid on the piers. But both piers and arches here have evidently been 
contemporaneous erections, and of such proportions and strength 
unneeded at this point in Roman times. Indeed, the first arched bridge 
of stone erected in England would seem to have been the peculiar 
construction near Croyland Abbey, in the Fen District. The form is 
triangular, and the arches rise from the three abutments and meet in the 
centre, so that there are three waterways below and three roadways 
above. The gradient of the latter is somewhat considerable, but 
passengers are enabled to avoid this by the use of a number of steps. It 
is generally thought to have been built about a.d. 8.50 — 860, and is 
referred to in a charter dated a.d. 943.* 

* Another notable stone structure is the almost equally old Bow Bridge 
adjoining the site of Fore Abbey, near Askrigg. While lately examining this 
bridge, which is of a similar pattern to the Devil's Bridge, I was informed that an 
ancient copper coin was accidentally discovered under the old foundations by a 
workman engaged in repairing the bridge. The coin is of the time of Henry I., 
and bears a representation of Clifford Castle, York (with the old draw-bridge 
there, built in a.d. 1066) on one side, and on the other, York Minster, and the date 
a.d. 1100. The bridge seems, therefore, older than the abbey, and may have been 
built at the same time as Kirkby Lonsdale bridge. Many stone bridges were built, 
as is well known, about this time in England by command of Matilda, Queen 
Consort of Henry I., after her narrow escape from drowning at the old ford near 
the Bow Bridge, at Stratford. 

Probably the oldest stone bridge in our own neighbourhood was that over the 
Lune at Lancaster, mentioned by Simpson in his history of that town, which, from 
the discovery of brass money of the time of Canute, beneath one of the foundation 
stones, is supposed to date from the beginning of the 11th century. 



j ■* i '  ' <*• ii Hi ~ iii mr^art ii ii i^P^r ~» ^«"i '— "."S - - ~ 



277 

But the whole manner of the structure, and the surrounding history 
of the bridge at Kirkby Lonsdale seem to me to point to its erection 
subsequent to the Norman Conquest, and to be most probably co-eval with 
the building or re-building of the church, about the time of Henry I. 
It appears to be first noticed in a grant of pontage for its repair in the 
year 1275. The road-way on the summit is about 60 yards long, and 
140 inches, or barely 4 yards wide, with angular recesses corresponding 
with the projecting piers for the escape of foot-passengers overtaken by 
vehicles. In a niche at the east end is a stone pillar, shaped somewhat 
like a font, and inscribed : " Feare God and Honor the King, — 1673." 

The legend is, as everyone knows, that the bridge was built by his 
Satanic Majesty, according to a compact made between himself and a 
poor woman who wished to recover her cow which had strayed at low 
water to the opposite side of the river, but could not do so without the 
convenient means of a bridge. And so the King of Evil agreed to erect 
a bridge on condition that he should have the first living thing that 
crossed. He knew very well of her husband's coming home from market, 
and hoped to make good booty. But the cunning woman was equal to 
the occasion. Seeing the approach of her husband on the opposite hill, 
she concealed a scraggy, half -starved dog under her apron, and letting 
it sniff a bone, suddenly tossed the latter over the fine, new-made viaduct, 
and the dog at once bounding after it, she stepped back, and raising her 
fingers in a very vindictive, and certainly most unbecoming manner, — 
as the story runs, lustily exclaimed, 

" Now, crafty Sir, the bargain was 
That you should have what first did pass 
Across the bridge, — so now, alas ! 

The dog's your right." 
The Cheater, cheated, struck with shame. 
Squinted and grinned, then in a flame 

He vanished quite. 

If his sable Highness built this wonderful bridge, he must have been 
a very skilful architect, and not undeserving of the constructive genius 
attributed to him by the poet Milton in the first book of Paradise Lost. 



278 



CHAPTER XXV. 




In the Vale of Lune. 

From Ingle ton to Burton —Halsteads— Lund Holme Spa-well— Burton-in-Lonsdale 
- -A Saxon fortress— Castle of the Mowbray 8 — The manor-— Past and present 
aspects of Burton —Low Field — Cantsfield — Thurland Castle — Tunstall Church, 
and Charlotte Bronte' — Pretty village of Burrow -A pre-historic station — 
Roman camp — Rauthinel's account— Roman military roads — Ancient bridge 
— Remarkable discoveries— Description of camp — Recovery of a Roman 
altar, &c— Lunefield — Kirkby Lonsdale. / 

|E have now discussed pretty nearly every object of interest 
within some ten miles of Ingleton, but there are still a few 
things unnoticed in this attractive neighbourhood, which 
may fitly engage our attention for yet another chapter. 
Proceeding by Broadwood, beneath the wonderful viaduct of the 
L. & N. W. Railway, which rises fully 100 feet above the river, we go 
by the Craven Lime Company's offices, when the road shortly divides. 
Taking the left turn, a picturesque, good old English homestead, with a 
trim garden in front, is passed on the right of the way. This is 
Halsteads, a former residence of the ancient family of Tatham, 
mentioned in our account of Ireby, and afterwards, by the marriage, in 
1724, of Ellen Tatham with George F. Foxcroft, gentleman, of Thornton, 
a possession of the latter family. Both the Tathams and the Foxcrofts 
are old local families, and their names will be found in our Poll Tax 
lists (a.d. 1379) under Thornton-in-Lonsdale. At the back of the house 
there is an old dated stone (a.d. 1670) bearing a Latin inscription. 

At the four-lane ends further on, we take the Lancaster road, (here 
16^ miles from that town), and in about 50 yards cross a stream, near to 
which, just over the hedge, is the Lund Holme Spa Well, a deep mineral 
spring, whose many virtues are scarcely yet sufficiently known. But the 
water, which contains some saline matter and sulphuretted hydrogen in 
loose combination, has been found very beneficial, both internally and 
externally, for various disorders of the skin. The frequent local Danish 
name Lurid (a grove) I have explained elsewhere in connection with 
Hell Beck Lunds. In a charter of the time of Edward III., this (Spa) 
Lund is written Lyndholme, which is the same thing, specifically 
indicating the trees which formed the grove, i.e., lindens. 



279 

In a short 2 miles we come to Burton-in-Lonsdale, crossing the little 
trout-beck into the village, and taking now a retrospective glance we 
behold the whole majesty of Ingleborough, looming skywards some five 
miles behind, and assuredly from no point of the surrounding landscape 
does this " monarch of mountains " stand out better or more picturesquely 
than from this high and pleasant village. 

The name of Burton, I surmise, is derived from the Saxon burh y a 
hill fortress, which it unquestionably was, and as we also find mention 
of a Moot Hall in an Inquisition of the time of Edward III., *there is 
little doubt but what the place was an important Anglo-Saxon station, 
and what we should now call an assize-town. In Domesday (quoted in 
our account of Ingleton), it is, however, spelled two ways, viz., Bortun 
and Borctun ; the latter carrying with it a suggestion of the A.S. beorc, 
a birch-tree. 

In all probability the castle here of the Mowbrays, of which few 
traces now remain, was built on the site of a large Saxon stronghold. 
Their great castle seems to have been abandoned, and to have gone 
steadily to decay, since about the middle of the 14th century. The 
site was then held by John de Mowbray, who died about 43rd Edward 
III. Whitaker traces the history of the manor through the Mowbrays 
to the Earls of Derby, and by Fine levied 38th Elizabeth (a.d. 151)6) we 
find the manor of Burton-in-Lonsdale, including 100 messuages, 20 
cottages, 2 watermills, and a windmill with lands there, under forfeiture 
of William, Earl of Derby, Sir Edward Stanley, Kt., and Edward 
Stanley, Esq., holden " at a peppercorn rent for a term of 80 years." 

Burton was a market town in the time of King Edward First ; John 
de Mowbray having obtained a charter for a market in the year 1306. 
A chapel existed here at an early period, but of its origin or foundation 
we have no record. The parish church, as before pointed out, was at 
Thornton. The present handsome church at Burton was built and 
endowed about twenty years ago by the late Mr. Thomas Thornton, of 
Burton, who also built, and was a great benefactor to, the school. There 
have been many changes wrought in the general aspects of the place 
within living recollection. Formerly there used to be a double row of 
unsightly ash-middens in front of the houses along the main street, with 
stands for donkeys, which were then much in requisition for the 
conveyance of coal from the Burton mines, and sometimes quite a 
procession of them might have been seen with their panniers full going 
along the village street to be disburdened of the mineral for further 
transport in waggons. But all this has altered now. There are two or 
three interesting old houses in the village. One of these, opposite the 
Sunday School in the main street, was, about the beginning of last 
century, the leading hostelry, called the Black Horse, which in coaching 



280 

days was transferred to the white house near it, and this continued^to he 
an inn up to within the last twelve years. The tenant of the house has 
usually a fine display of flowers in the window, and who has often won 
the prize offered for the best window-show of plants that is competed for 
in August annually. 

From the school-gate we get another glorious view of the flanks and 
brow of Ingleborough, and then soon drop into the main road again, 
and pass by the fine avenued entrance to Low Field, the beautiful 
property of the Tathams, formerly of Ireby, before mentioned. Then 
we pass the old Halfway House on the here concealed Roman road to 
Overborough, about which more presently, and shortly arrive at the 
pretty village of Cantsfield, half-buried, as the little place looks, in 
luxuriant, aromatic orchards and greenery. Cantsfield House, the old 
seat of the Procters, who are the chief landowners, stands away on 
the left. 

And now we shall go through pleasant meads, and across the flowery 
little Cant Beck, which flowing by Thurland Castle, close by, joins the 
Greta near its junction with the Lune. The land here is warm and 
low, being only about 100 feet above the level of the sea, — a significant 
drop indeed, from the cloudy altitude of Ingleborough, which rears its 
majestic head only some six or seven miles away to the north-east. 

Thurland Castle is a grand, old historic fabric, dating from the early 
part of the loth century, but at various intervals it has been enlarged 
and improved. The south wing was added only about sixty years ago, 
and in 1879 it was partially destroyed by fire. The building, which is 
enclosed with a deep moat, sustained, during the Civil Wars, a long and 
obstinate siege at the hands of the Parliamentary troops, under Col. 
Rigby, when Sir John Girlington, then the owner of the castle, stoutly 
defended it. In ancient days it was the family seat of the Tunstalls, 
of whom history tells of the doughty deeds of Sir Richard Tunstall, the 
defender of Harlech Castle for Henry VI., and of Sir Brian Tunstall, 
the " stainless knight " of Flodden Field, both distinguished military 
heroes, and favourites of their sovereigns. 

The castle, formerly a possession of the North family, is now the 
property and seat of Col. Edward Brown Lees, J.P. 

The adjacent village of Tunstall was, anciently, one of the four 
manors of Bentham, and its church, though not specified by name, was 
undoubtedly one of the three included within the lordship at the 
Domesday Survey. The building, formerly dedicated to St. Michael, 
and now to St. John the Baptist, is an interesting old edifice, supposed 
to be the third on its site. The church contains some old monuments 
and tablets to the Tunstalls, Girlingtons, Fenwicks f and other local 
families ; the most striking of which is a mutilated, recumbent effigy, 



281 

represented in armour, of Sir Thomas Tunstall, who was knighted in 
1426, and who was the founder of Thurland Castle. 

Readers of Charlotte Bronte's Jane Eyre will be able to recognise 
this ancient fane, where she used to attend service, under the thin disguise 
of Brocklebridge Church. 

Prom Tunstall, by a pleasant field-path entered on the west side of 
the church, it is but a short walk to the attractive little village of 
Burrow. This is one of the prettiest and best-kept little hamlets the 
tourist is likely to meet with in the north country in many a day's 
march. The houses along the park-like road are most trim and neat, 
and in summer their spruce, well-stocked gardens, and occasionally 
trellaced fronts, are aglow with the sweetest roses and various other 
scented and showy blooms. The comfortable hotel here, the Femvick 
Arms, built some fifty years ago, with its ornamental, balconied portal, 
looks more like a gentleman's private residence than a way-side inn. 
And then there is the beautiful hall and park of the Fenwicks, who have 
been the territorial lords here for very many generations. It was 
Thomas Fenwick, Esq., who, delighted with the retired and charming 
aspects of the place, in the year 1740 removed an older house and erected 
the present spacious mansion called Burrow Hall, on the site of the 
Praetorium of the great Roman garrison once stationed here. 

Burrow, formerly called Overborough, is a place of very remarkable 
antiquity, and there is not the smallest exaggeration in affirming that for 
upwards of 2000 years it has been a place of note. For long, long before 
Julius Agricola entered upon his valorous and difficult march through 
the forests of Lancashire, and the stony wilds of Craven, this now smiling 
little border hamlet of Burrow was a great settlement of the hardy, 
warlike Brigantes. According to the author of the well-known Notitia, 
or Military and Civil Service List of the Roman Empire, compiled about 
the close of the 4th century, this was the Braboniack of the Britons, 
seceded according to an immemorial tradition by famine, as related by 
Camden in 1582, but more likely to have been attacked, and quickly 
taken, by the better equipped forces of Agricola in the second year of his 
great campaign. And placing our reliance on Tacitus, the celebrated 
Roman historian, this would be in the year 79. In the Itinerary of 
Anton ine, it is called Bremetonacse, a name which, as explained in our 
notice of Ingleton, means in the British language, rocky hill fire-station, 
in allusion to the Castra exploratorum, or signal-beacon on the summit 
of Ingleborough, maintained there by the Roman garrison until its 
evacuation of the Overborough station near the middle of the 5th 
century. It is very likely at that period, as I have elsewhere pointed 
-out, that a numerous body of native Britons living under Ingleborough 
were vassalled under the Roman yoke and maintenance, while many 



282 

more, unwilling to ally themselves with the invaders, sought the 
cheerless and solitary refuge of caves, and remote and woody recesses of 
the hills, where, by hunting and fishing, a scant livelihood was obtained,, 
while many privations, no doubt, were from time to time endured. 

From Rauthmers now very scarce work, a small quarto, entitled 
Antiquitates Bremetonacenses, published in 1746, we are able to gather 
some interesting particulars about this now almost effaced site. It is 
very fortunate that so observant an antiquary was on the spot at the 
time the ground was levelled, and the various objects found, (all of which 
appear to be now hopelessly lost), carefully collected, and described. 
With such knowledge as the author possessed, we obtain a very clear and 
succinct account of this important site, although, as might be expected,, 
from the isolation and time in which he wrote, he falls into many and 
grotesque errors. 

Let us first of all remark upon the great military road constructed 
by Agricola through the country of the western Brigantes, which, 
beginning at Chester, ended at Carlisle. The intermediate stages are 
thus indicated in the tenth Iter of Antonine : 

Iter X. 

A Glanoventa Mediolanum M.P. CL. 

Galava M.P. XVIII. 

Alone M.P. XII. 

Galacum M.P. XIX. 

Bremetonacis M.P. XXVII. 

Coccio M.P. XX. 

Mancunio M.P. XVII. 

Thus, from Mancunio (Manchester) to Coccio (Ribchester) the road went 
northwards to Bremetonacis (Overborough), but authorities are not 
agreed as to the precise direction of this latter part of its course. 
Moreover, the distances of the Iter do not correspond with our present 
land measurements, for example, the distance between Ribchester and 
Overborough is stated in the above table to be 20 mille passus (thousand 
paces), whereas it is nearer 30. This, however, does not interfere with 
the general sum of the Iter, which is 150 Roman miles. But with 
regard to the road it is said from actual discoveries, long since made, to 
have crossed from Ribchester an estate called Whittera, and thence in a 
straight line to a brook nearly a mile distant. Here, observes our 
authority, on account of the precipitous bank on the southern side, an 
angle is formed to cross the brook, which, when crossed, another angle 
is formed to lead back again to the same point, and thence it proceeds in 
a straight line, through an estate called Swanns, to Ivah. With the 
exception of two or three fields' breadth, this whole length has the agger 



283 

of seven yards width visible. From the village of Ivah towards Lowgill 
all traces of the road were lost, till Mr. A. Court, of the latter place, in 
draining* a moist meadow upon the line of the road, uncovered a 
considerable extent of it. Parts of two horse shoes were found beneath 
the pavement, which was sunk to the depth of several inches below the 
surface. These fragments of the shoes were remarkable for nothing but 
the largeness of the nail-holes, and the narrowness of the curvature. A 
stone, also, which appeared to be but a fragment, with some illegible 
lines inscribed upon it, was also found below the surface. 

The old road from Lowgill towards Tatham Chapel is upon the site 
of the Roman way as far as it continues in a straight line, but at the 
first angle it leaves the Roman way to the left hand. Then it runs on 
the north side of Tatham Chapel, and its remains are discovered upon 
the estates of Knott Hill and Lower Stockbridge. It then appears to 
have crossed the Greta at or near a place where the old inhabitants of 
the adjoining grounds say were the remains of a bridge, as courses of 
hewn stone on both banks were once visible there. Crossing the Burton 
road west of the Half-way House and Scaleber, it goes on by 
Collingholme where, before the field was enclosed, its agger was not 
merely visible, but prominent and nearly perfect, and continued so for a 
whole mile. Thence from the Cant Beck it ran by Overtown, across 
the Leek Beck on to a portion of the highway between Kirkby Lonsdale 
and Ingleton, called the Long-level, whence its direction coincided with 
the present Wanderers' Lane, close on the right of the railway from 
Eirkby Lonsdale station to Casterton, Middleton, and Low Borrow 
Bridge to the north. 

On a part of this magnificent ancient highway between Ribchester 
and Overborough, there was found in the early part of last century, a 
copper urn containing above 600 silver denarii, chiefly of the emperors 
Alexander Severus and Gordianus Pius (a.d. 222 — 244). Rauthmel 
tells us that he discovered near the same military road several Roman 
tumuli, circular in form and 10 yards in diameter, composed of small 
stones one yard deep, in one of which he found three urns containing 
ashes, and in the smallest, besides ashes some very little bones. From 
one of them he also abstracted two copper styli, or Roman writing-pens, 
each six inches in length. To these discoveries may be added the later 
and very interesting one of the splendid Roman mile-stone, unearthed 
in 1836, near the same Roman road at Middleton, about 5 miles north 
of Kirkby Lonsdale station, and which is now raised upon an eminence 
by the way close to where it was found. 

A second great military road, it should also be remembered, ran 
almost parallel with the above, but fully ten miles to the west of it, from 

* Now probably 70 years ago. 



284 

Kinderton, in Cheshire, by Northwich, Stretford, Old Trafford, crossing 
the highway between Manchester and Warrington, and by Preston and 
Garstang to Lancaster, whence there was another highway connecting it 
with the station at Overborongh, 12 miles distant. Whitaker infers 
that it corresponded with the present road from Lancaster to Kirkby 
Lonsdale bridge, some two miles to the north of the Roman station at 
Overborough. But this is not quite correct. There was no Roman road 
at the Devil's Bridge. Indeed, old inhabitants affirm that there were 
formerly abundant indications of what seemed to have been a sort of 
timber bridge over the Lune immediately opposite the site of the 
" old city," and that large solid blocks of hewn oak used to be taken out 
of the river bed at this point. It looks, therefore, as if there had been 
communication with the other side of the river much nearer the 
Roman garrison than the Devil's Bridge ; the latter being of Norman 
origin. 

The site of the station is unquestionably an admirable one, and 
displays in an eminent degree the military and strategical 
sagacity, not so much of the artful, experienced Romans, who were 
simply the impropriators, as of their rude, brave predecessors, the native 
Britons, who, in spite of all shortcomings, had doubtless a more exact 
knowledge and appreciation of the surface characteristics of the landscape 
than even we have at the present day. We are accustomed to speak of 
them as untutored savages, but the old Britons were wise enough in a 
good many things, and, indeed, in more ways than we yet know of. 
Agricola, however, who is said to have seized the fortress and 
superintended in person its construction, no doubt recognised the 
superior advantage of such a situation. It occupies a triangular neck of 
land, sufficiently elevated, without much exposure, being shaped by the 
confluence of the Leek with the Lune, which streams have formed the 
natural defences of the station. Rauthmel furnishes an extended 
description of its area and several parts, along with a sectional plan of 
the fortress, which, however, it is plain, are largely fictitious. 

In Camden's time there is reason to believe, from the little he says, 
that the papilos, or stone barrack-houses, were standing, although in ruins, 
yet at the time our author made his survey, 156 years afterwards, 
scarcely a vestige remained, yet he is bold enough to furnish us with an 
exact sketch of their position and number. But no doubt can exist that 
the configuration of the enclosed portion of the station was that of a 
rectilinear, or in the usual form of Roman castramentation, defended by 
a rampart of earth and stone, and surrounded with a fosse and bank or 
agger. While on or near the site of the present mansion was the 
pnntorium, or general's tent, as evidenced by the remains of tessellated 
pavements found on this part. 



285 

The importance of the station at Overborough, and the manner 
of its garrison, are in some measure indicated by the author of 
the Notitia, who says that there was a praefect over a numerus of soldiers, 
called defmsores, — Preefectus numeri defensorum Braboniaco, which 
defensores seem to have been veterans, or hardy old soldiers of long and 
tried experience, who were in time of distress requisitioned to defend the 
walls of a town or station, and who also acted as auxiliaries for the relief 
of the ordinary troops while in the pursuit of an enemy, which, often 
gaining confidence by the diminished energy of these less hardy 
trainbands, was at once fallen upon by these powerful rear-guardsmen 
or defensaresy and routed or cut to pieces. 

The following are among the antiquities recovered from this station. 

A complete stone altar, the discovery of which is somewhat significant. It was 
erroneously attributed by Rauthmel as a votive shrine of the pagan god Mogon, 
but the learned Dr. Pegge has rightly interpreted it from our author'B version 
of the inscription, as an altar consecrated to the Sabine deity Sango, or Sancus, 
which, being the same as Hercules, was a proper deity for a soldier to honour. 
The inscription is this, — 

DEO. SAN which interpreted at length is, Deo. Sango. Numeriu*. Trebius. 
GO. N. TR Atta Posuit. On one side of the altar is the figure of a bird,- -not 
EBIVS AT an owl, as Rauthmel conjectured, but the Sangualw Avis, or 
TA. POSV., osprey, which bird was under the protection of this renowned 
deity. The stone also bore two carvings in relief of an axe and sacrificial knife. 

The next notable relic discovered was an aurea bulla, or hollow ball of pure gold, 
found by Miss Fenwick, a daughter of the first proprietor of Burrow Hall. It is 
thought to be the only object of this description yet discovered in Britain, although 
they have been not uncommonly met with among remains of Roman antiquity 
abroad. They were heart-shaped and worn round the neck by young Roman 
patricians as incitements to valour, ere deeming themselves worthy of the fair 
hand of love. This precious ornament was doubtless dropped by some enamoured 
youthful noble while in attendance on his royal master in the prcetorium, where it 
had lain concealed a period of probably not less than 16 centuries. This station, 
it may here be observed, is known to have been visited by several successive 
emperors, from the time of Agricola's occupation, namely, Septimus Severus, Geta, 
and Antoninus Caracalla, the latter of whom passed through Craven, and remained 
some little time at Bremetonacre, between the period of his cruel usurpation of 
power in A.D. 212, and his assassination in A.D. 217. 

Other objects found about here were & patera, or shallow platter of baked clay ; 
a guttus, or wine-jug, used on occasions of sacrifice ; a glein neidoreth, " snake- 
stone," or Druid's amulet* (found on the Roman road south of Overborough) ; 
a very fine stone hammer (British) dug up near Cantefield ; a fragment of an 
uninscribed altar, bearing only a centurial mark ; and a singularly interesting 
copper medal of Flavius Vespasian, inscribed on the obverse Imp. Caes. Vespas — 
PMT. RP. Cos. VI II. (».<?. Eighth Consul, A.D. 79), which, found in the ramparts of 
the fortress, apparently agrees with the narrative of Tacitus regarding the conquest 
of the Western Brigantes (i.e. Craven, Lancashire, Westmoreland, and Cumberland) 
in that year, and the foundation of the several stations along his line of march. 

* Some curious references to theae " charmed " stones, which were regarded with a great deal 
of superstition in old times, are given by Wm. Bray in his Tour in Derbyshire, 2nd ed. (1788), 
pp. 216—18. 



286 

Nothing has been discovered on the site since Rauthmel's day 
excepting a single uncovered earthern vessel, resembling a Roman 
funeral urn, but unfortunately it got broken by the spade while digging 
in the lawn in front of Burrow Hall. This was in the early part of the 
present century. 

But we must now leave this classic neighbourhood, and, going by 
the Deer Park, cross the picturesque Leek bridge, with its old dated 
stones (a.d. 1735) and shortly arrive at a point where a boundary stone 
indicates that we are stepping from Lancashire into Westmoreland, and 
whence a field-path shortens the distance to the Devil's Bridge, described 
in the last chapter. The river-dale aspects here along are very beautiful, 
■while the high, red roofs of Lunefield, the pleasant seat of Alfred Harris, 
Esq., J. P., stand out conspicuously in the distance. The house, which was 
re-erected about twenty years ago from designs by Mr. Alfd. Waterhouse, 
A.R.A., occupies a broad, elevated terrace, overlooking the Lnne to the 
south, and surrounded by luxuriant gardens, green, velvety lawns, and 
ample conservatories, which greatly enhance the beauty of the place. 
The property, it may be remarked, was purchased by Mr. Harris, the 
present owner, in 1868, from the Rev. Canon Carus, of Winchester, 
whose family had been long aeated here. 

We now end our pleasant excursion at the ancient town of Kirkby 
Lonsdale, the " Lowton " of Jane Eyre, mentioned a few pages back. 



287 



CHAPTER XXVI. 




Kirkby Lonsdale and Neighbourhood. 

Earthworks and tumulus — Kirkby Lonsdale a Danish town— Past and present 
aspects — Old inns — Origin of market— The parish church — Underley Hall — 
The celebrated view from the churchyard — Lovely scenery — Casterton Woods 
— Old corn-mill — Casterton village and church— Roman highway. 

F course, every visitor who comes to Kirkby Lonsdale sees the 

fine old church, — one of the most interesting monuments of 

antiquity in this part of the country, — and the celebrated 

view from the churchyard, which has been so much admired 

by Mr. Ruskin, and which comprises, unquestionably, the beau ideal of 

a thoroughly English landscape. 

Saving the beauty of the neighbourhood, there is not much else of 
interest at Kirkby Lonsdale. But near Cathridding, about 3 miles to 
the north-west of the town, there is a large circular earthwork, which is 
probably Danish, as the eminence on which it is constructed is called 
Sweyn Shaw, although this name may be of later origin. When the 
moor was enclosed, a good stone quern, or hand-corn mill, was dug up 
near it, which may be a relic of the previous Brigantian occupation, as 
the British word Cath (a fortification) apparently denotes. The Danes, 
however, were undoubtedly settled in the locality, as the name Kirkby 
plainly indicates a Danish town where a Saxon church stood. On the 
north side of the vicarage there is a large tumulus called Cockpit Hill, 
perhaps a relic of that eventful era. 

But the good old town of Kirkby Lonsdale has witnessed many 
changes since the day when the hardy Saxons and piratical Danes first 
set foot on the place. In recent times it has been largely modernised, 
and along a portion, at any rate, of its main thoroughfare, there is a neat 
and characteristic look of genteel newness. But in this avenue, not so 
very long ago, might have been seen many a quaint and curious bit of 
mediaeval architecture, to wit the pent-roofs and arcaded porticos, such 
as still linger in some old English towns. But only a single example 
remains now. Our ambitious north-country towns and villages, many 
of which by their pleasing glimpses of old-time stone and wood work, 
carried us back even beyond the days of the Roses, have gradually lost 



288 

almost every mark of historic individuality, and are fast becoming as 
like each other as a row of new pins. Hardly anything, indeed, has 
survived this ruthless onslaught of unsparing "progress" but the old 
churches, and these, too, have suffered more or less severely. 

That the town has been a place of bustling importance in former 
days is apparent as one glances up at the long cavalcade of painted sign- 
boards, descriptive of a variety of creatures and objects, which follow 
each other in showy procession along the main street. Some of these 
inns are doubtless very old, and date long anterior to the palmy coaching 
days. For inasmuch as Kirkby Lonsdale has been a market town from 
the far-distant year 1227 a.d., and every Thursday for now approaching 
seven centuries, its market has been held, and its traders doubtless have 
found a temporary lodgment at one or other of its public houses of 
entertainment. But it must not be supposed that any of these early 
hostelries exist here yet, although there are one or two, which both inside 
and out, evidence some antiquity, but we are not going to believe quite, 
as an old native once gravely informed us, that they were " built by 
Julius Caesar." The old market-cross, I should remark, has been 
removed to an obscure corner near the church, and the markets are now 
held in the square, opposite the Royal hotel, which was formed soon 
after the terrible fire there in the winter of 1820 ; the tragic consequences 
whereof, so often told, are recorded in the churchyard. 

The parish church of St. Mary is a venerable pile, and from the 
Domesday name of the town, ChercJwbi, there is plain proof of its pre- 
Norman parentage. The oldest portions of the present structure date 
from about a.d. 1120, and these in the interior include the west arches 
of the nave. The southern and western doorways are also of this date, 
and have receding cylindrical columns with moulded capitals, supporting 
circular arches of various and rich designs. But these early carvings, 
which are in bold relief, have become much decayed from exposure to 
the weather. The capitals and columns of the nave of this period are 
beautifully wrought, and some of the work looks as perfect as when first 
chiselled. These pillars are very similar in design to those in the 
Cathedral at Durham. The chancel and remaining parts of the church 
are of various later dates. The tower was rebuilt, as indicated upon a 
stone beneath the west window, in 1705. The interior, which contains 
numerous monuments and exquisite examples of stain-glass, is very 
spacious and lofty. Its greatest length is 122 feet, and width 100 feet. 
In 1807 the ancient leaded roof of the church was removed, and in 
1866 the old south porch was taken down and rebuilt. This would 
seem to have been private property, as upon a wooden tablet (inscribed 
C. W., 1668) now kept in the vestry, the aspiring owner, or some zealous 
admirer (or perhaps it was a combined effort) we hope we shall be 



pardoned for remarking, has sawed from his immortal mind the following 

explanatory piece of wooden poetry : 

" This Porch by ye Banes first builded was. 
Of Heigholme Hall they wears ; 
And after sollld to Christopher Wood, 
By William Haines thereof last heyre ; 
And is repayred as you see, 
And satt in order good 
By the true owner nowe thereof, 
The foresaids Christopher Wood." 

With these beneficent outpourings to stimulate his curiosity, we may 
very well leave the visitor to make hia own discoveries in the chnrch, 
being, of course, not unmindful, during this engaging pursuit, of the 
reverence he owes while in the house of God. 



Underlet Hall. 

I should add that in 1868-9, by the munificence of Lord Eenlis, now 
the Earl of Bective, the church was very handsomely restored. And in 
the street, on the west of the chnrch, a beautiful drinking-fountain 
commemorates the event. 

Underley Hall, the stately seat of the Earl of Bective, lies some little 
distance to the north of the town. The mansion, which was formerly 
the property of the Nowells, was rebuilt in 1828, and stands upon a rich, 



290 

verdant plateau on the west bank of the broad and gently-flowing Lime. 
Enclosing it are large and luxuriant gardens, extensive conservatories, 
and beautifully shaven lawns, which, terminating in a level terrace, 
reach down to the open water side. 

From the north-east corner of the churchyard a gate opens on to an 
elevated natural terrace, where a seat has been placed high above the 
winding river. The scene we may behold from this point is one of 
indescribable beauty. Below us, in the bosom of the park-like and 
splendidly-wooded vale, the graceful, gentle Lune seems really in love 
with her affluent surroundings, for how placidly on she moves, and with 
many a lazy and reluctant curve, turns back to seize the image of the 
enamoured landscape ! By hall and cot, and many a scattered farm, the 
meandering river flows slowly on until lost amid projecting hills. In 
the deeps of the umbrageous valley lies the noble house of Underley, 
above mentioned, while on the open ground opposite is the Orange, a 
beautifully-seated mansion, built in 1849, and the large and handsome 
Gasterton Hall hard by. Behind, as far as the eye can reach, there is a 
magnificent group of shapely, swelling hills, beginning with the grey 
and purple cloaks of the Leek, Casterton, and Barbon Fells, and 
extending beyond the heights of Middleton to the misty tops of the 
Howgills. Eastwards, lordly Ingleborough raises his imperial crest to 
the sky, and forms a majestic outline to this limit of the prospect. But 
to see this superb panorama at its best one should be here in the 
Autumn, and in the early morning or evening too, when the reflected 
light of the sun burnishes the crystal curves of the river, and casting 
shadows upon the gold-red crags and almost tropical aspects of the 
various foliage, glorifies the whole with a miraculous charm, and 
produces an effect which neither the pen nor the brush can ever hope 
to portray. 

All round Kirkby Lonsdale the country is very charming. From 
the town there is a most beautiful walk through the Gasterton Woods, 
permission to explore which should be obtained from Lord Bective's 
steward. From the Devil's Bridge you may follow the road half-a-mile, 
and at a cottage on the left, turn down a narrow lane to the farm-house. 
The scenery and views in the fertile vale are here very attractive. The 
mansion of Lunefield, and the sturdy tower of the old church, peering 
above fine trees, add much to the picturesque interest of the scene. 
By a shady avenue, composed principally of oak, ash, and some fine 
hollies, we may now ascend from the farm into the Casterton Woods, 
and presently obtain a delightful view of Underley Hall, with the rich 
sward of its ample lawns raised above the silver-shining Lune, and, in 
the " jubilee " of summer, too, its magnificent rose-avenue aflame with 
the choicest bloom. Now, a turn to the right brings us past Gasterton 



291 

Hall, and skirting a new plantation, we enter the woods to the Hall 
gardens. From the gardener's cottage here a steep path descends, in a 
minute or two, to a picturesque wooden bridge, spanning the leafy chasm 
which has been formed in the red rock by the abrasion of the quick- 
descending stream. On crossing the rustic bridge, the path winds on 
some distance high above the Lune, whose crystal waters lave the 
grand cliffs of "Old Red Conglomerate," nearly one hundred feet 
below. 

Close to the old bridge, just mentioned, there was once, we are told, 
an old corn-mill, and the secluded ravine in which it stood was called 
Mill Gill. The building was afterwards converted into a private 
bath-house, but it is now abandoned, and in ruins. 

The village of Casterton lies almost hidden from view in a lovely 
dell formed by the murmuring rivulet which courses through its midst. 
The village may be said to be a Roman offspring born of the great 
military road, previously described, from Overborough to Appleby and 
the north. But the present attractiveness of the locality is in no small 
measure owing to the example, good taste, and munificence of the Wilson 
family, of Casterton Hall, who built the church, and were in many other 
ways benefactors to the place. It was the Rev. W. Cams Wilson, the 
worthy vicar of Tunstall, who is celebrated as the Rev. Mr. Brocklehurst 
in Charlotte Bronte's novel of Jane Eyre. He was a patron of the 
Clergy Daughters' School, which we have already touched upon in our 
account of Cowan Bridge, and whence the school was removed to 
Casterton in the Brontes' time. This establishment, which is very 
influentially supported, was founded in 1828, and its benefits are 
restricted to the daughters of those clergy having the smallest incomes. 
There is also a Preparatory Clergy School for orphan children principally, 
close by. A similarly useful institution here is the Servants' School, 
originally founded at Tunstall, but removed to Casterton in 1837. It 
provided for the training of girls for service, but since 1883, when the 
handsome Hospital was built, it has been re-organised, and is now 
conducted as a private ladies' school, under the name of Low Wood 
School, which name figures prominently upon a tablet on the south gable, 
with the date 1837, and an appropriate scripture text taken from the 
third chapter of Jeremiah. 

The church here stands at a picturesque corner of road that runs 
through the village. It is a beautiful and airy little edifice in the Early 
English style, and contains some of the most exquisite mural sculptures 
in marble and Caen stone (by a London firm) which we have ever seen. 
The church was built in 1888, and is now (1891) being thoroughly 
renovated. The old font from Low Bentham church is, we understand, 
to be brought here when the work is completed. 



292 

From Casterton the return to Kirkby Lonsdale (2£ miles) may be 
made by Wanderers' Lane, — the old Roman highway before described, 
—and in about a mile, at Gowrey farm, cross the county boundary, 
where part of the farm premises named are in Lancashire and part in 
Westmoreland. Thence by the station and Devil's Bridge. This is a 
nice walk or drive in coming from Sedbergh to Kirkby Lonsdale (I2J 
miles), but we prefer taking it the reverse way, for the sake of the fine 
approach to Sedbergh, lying in the lap of the HowgillB. Bnt this 
interesting section comes more within the province of our excursions 
from Sedbergh, where we shall describe it. 



293 



PART n -EASTERN DIVISION. 



CHAPTER XXVII. 




Around Skipton. 

Up Dales — Thorpe-sub-Montem — Threapland— Old houses— Threapland Gill and 
Cave — Elbolton — Curious knoll-reefs — Knave Knoll Hole — Discovery of 
human skeletons^- Beautiful view— Walk to Barden— Simon Seat— Who was 
Simon ? — Other Simon Hills and their pre-historic remains — The School of 
Simon Druid — Ascent of Simon Seat — Marked stones— Beltane feasts — A 
Sunset on Midsummer Day. 

HIS division of our work will be appropriated to an account of 
our explorations, and researches into the parish-histories, of 
the country lying between Skipton and Yore Head, and 
westward to the Howgill Fells. Again we hope to rescue 
many an old-time story, and fragment of unrecorded history. And as, 
moreover, there is scarcely a level mile anywhere within this classic area, 
— classic by virtue of its own inherent interest, as by the loftiest gifts of 
pen and palette, — it goes without saying that its scenery also will be 
found every bit as diverse and entertaining as that described in the 
preceding Part. . 

Of Skipton, — the chief town in Craven, — and the immediate district, 
we have already written at length in I'hrough Airedale from Goole to 
Malham, so that it will be unnecessary to dwell upon these parts here. 

Let us then scamper away from the trailing steam-breath of the iron 
horse, and either drive or walk "up dale " to the quiet little villages 
of Bylstone and Cracoe. Going through these we discover a nice 
ramble of some three or four miles, by way of Threapland Gill and the 
famous Elbolton bone cave, described in Airedale, to the secluded little 
hamlet of Thorpe-sub-Montem. This little upland nest is so hidden and 
out of the way, that it is said when the troops of Cromwell were in the 
neighbourhood, many of the inhabitants from the surrounding villages 
took refuge within it, and owing to its safe seclusion were never 



294 

discovered. It has now but very few houses, but was formerly a rather 
large village, in which there were about a score families all engaged in 
plying the useful trade of cobbling ; Thorpe-made boots and shoes being 
famous for quality and wear among the dalesfolk for miles round. 

At Threapland there is one of the oldest dated houses we have met 
with in Graven. The carving looks very much like 1554, but the third 
figure may be an 8. There is also another ancient building, which has 
the appearance of having been once used as a chapel. It is ornamented 
outside with fen emblem of the Trinity, and bears the initials and date 
T. H., 1674. The hamlet was anciently called Thorpole, a fact that 
yields a very singular instance of the transition of the A. S. thorp 
(a village) into threap. In Chalmer's Caledonia (Vol. 1. p. 487), the 
same form is noted of a place in Scotland. The peaty flat occupying 
the valley to the north, and below the Catch All inn, was formerly 
filled with an extensive natural sheet of water, now drained off. The site 
is still known as the Tarn. 

After a peep into Threapland Gill and the little water-murmuring 
cave, with its prettily-shrubbed front, where the fresh green of the wild 
gooseberry leans out conspicuously, the tourist may ascend the north 
bank and proceed along the tops in the direction of Elbolton, which is 
the farthest of the curious round hills he has now before him. The 
walls and weathered rock about Elbolton will afford a rich field of 
investigation to the geologist, abounding as they do in a variety of fossil 
remains, including especially fine specimens of Productus gigantea, 
which are sometimes found almost as big as a human skull. Trilobites, 
fish teeth, and examples of Sphenopteris, — a rare fern, are also 
occasionally met with ; while in the shale debris of these so-called 
knoll-reefs, bits of amethystine fluor, or " Blue John," as it is termed in 
Derbyshire, may be picked up, a peculiarly-formed mineral which is 
always an indication of the presence of lead. Botanically, the ground is 
similarly rich ; several of the saxifrages occurring, along with abundance 
of the pretty, mealy, pink-primrose, and various other plants. 

These detached little hills, or knoll-reefs, are a very noticeable feature 
in the landscape, and appear as smooth and round as so many slipped, 
glaciated boulder-stones. They are said to have been built up in a 
somewhat similar manner to the coral islands in our southern seas, 
although they are not wholly or true coral reefs, as we now understand 
the term. They lie along an outcrop of black limestones, yet in these 
knolls we are told there are irregular masses of red gritstone, — in 
Elbolton occurring at fully 200 feet from the summit of the hill ; while 
a bed of light-coloured clay from 1 to 3 inches in thickness, underlies 
the limestone at a depth of 40 to 50 feet, regular in its course from west 
to east, and with a north-east dip. A vein of lead, moreover, traverses 



295 

the entire series of these mound-like hills. The precise method or origin 
of their formation, from these various complications, raises a subject of 
absorbing interest, and one very tempting to speculation. 

The cave known as Knave Knoll Hole, in this hill, is a narrow, 
pit-like cavity, 70 feet deep, descended by ladders, and is chiefly 
interesting from the recent discovery within it of a complete human 
skeleton, and portions of several others, along with bones of various 
animals, — all of neolithic age. The view from the top of the hill is 
most beautiful, with the little town of Grassington nestling high up 
under the wide moors, and enclosed on the north side with dense, 
luxuriant woods that stretch far away above the crystal river. The 
moors beyond culminate in the round boss of the Great Wham, and the 
undulating edge of Great Whernside. How pleasant it is to be up here 
on a still summer's day ! The rich, green meads below us are spangled 
with buttercup-gold, and dotted with cattle and sheep, while, perhaps, 
the only sounds audible in the hot sunshine are the cocks' crowing on 
distant farms, and the lark's voice high overhead. 

But probably the most beautiful and extensive view in this part of 
Wharfedale is that to be obtained from Simon's Seat, and as this is but 
a few miles' delightful walk from Thorpe to Burnsall and Barden, we 
will transfer awhile our steps and our thoughts thither. The whole of 
this range of hills possesses features of interest which do not seem ever 
to have been discussed. There are numbers of mounds and heaps of 
stones (some of which have doubtless been dispersed) and curious marks 
upon the rocks, which are well worth a little consideration. So far as 
Simon's Seat is concerned, we have long supposed that this eminence, 
occupying one of the most commanding junctions in Wharfedale, must 
have been secured as a look-out post, or possibly a permanent station, of 
the ancient races inhabiting this neighbourhood even long before the 
Roman conquest. It is, moreover, very remarkable that the name Simon 
should be of such frequent occurrence, not only in Yorkshire, but in 
other parts of England as well. The inference seems, at first, conclusive 
that these are but modern appellations derived from some local personage 
of note, possibly a former owner of the land. But considering that 
personal names, as Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, &c, when applied to hills, 
are of such rare occurrence, we must look for another solution of the name. 
Whereas Simon Hills, Simon Fells, and Simon Stones, are frequent 
throughout the land, and are apparently as old as the oldest names of 
our mountains. Who, then, .was this mysterious yet universal Simon ? 
It is certainly remarkable that in almost every instance within my 
knowledge, places so designated are, in some way or other, associated 
with the remains of ancient earthworks, barrows, tumuli, marked stones, 
and the like. It is so at Symons or Symonds Yat, on the Wye, Simon's 



296 

Bath, on Exmoor,* Simon Howe, above 'the vale of Goathland, Simon 
Fell, by Ingleborough, Symondstone near Read, in Lancashire, so written 
in early Norman charters ; Simonstone, a hamlet near Hawes, where 
flint implements have been found beneath peat ; Simon's Seat among the 
Howgill Fells, and Simon's Seat, in Wharfedale, the subject of these 
remarks^ As regards the Howgill Simon's Seat, I have not there 
discovered any traces of early occupation — it is a lofty, bare, grassy hill, 
but standing as it does at no great distance from the Roman highway to 
Tebay and Appleby, and whereabouts early tribes were probably 
congregated, the site is strongly suggestive of the name being of the 
same origin as the rest. 

If, then, there be any British Druidical or Romish connection with 
these places, how is this ancient name explained ? Prof. Rhys, in his 
admirable little work on Celtic Britain, points out that among the oldest 
instances in Welsh poetry of the use of the word derivyddon y druids, is 
one where it is applied to the Magi or Wise Men, who came with presents 
to the infant Jesus ; and its Irish cognate drui is not only used in the 
same manner, but is usually rendered into Latin by magus, a magician. 
But now and then also, he adds, point is given to this term by making 
the druid into Simon Magus, whose appearance on Celtic ground is 
otherwise inexplicable. The Goidelic Druids accordingly appear at times 
under the name of the School of Simon Druid, and a curious passage 
relating thereto may be found in 0. Mulcorry's Glossary, preserved in 
Trinity College Library, Dublin.f These Simon Magi were soothsayers, 
priests, and medicine men, but their principal character was perhaps that 
of magicians, in which guise the Simon Magus of Scripture is depicted 
in the 8th chapter of the Acts of the Apostles. The Romans, likewise, 
held in superstitious deference the same awe-inspiring Simon Magus, 
whom they commemorated at Rome by a statue erected in the Tiber, and 
which bore this inscription in Latin, — Simon Deo Sancto. But strangely, 
it seems as if this particular memorial had been the means of bringing 
about a false dedication of the tutelary god Sangus, mentioned in our 
account of verborough, for in the year 1 574 a stone was dug up in an 
island of the Tiber, inscribed Semoni Sanco Deo Fidio, &c, from which 
it would appear as if the early fathers had misread and misinterpreted 
this stone, it being the individual stone and inscription which they had 

* We once heard a story about some doughty, legendary hero, called Sigmund, 
while passing a night at the lonely little inn here on Exmoor. Tradition, indeed, 
assigns the name of the place to this valiant, mythical personage, who is said to 
hav.' been a giant-killer, dragon-slayer, and what not. but in all probability both 
the person and his prowess are simply an exaggerated survival of tales passed 
down from the mystery-dealing Druids, or Simon Magi, mentioned in the text. 

t This Manuscript (numbered H 2, 16, Col. 116) is in Celtic Irish. 



297 

beheld.* At any rate there is no doubt bnt that both Britons and 
Romans perpetuated in various ways the memory of this great impostor, 
and this I take to be the prima stamina of the names of our Simon hills 
and seats. And in so far as our elucidations of the early British and 
Roman occupation of Ingleborough are concerned, this is proof -positive 
so far as regards the subjacent Simon Fell. 

But now that we are talking about Simon Seat, let us climb the 
Wharfedale mountain and see where the great Simon sat, and awed the 
trembling crowds ! It is, however, hardly likely that he ever sat there 
himself, but was probably represented by some Druidical soothsayer on 
whom his mystic gifts descended. We shall, however, not quarrel on 
that point, preferring as we do, the testimony of the rocks to even a 
sight of the ghost of Simon himself, or his deputy, who may haunt the 
grey old cliffs there still. 

From Barden Bridge we follow the main road on about J mile, to 
within a short distance of Wharfe View House, where are two conspicuous 
ash-trees, opposite which is a gate, which we must open and ascend by 
the side of a plantation, and through several other gates, until the open 
moor is reached. By still keeping the main cart-road we come to the 
peat-beds, having Earl's Seat away on the right, and the high point 
above which is significantly called Cairn or Carn-cliffe, and a mile beyond 
it is the famous Rocking Stone. Beyond the peat-beds the three great 
groups of rocks on the edge of Simon Seat (as they are collectively 
•called) are now seen. It is, however, the highest, or largest group to 
which we must make, as this claims to be the Seat proper. The stones, 
— huge weathered blocks of light-grey millstone-grit, that have almost 
the appearance of granite, lie tumbled about in all sorts of strange 
positions, heaped one on the other, and forming rude chambers, and 
bridges, and rocking-stones, and bearing upon their surfaces many 
curious knob-like excrescences, and round basin-like cavities. The central 
atone on the edge of the cliff has one such evenly-formed bowl-shaped 
hole, but laid open to the west, in the manner of a seat, while behind it 
are two smaller cavities opening eastwards, or in the opposite direction 
to the larger one just named, and in which, while the front one was 
occupied, two persons could kneel behind with their faces turned towards 
the declining sun. And this is precisely as we are taught to believe the 
old Britons did, while adoring the great Giver of Life and Light. 
There is a large rock on the south side of this containing five similar, 
but irregularly-placed cavities, about which, however, we shall make no 
pretences at solution, as the uses of such " cups " and " basins," and as 
to whether they are artificial or otherwise, are still, and likely to remain 
so, moot points. But here and there upon the edges and surfaces of the 

* See Dr. Pegge's " Anecdotes of Old Times." 



298 

rocks are curious, small knobby protuberances, sometimes hollowed in 
the centre, which may, or may not, be artificially formed. But these 
lumps or stone nipples projecting from the main blocks are very striking, 
and we are unable to account for them, unless they have some reference 
to the Beltane Feasts still kept up in some parts of the Scottish 
Highlands, and in France and Ireland. 

The Beltane dinner on May Day, in Perthshire, UBed to consist of 
milk, eggs, and a cake full of lumps or nipples on the surface. On the 
first of May, says Pennant, in the Highlands of Scotland, the herdsmen 
hold their Beltein. They cut a square trench in the ground, leaving the 
turf in the middle ; on that they make a fire of wood, .on which they 
dress a large caudle of eggs, butter, oatmeal, and milk, and bring besides 
the ingredients of the caudle, plenty of beer and whiskey, for each of 
the company must contribute something. The rites begin with spilling 
some of the caudle on the ground, by way of libation ; on that everyone 
takes a cake of oatmeal upon which are raised nine square knobs, each 
dedicated to some particular being, the supposed preserver of their flocka 
and herds, or to some particular animal, the real destroyer of them. 
Each person then turns his face to the fire, breaks off a knob, and 
flinging it over his shoulder, says, " This I give to thee, preserve thou 
my horses ; This to thee, preserve thou my sheep," and so on. After 
that they use the same ceremony to the noxious animals. " This I give 
to thee, fox, spare thou my lambs ; This to thee, hooded crow ; 
This to thee, eagle," &c. When the ceremony is over they dine on 
the caudle, and after the feast is finished, what is left is hid by two 
persons, deputed for that purpose, but on the next Sunday they 
re-assemble and finish the reliques of the first entertainment.* 

Whether these rocky knobs are mere nodular concretions due to- 
freaks of weathering, or have been fashioned by hand for some such 
purpose as I have described, will be best argued by the geologist and 
antiquary on the spot. I may observe that in Sir Bichard Hoare's- 
Ancient Wiltshire there is figured a curious British Vase, or Grape-Cup, 
on the outer surface of which is depicted four rows of such knobs or 
protuberances, and each, we may suppose, were intended by the original 
users to represent some deity. They are frequent ornaments on pottery 
of later date, too. 

It may also be pointed out that the high ground, on which many of 
these strange stones are found, is called on the Ordnance map Pock 
Stones Moor, which in itself carries a suggestion of these ancient rock- 
pimples, although this may be only a deviation of the word Pog, which 
in some parts of Yorkshire is still used in the same sense as Bog. The 
intervention of the word Stones, however, rather suggests the other meaning. 

* See Popular Antiquities (Scotland), 1, p. 190. 



299 

The view from this high fell is remarkably fine. On Midsummer 
Day last year, a day to be joyously remembered in that summerless year 
of cloud and rain, I ascended Simon Seat to witness, like the Britons of 
old had often done, (but who were accustomed on this day to celebrate 
the event with special ceremonies), the setting of the mysterious sun. 
The day had been bright and the sky stainless, but towards eight o'clock 
a few fleecy clouds gathered on the vast horizon, which added greatly to 
the picturesque effect produced by the reflected rays. Far over the Vale 
of York, above the line of the high Hambletons, the pure, long streaks 
of cirrus glowed with all the vividness and delicacy of a rosy Abendgluth 
upon Alpine snows. It was, however, at this hour not possible to 
distinguish the oft-observed Minsters of York and Ripon, nor even the 
faintest semblance of Roseberry Topping and the Cleveland Hills in the 
remote corner of the county. But to the west, where the sun was 
descending over dark fell and rugged mountains, the scene wa& 
indescribably grand. Away over Barden Moor, as far as the great chain 
of hills stretching northwards to Fountains Fell, coomb and glen were 
filled with deepening and lengthening shadows, and a thousand miniature 
pools and tarns which are obscured by day, caught the slanting light 
upon their still surfaces, and growing every moment paler with the 
declination of the sun, gave a peculiar weirdness to the dark moors 
surrounding them. The great orb itself produced a miraculous effect 
upon the scenery immediately before it, gilding the mountain summits 
and causing them to stand out with astonishing clearness, while the 
overhanging clouds were gorgeous with a diverse and ever-changing 
iridescence. Pendle Hill and the Bolland Fells, when the sun had 
disappeared, loomed mistily southwards, and by nine o'clock the whole 
horizon had become enveloped in the gathering gloom. As I prepared 
to descend a solitary curlew rose from the moor close to my feet, and 
wheeling upwards uttered his shrill cry as I stood observing him, with 
his long curved beak against the sky. By ten o'clock, when I had 
reached my abode in the secluded valley, there was still a pale light of 
lingering day in the mid unclouded heavens, and on looking out an hour 
later the plaintive owls could be heard in their distant bowers, while the 
cuckoo's voicfc, too, was even not then at rest ! 



800 



CHAPTER XXVIII. 




Gargrave. 

"Walk to Gargrave -Flasby Fell— Sharp Haw, a beacon during the Spanish Armada 
— Red deer —A wonderful fox-hunt— Robert Story — His life at Gargrave— 
Poetry and Politics — Removal to London — Gargrave Church — Description of 
the village — The Meets of the Graven Hunt — Some private mansions. 

|T is a pleasant walk or drive of four or five miles from 
Skipton to Gargrave, either by the main road or the 
picturesque old road, with its wealth of wild flowers, through 
Stirton and Thorlby, or if on foot along the banks of the 
river or canal. The most prominent objects in the landscape are the 
huge, dark mass of Pendle Hill in front, and the peculiar tri-partite 
peaks of Flasby Fell rising above verdant pastures on our right. The 
form of the last-named hill is singularly striking. The elongation of 
its gritstone summit into three conical, rocky heaps, which give them 
the appearance of weather-resisting necks of worn-out volcanoes, at 
once arrests observation from whatever side it is viewed. The highest 
point is Sharp Haw (1150 feet), from the top of which you have a 
grand prospect, at least three thousand square miles in extent. It is not 
generally known that this peak was a royal Beacon in ancient times, 
and it has probably from time immemorial been utilised for signal fires. 
In an old book of the time of the Spanish Armada, inscribed '• 1580 to 
1590, — Copies of letters from the Council to the North in Yorkshire, 
and their Orders about Trained Bands of Militia," appears a list of 
Yorkshire and Lancashire Beacons, and among them is the following 
mention : 

One beacon in Stanecliffe called Sharpo, which standeth upon a high mountain 
of that name within the parish of Gargrave, two miles from Skipton. This beacon 
receiveth light of a beacon in Lancashire, called Pendle Beacon, near to Clitheroe 
and giveth light to a beacon standing upon a mountain named Fainesbergh, within 
the wapentake of Claro. There is but one beacon in Yewcrosse standing upon a 
high mountain called Engleborough, within the parish of Engleton, which standeth 
in the way from Skipton to Kendall, or Wharton, in Lancashire, and so on to the 
next sea. This beacon receiveth light from a beacon standing upon Wharton 
Fell, in Lancashire, and giveth light to a beacon in Longrigge, in Lancashire, near 
unto Sir Richard Sherburne's, and so to another beacon in Lancashire, standing 
upon a mountain called Pendle, not far from Clitheroe. 



301 

At this time herds of gaunt red deer and other beasts of chase roamed 
over Flasby Fell. It was the home of sport, and sly renard has, in later 
days, given the hounds many a slip on this lofty, rugged ground, or led 
them a merry caper up the dales. At the time of the erection of the 
kennels of the Craven Hunt at Holme Bridge some forty years ago, 
foxes were pretty common, but they have since been nearly all destroyed, 
and one is seldom seen. The hare is now the huntsman's booty, and the 
hounds here are still maintained as a subscription pack. But he has not 
the cunning, nor is he always the long-lived runner that is his bushy-tailed 
mate. Mr. Oomersall, himself a veteran hunter, tells us that the music 
of the hounds has kept in the wake of the red rover through many a 
live-long day. On one occasion, he says, they drew Haw Bank, near 
Skibden, and put up a fox from among the bushes that cover the 
southern slope of that Haw. As soon as he got clear there was a sound 
of Tally Ho in the air, the horses pricked their ears, and away they went 
with the pack in full cry, but renard bolted up the opposite hill, and 
went straight over Embsay Crag and on by Crookrise, then bang over 
Rylstone Fell and Cracoe Fell, and crossing the valley in the direction 
of Threshfield and Skirethorns, finally landed the hounds at nightfall 
somewhere up in Littondale,— a run, perhaps, unprecedented in the annals* 
of modern hunting. 

It was, I may say, while strolling along the river side between 
Gargrave and Skipton, that Robert Story, the Craven poet, composed 
many of his most beautiful lyrics, some of which have been set to music, 
and at one time were very popular. He had much of the spirit of 
Burns in his nature, and delighted in woods and streams, while his heart 
was not unamenable to the charms of the fair sex. He was the son of a 
Border peasant, and came to Gargrave in 1820, a poor but ambitious 
and determined young man. He opened a school in South Street, which 
was afterwards removed to more commodious premises specially built for 
him, and let to him at a low rent, by Mr. Wilson, of Eshton Hall, the 
principal landowner. His school flourished, numbering at one time over 
fifty pupils, in addition to which he held the office of parish clerk, and 
conductor of the Sunday School, a position that was offered to him by 
the then Vicar, the Rev. Anthony Marsden, and which added £10 yearly 
to his income. Although pressed by his daily duties he found time for 
much and various writing, and every available moment of leisure was- 
devoted either to private studies or to composition. He does not, 
however, seem to have been altogether satisfied with the share of attention 
bestowed upon his rural muse, and so when the time came he lent his 
aid to the great political conflict that was stirring the people during the 
passing of the Reform Bill in 1832. And with this his trouble began. 
He had been really well-off up to now, and had written at Gargrave 



302 

some of the choicest poetical pieces that are attached to his name. But 
in 1834, after the King had made his famous speech to the Bishops, 
Story was thoroughly roused, and sitting down, wrote those celebrated 
verses, " The Isles are awake !" which appeared in the Standard of Dec. 
10th, 1834, and which were thence " transferred to the pages of every 
Conservative newspaper in the three kingdoms." They were also 
separately printed and circulated in tens of thousands during the General 
Election of 1885 ; and in South Lancashire, where they appeared 
anonymously, they were attributed to the Earl of Ellesmere (then Lord 
Francis Egerton), one of the successful candidates for the representation 
of that district. But his Lordship, at a dinner subsequently given in 
honour of his return, disclaimed the authorship, remarking, " The song 
has been attributed to me, but, though I should have been proud to be 
so, I am not the author ; and it would be a species of literary theft, not 
to say so at once." This was highly gratifying to the real writer, and 
led to the dedication of a collection of his poems to the noble Lord. In 
1886 Story visited London and saw Dickens, Hogarth, then Editor of 
the Morning Chronicle^ and a host of other celebrities. 

Elated by contact with this galaxy of immortals, he returned to 
Gargrave to the dull routine of school duties, which soon brought about 
discontent and depression, and left him with a mind ill at ease. He had 
written other political pieces, and had hoped for some reward from his 
influential Conservative friends, but it was not until the summer of 1843 
that Mr. Coulthurst, of Gargrave House, intimated to him that the 
Hon. John S. Wortley had, through the influence of Sir Robert Peel, 
obtained for him a Government clerkship, which augured well for his 
future. 

Within a week of the receipt of this news he was in London again, 
and soon at his new post, which he retained until his death in 1860. 

The picturesquely-situated church at Gargrave stands on the site of 
an Early Norman edifice, of which some portions of the foundations 
were discovered when the nave and chancel of a much larger 
Perpendicular church was pulled down in 1851. With the exception of 
the tower, nothing remains of the last church, which was built in 1521. 
The present building, which was consecrated by Dr. Thomas Longley, 
the first Bishop of Ripon, on Oct. 26th, 1852, is one of the largest and 
handsomest in Craven. The series of stain-glass windows are almost of 
unrivalled beauty, and include some of Hardman's best work, as well as 
one of the earliest windows by the celebrated firm of Capronnier, of 
Brussels. The benefice, a vicarage, has been in the patronage of the 
Marsden* family for upwards of two centuries : the living being now 
held by the Rev. Chas. J. Marsden, M.A., who has lately completed the 
40th year of his vicariate. 



The situation of Gargrave is, in all respects, beautiful and healthy. 
It is not buried in trees, although there are plenty of these, and many 
fine ones too. But however charming to the eye, they are, alas I often 
a source of damp and unwholesomeness. The Italians have a wise old saw 
whicb declares, "Where the snn never enters the doctor most," but this 
cannot be said of Gargrave. The roads and streets are broad and open, 
the houses being mostly modern and well-built, and everywhere exposed 
at some part of the day to the full effects of the snn. As poet Story, 
mentioned above, who lived here 23 years, has given a most faithful and 
picturesque description of the place, I cannot forbear quoting it here. 



Gargrave Church. 

" In the north of England there is not a sweeter village," he writes, 
" than the one I have in my eye, and which I shall take the liberty to 
call Glengowan. It is situated in the very centre of a district remarkable 
for its romantic beauty, and celebrated on account of the natural 
cariosities it contains. A bridge, rather elegant for the place, and 
somewhat large for the stream it bestrides, connects the two parts of the 
village which would otherwise be separated by the river. On the sooth 
side of the river stands the church, the square and tall steeple of which 
is seen above the trees that surround the quiet burial ground. Along 
the north side the principal part of the village extends ; some of the 



804 

cottages with clean white- washed fronts, some covered with ivy or other 
evergreens, and some again with flowering shrubs. A branch of the 
Queen's highway passes through this part of the village, and thus whilst 
it detracts something from the seclusion, is the means of making its 
charms more widely known." 

The pleasant, open Green near the inns presented a very gay and 
picturesque scene on the days of the Craven Hunt, when the group of 
riders had assembled, and the villagers had congregated in motley throng. 
There has been no meet here for about ten years now, as the proximity 
of the railway and the increased number of trains have rendered 
movement in this direction undesirable. The runs are usually started 
some miles out, at certain well-known points where the meets take place. 

In this neighbourhood are several beautiful private mansions, the 
oldest of which is Eshton Hall, for two-and-a-half centuries the property 
and seat of the Wilson family. The house contains a very choice 
collection of paintings by the old masters, and a large and valuable 
library which is especially rich in historical and scientific works. A 
most inviting drive or walk from Gargrave is by the pleasant highroad 
through the park to Winterburn or Malham. At Winterburn there is a 
fine old mansion called Friars Head, which was anciently a lodge of the 
monks of Furness. Gargrave House is another stately residence in this 
locality. It is the old home of the Coulthursts, who in the 15th century 
were seated in the Forest of Bolland, and in Elizabethan days at Bank 
Newton, a picturesque little place about two miles south-west of Gargrave. 
The ancient hall there is now a farm-house. Flasby Hall is another 
pleasant country seat, occupying a retired situation, about two miles 
north of Gargrave. It is an old property of the Preston family. 
Pedigrees of the families named will be found in Whitaker's Craven, and 
in Foster's Yorkshire County Families. 

The surrounding country, which is wholly pastoral, and breathes of 
restf ul peace, is very lovely, and contains much of very various interest, 
but having already gone over this ground pretty closely in my Airedale 
work, little need be said hereupon. 



i 



305 



CHAPTER XXIX. 




Relic Hunting in Malhamdale. 

Otterburn — Gomersall family— A local poet — Otterbum Hall — Monastic cell at 
Otterburn— Drift hills— Post-glacial lake— Opening of pre-historic barrow — 
Description of contents — Remains of ancient ring-dwellings — Traces of Open 
Field cultivation — Ancient name of Ryeloaf Hill— Danish Camp — Roman 
villa at Gargrave— Effect of anticlinals on landscape— Kirk by Malham — 
Stocks and Ducking Stool — Last use of Ducking Stool in Craven — Calton, 
and General Lambert — Calton in old times — Hanlith Hall— Hanlith Moor — 
Ancient barrow — Unique glacial boulder — Malham. 

JHERE are a few things of interest, chiefly antiquities, lying 
between Gargrave and Otterburn and Malham, that have not 
apparently hitherto been noticed. 
I therefore propose another prospecting tramp with Mr. W. Gomersall, 
of Otterburn, than whom no one is better acquainted with the locality. 
As the surveyor of the district under the Game Act of 1875, and also 
as a practised geologist, possessing one of the best self -obtained collections 
of local fossils I have seen, he knows, perfectly, every inch of the ground. 
His family originally sprang from Gomersal, in the Spen Valley, where 
he was born ; his uncle, Lieut.-Gol. Gomersall, being a much-respected 
officer under Wellington in the Napoleonic wars. His father, about 1820, 
purchased an estate at Otterburn, and the son William, then a boy of 
three, was brought up a gentleman farmer, a pursuit he has followed 
ever since. Mr. Gomersall has always been a keen sportsman, whether 
in the hunt, or with the rod or gun, and though now past his 70th year, 
is still active and vivacious, and I hope he will pardon me saying, can 
jump a wall or run a nice with the best man of his years in the country. 
He knows the Dale country intimately, and besides being an authority 
and an occasional writer on agricultural matters, is author of an 
interesting and excellently-written brochure entitled Hunting w Craven. 
The village, or rather hamlet, of Otterburn is 'very prettily placed on 
the banks of the crystal Otter, and is, as near as possible, situated in the 

u 



306 

centre of the Deanery of Craven. In the following descriptive stanza, 
the aspects of the place are very happily hit off : 

Straight I tell thy place of hiding, 
Heart of Craven ! 

With thy seven rustic hearths, 

With thy seven apple garths. — 

Triple byways thither turn, 

Link themselves across the burn ; 

Ivied bridge their trysting place, 

Where the lindens interlace ; 

Where the sombre, sable yew 

Veils the passer's nearer view, 
There I tell thee, there thou hidest, 
Heart of Craven 1 

The writer of the above lines, the Rev. W. J. Gomersall, a son of 
the above Mr. Wm. Gomersall, who has been living now some time in 
London, is gifted in no ordinary degree with the feeling and capabilities 
of the true poet. He has recently written the following very beautiful 
poem, which I am tempted to quote, as besides containing many local 
allusions of interest, it is, I think, one of the most sympathetic and 
exquisite compositions in verse ever penned by a native of the Craven 
Dales. The lines are entitled, 

TO A BUTTERCUP, 

On receiving one from my daughter Sibyl during her sojourn in Craven after a dangerous 

illness— a reminiscence of April 22nd, 1891. 

Awake, sweet bloom, that sleep'st between 

The leaflets my young love has sent 

From where skies weave an April tent 
O'er Otter's gently sloped ravine. 

Fair visitant, no tongue of earth 

Makes vocal what thou tellest me 

Of Love's unconscious tyranny : 
Love plucked thee from thy place of birth. 

Twas only Love's despotic hand 

That doomed — forgive what Love hath done, 
For thou fresh cords of love hast spun 

Betwixt me and my native land — 

That beauteous land which thou hast left :— 

Oh ! can it be thy comrades there, 

Who gild the slope and glad parterre, 
Are pained to think that thou art reft ? 

That thou must perish far away 

From meadows of thy golden reign ? 

The joy thou giv'st would turn to pain, 
Were grief to fret thy gentle clay 1 



307 

Shar'st thou the law that plants a cross 
In human breast? — We cannot prove, 
In things that live and breathe and move 

As thou, what echoes of our loss 

Throb through creation'* lower life, 

In language we can never hear, 

Sounds that come not our senses near, 
Insensate they by sin and strife ; 

Yet heard by thee and all earth's flowers : 

I would not do thee conscious wrong, 

For thou hast stirred a patriot's song 
By leaving thus thy native bowers 

To waft me home where Sibyl's feet 
Skim the bright meads thou once dids't bless, 
Till Fancy shares the fond caress 

Which greets my child when loved ones meet ; 

Till Fancy seems with them to wind 

From croft to croft, from hill to hill, 

Ay, even sees a tear distil, 
As some old joy comes back to mind ; 

Till Fancy seems with them to stand, 

Enthroned amidst the clustered hills, 

And hears the song of distant rills 
Come wafting up the shadowed land I 

****** 

'Tie eve 1 — and now we pass the wood, 
The bridge, the minnow-haunted stream — 
Sweet bloom, thou bring'st a pleasant dream, 

For hark 1 the voice of Otter's flood 

Floats through my brain this April night — 

I see familiar Sharp Haw loom 

Majestic through the crescent gloom, 
And Bylstone's legendary height, 

And Ryeloaf's top, like temple dome, 

Whence runlet raptures hie them down 

To Otter's little hamlet town- 
Sweet bloom, thine and my native home ! 

Little more than fifty years ago the country about Otterburn looked 
bare and cold, but by judicious planting it wears now quite a sylvan 
aspect. The old Hall was for many years occupied by Mr. William 
Nightingale, the celebrated coursing judge, who farmed something near 
a thousand broad acres in the district. He was an ardent sportsman, 
and hunting to him was something more than " furious riding after a 
nasty smell," for nothing pleased him better than the invigorating life 
in the open air, rural sights and sounds, and all the picturesque and 



gladsome adjuncts of the chase, — the music of the huntsman's horn, the 
scarlet-coated horsemen, the hounds in full cry, and the sound-winded 
jocund troops on foot ! Among the latter might once have been seen 
old " Bobby " Ash, of Otterburn, a tall, hale, lithe old chap, who didn't 
look half his age, but who had just tapped at the door of the century, 
when he was taken away in February, 1888. 

Otterburn, five hundred years ago, contained fourteen families, two 
of which, according to the Foil Tax of 1379, kept servants, but the 
principal taxpayer in the township at that time was the blacksmith, John 
Bolliugton, who paid 6d., while every other householder was assessed at 
4d. In monastic times it was mostly abbey land, held by the monks of 



Otterburn. 

Fountains and Bolton. In connection with the last-named monastery 
mention is made in the fkilend. Rot. Char/arum, or Charter Rolls of the 
time of Edward II., of Badolphus de Otterbume, who held lands at 
Otterburn and Malham, and whose daughter married one of the 
Olaphams. The monks had probably a chapel or cell here, as there was 
a Ricardus, clericus de Otterburne, com. Ebor, living in the time of 
Henry III. 

The dale on this Bide of Settle lies on the eastern watershed of 
England, and is remarkable for the many curious rounded grassy hillocks, 
which are especially numerous and of large size in the neighbourhood of 



809 

Gargrave, Coniston, and Hellifield. They are often thrown up as much 
as 150 feet above the land on which they lie, and are often, too, as many 
feet long or wide, being composed of loose gravel and sand and ice- 
transported stones (some over a ton in weight) that speak of the time 
when enormous glaciers descended from the north moors and from 
Ribblesdale, a few miles beyond. A section of any of the mounds shews 
that the largest embedded boulders do not lie at the bottom, but that 
they remain at all elevations throughout the mass. Undulating shales 
and stratified limestone form the base on which the deposits rest ; the 
contour and composition of which are well seen in the numerous railway 
cuttings in the district. 

The pasture land between Bell Busk and Otterburn has no doubt once 
been a large lake, and is still low and swampy. In July, 1881, when the 
greatest local flood, perhaps, of this century occurred, it was a sight not 
to be forgotten. With the exception of a bit of low wall peeping up 
here and there, the scene presented was that of a permanent, deep lake, 
about whose far-extending surface wild water-birds were skimming and 
diving as if it had been an old familiar haunt. 

Mr. Gomersall took me to see one of the large natural grassy mounds, 
just mentioned, which he and Mr. Tiddeman discovered on Nov. 4th, 
1885, to have been appropriated at a remote period for sepulchral purposes. 
It lies in a field close to the left of the road going from Otterburn to 
Hellifield (2£ miles), and less than a mile from the former place. It is 
soon recognised, although, — and the pity is, — it has been cut through for 
the sake of the fine sand and gravel it contains, and now only about 
half its circumference remains. It is incidentally noticed by Pennant 
in his Tour from Downing to Alston Moor (1801). 

It was a perfect circle, about 80 yards round, and one of the 
finest and most shapely barrows in the whole district. It had evidently 
been trimmed by the ancient peoples before conversion into a lodgment 
for the ashes of the dead. Two large earthenware urns were found in 
it, buried from one to two feet below the surface. The largest was quite 
plain and measured 12 inches in height and l()f inches in its upper 
diameter. It seems to have been a reliquary of some early hunter or 
warrior celebrated in the arts of war. It contained a very good copper 
knife or dagger, of lanceolate-leaf shape, and pierced with a single rivet- 
hole,* and there was also a sharp-pointed bone, like a packing needle, 
8 inches long, with a hole at the thick end, and another small object or 
copper-fastening, the use qf which cannot be exactly defined. The other 
urn contained a similar piece of thin metal binding. This vessel was 

*A similar knife-dagger has been found at Driffield, in Yorkshire. See Dr. Evans' 
Ancwnt Bronze Implements, Weapons, and Ornaments of Great Britain and 
Ireland, (1881) page 224. 



810 

made of a badly-tempered clay, and was much broken and rotten, and 
measured perhaps 10 inches in height and 8 inches through. Its collar 
was ornamented with rude dots, extending 2£ inches down the sides. 
The urns were separated from each other by a space of 45 inches from 
centre to centre, and lay along a line E.N.E. and W.S.W., each being 
covered with a stone slab. On removing the latter, some broken and 
rudely-ornamented potsherds were discovered, as well as a smaller and 
very perfect urn, of bowl shape, impressed with diagonal lines ; and the 
base of another, upside down, covering calcined bones of a human 
subject. A few months previous to these discoveries, Mr. Hargreaves, 
junr., of Wenningber, the adjoining farm, found loose in the gravel a 
very beautiful incised gem of amethystine quartz, which Dr. Evans, F.R.S. 
President of the Society of Antiquaries, pronounces to be of good Roman 
workmanship. It depicts a figure holding in one hand a long wand or 
stick, with a ball at each end, and some shorter or thicker object in the 
other. The subject is difficult to interpret. Close beside it there was 
also found a thin silver coin, both articles, though of widely-differing 
age, having evidently fallen from the surface on disturbing the soil. 
The coin is an Irish penny of Henry III., struck at Dublin, and, says 
Dr. Evans, not very common. It reads " Henricus Rex III., and 
Ricard Ondive," — Richard on Divelin — Richard at Dublin being the 
moneyer. It was probably dropped by its 18th century owner. 

Formerly, along the top of the barrow there was a rectangular trench, 
its longest diameter lying east and west, with an outlet on its north side 
about three feet wide. A portion of this outlet still remains perfect, but, 
as stated, the whole mound has been greatly despoiled. It is a pity 
indeed that there is no acting society, or anyone apparently responsible 
for the preservation of, at any rate, the more uncommon of these 
sepulchral mounds. They are of great historic value, and at all times 
are objects of genuine interest to the intelligent traveller. 

On crossing the fields a few hundred yards to the south we come to a 
well-preserved circular enclosure. At first sight it looks as if the 
artificially-raised bank had originally been intended to support a circle 
of stones, but this has probably been formed with the object only of 
resisting the thrust of poles, used in the construction of a tent by some long- 
forgotten family. The interior diameter of the circle is 27 feet, and the 
sloping bank forming it is 5 feet through at the base and 3 feet across 
the top. It is two to three feet high, with an opening at the north-west 
angle 4 feet wide. Mr. Gomersall tells me th#t he has dug about several 
parts of the enclosure but discovered nothing. It occupies a commanding 
position, and in looking north is right opposite Otterburn Hall. A 
little south again, in the Crane Fields, about midway between Crane 
Field Lathe and a conspicuous row of trees on the field slope, about a 



811 

half-mile N.W. of Bonber farm-house, is another similar, bub less perfect, 
enclosure. It is 27 feet inside diameter, and 5 feet across the base of 
the bank, but this has been partly cut through in old times by the 
plough, as indications of ancient furrows and trenches in these fields, 
once waving with corn, or green with potatoe tops, abundantly proves. 
The remains of a very much more perfect ring-dwelling lie about 100 
yards S.E. of the last, and near the field bottom. This is again on the 
level, and precisely of the same dimensions as the others described, with 
an opening, or doorway at the north-west angle. 

In the South Field belonging to Otterburn Hall, about 800 yards 
south of the railway, and close to the fence, there is a sunk-dwelling, or 
shallow, circular pit, once deeper than now, but still noticeable and 
well-defined. It is 8^ feet across, with a thick earth bank, 6 feet wide, 
round it, and trenched on its west side. In this field we perceive traces 
of furrows, and strips or reins belonging to the old Open Field system, 
indicative of a time when the ground was ploughed and produced a 
variety of crops. Many of these pit and ring-dwellings have doubtless 
been filled up and destroyed hereabouts from this cause. An old road 
ran along the north side of these old plough-lands, and this single 
shallow pit has escaped (lestruction owing, no doubt, to its lying 
contiguous to the road. They are all, I think, referable to the period 
when Baal worship prevailed in Craven, as previously explained in this 
work, and also in my Airedale book in connection with Baildon and 
Bell B'isk. 

Accompanied by Mr. Gomersall on another occasion we left Otterburn 
for Hanlith Moor and Malham by a route, perhaps, better imagined than 
described. Walls and brooks are, of course, minor obstacles, but when 
it comes to worming yourself through stout quickset hedges, discretion 
indeed, had proved to us the better part of valour. However, when two 
or more ardent investigators mean " business," the hazards of the route 
are not to be thought of. 

The view from Otterburn Bridge is very pleasing, with, northwards, 
the round top of Ryeloaf filling the background, and looking, as my 
companion observed, like the dome of St. Paul's ! It rises on the 
watershed of England, its western becks draining into the Irish Sea, and 
its eastern into the German Ocean. I wonder how many people, — old 
natives even, know the real name of this fancifully-caricatured mountain ? 
My friend seemed astonished when I told him that originally, and in old 
maps, it was called Inglehow. There is a smack of the old beacon or 
summit-fire in its designation, which, I make no doubt, originated, like 
Ingleborough, the name of the hill. The stream that comes down from 
its south-western slopes and joins the Otterburn Beck near the Pot 
House, a little above the picturesque Lumb cascade, was and is also 



812 

called Ingle Beck still, bat the mountain, from some supposed resemblance 
to a baker's form of rye-loaf, has been so-called past the recollection of 
the oldest inhabitant. The Roman Camp at Stockdale Lane end, above 
Settle, lay only two miles to the west, and this prominent height, which 
commands a view westwards even as far as the Irish Sea, was, doubtless, 
utilized as a signal to warn the garrison on the approach of an enemy. 
There were other camps to the south and east, but these will be referred 
to presently. 

Proceeding from Otterburn Bridge northwards along an occupation 
road, which emerges into a field-path above the east bank of the beck, 
and within view of the cascade above mentioned, we ascend about 100 
yards from the path into a field on the right, called Firbank, which was 
all open moor prior to the enclosure effected in 1813. Here there is a 
substantial outline of another of these level ring-dwellings, but much 
smaller in its dimensions than those above described. It is excellently 
preserved. Its internal diameter is 12 feet, and the sloping bank, 
formed apparently for the double purpose of protection and adaptation 
to withstand the thrust of poles for the tent, is 5 feet through at the 
base and 8 feet at the top. There is likewise an opening or doorway 
3 feet wide on the south-west side. A little higher up, at an elevation 
of about 750 feet, and close to the west side of the fence dividing the 
townships of Airton and Otterburn, is a large and tolerably well-defined 
earthwork, very suggestive by its position and shape of an ancient camp. 
The rampart on the west Bide is from 10 feet to 15 feet deep, and the 
enclosure, which is in the form of an ellipse, is about 200 feet in 
diameter. The site is an exceptionally good one, commanding as it does 
a wide extent of country, open to all points of the compass. The cairns 
on Ryeloaf, Kirkby Fell, Pike Daw, the majestic front of Malham Cove, 
the cairn on Gordale Crag, the bare summit of the Weets, the rocky top 
of Cracoe Fell, Norton Tower, the far-off silvery-gleaming cascade in 
Waterfall Gill, Rylstone, Flasby Fell, Cold Weather Fell, Pendle Hill, 
Whelpstone Crag, and Tosside Moor, are comprehended within the circle 
of this beautiful and extensive panorama. Almost due east, 4 miles off, 
is the similarly-shaped camp on Scarnber, and at a shorter distance south 
that on Steeling Hill, west of Coniston. All these I take to be Danish. 
The principal vill of the parish, Kirkby, close to, was unmistakably a 
Danish settlement, and had probably not been wrested from the Anglo- 
Saxons without a hard fight. The first church was most likely destroyed 
by them. 

Moreover, the form of castrametation, (which, however, cannot 
always be relied on in this district), the absence of any discoveries of 
Roman or other relics, and the proximity of the undoubted Roman camp 
on High Hill, also favour this belief. The Romans appear to have 



813 

swept the higher ground to the north, crossing Malham Moor from 
Wharfedale by the streets into Ribblesdale, and by Ebor* Gate on High 
Side to the camp above Settle. The magnificent and palatial Roman 
Villa at Gargrave (the gorgeous floor-tiles of which were unearthed in 
the middle of last century), doubtless the tamporary refuge of Agricola 
and the Emperors who visited Craven in the first and second centuries, 
was not contiguous to any Roman highway ; the warm and sheltered 
site having been chosen for it* comparative seclusion and safety. It is 
quite certain that the more powerful and defiant hordes of Brythonic 
.Celts, not to be overcome or influenced by Roman arms and style, 
retreated to the caves and to the remote high lands, where, all through 
the Roman occupation, they continued to live and to die, and were 
buried in accordance with the familiar rites of their ancestors. No 
doubt many instances of treachery and revolt took place amongst those 
sympathising native Britons, who were in the yoke of the Roman 
usurpers, especially when they offered help and food in times of stress 
and famine, which, as is well known, were of frequent occurrence in 
these barbarous and inhospitable regions. 

In walking from the camp towards Kirkby Malham, we have 
favourable opportunities for observing the effects of the limestone 
anticlinals, or foldings of the rocks, in shaping the landscape. They 
produce a succession of undulating, highly-inclined lines, having an 
easterly and westerly range with a dip north, frequently of 80° to 90°, or 
almost vertical. In one or two places the stone has been quarried and 
burned for lime on the spot. Crossing Scosthrop Lane, and following 
the path onward into Kirkby Gill, we descend to the other side of the 
ravine, where there are deep exposures of the Yoredale beds, with their 
alternating shales, inclined at a sharp angle in the same direction, north. 
On the north side of the stream above, where it shallows out, there is an 
-old u stinking " well. The water, which is strongly impregnated with 
sulphur, is frequently resorted to, and is said to have the same beneficial 
effects, when drunk, as the waters at Harrogate. 

* Mr. Morrison, M.P., of Tarn House, is inclined to regard this spelling as 
misleading on the Ordnance Map, and that it is more likely to be from the old 
parish family of Heber than from the. Latin name of York. The •' Gate " ib at the 
junction of three large parishes, viz., Settle, Long Preston, and Kirkby Malham, 
but how the name has originated it seems now hard to say. The Hebers held 
various scattered lands at Airton, Calton, and Malham, and also in Langstrothdale, 
at Littondale Head, but whether at any time their possessions extended to this 
point I have not yet been able to discover. In two fines for the years 1542 and 
1544 Thomas Hayber, of Elslack, appears as plaintiff, and John Lambert, of Calton, 
as deforciant, regarding certain properties at S-kipton, Calton, Airton, Malham, &c, 
and certain rights of pasturage in West Mar ton, and free hunting, fishing, and 
hawking through the whole of East and West Marton. 



314 

Lingering about the picturesque little village of Kirkby, with it» 
fine old church (a garrison in the Parliamentary Wars) and memorials 
of Cromwell and Lambert, I was shewn by Mr. Gomersall what seems to 
have escaped the notice of every observer here, namely, the remains of 
the old parish stocks. They are buried in rank grass and nettles, and 
concealed by the west wall of the bridge, on the north side of the stream, 
opposite the inn. How long they have been there, and whence they 
were removed, no one now seems to know exactly. 

Another form of punishment, not previously mentioned, in vogue at 
Kirkby in the " good old days " was the ducking-stool. But this was 
practised not on women scolds only, as was usually the case in our 
villages, but the sterner sex, too, came in for a share of its operations, aa 
the last trial proves. This was at the School Dub, where the chair waa 
fixed to a moving beam, suspended over the water in the usual fashion. 
The incident is hardly now within living recollection, but the facts are 
vouched for, and they relate probably to the last use of the ducking- 
stool in Craven. The victims were " Cappy " Trotter, of Kirkby. and 
his wife, who were taken, according to the writ, and chained back to- 
back, and then well soused amid the huzzas and general approbation of 
a crowd of onlookers. Trotter was a tailor and cap-maker, and applied 
to have his wife ducked as a scold. He felt sure of his case, but the 
neighbours thought differently. We have all heard what the raven said 
to the crow, — " Psha ! Get out of that you blackamoor," forgetting that 
he himself was of the same sable hue. The magistrates listened 
attentively to the complaint, and came to the conclusion that both were 
guilty, and that neither was one shade better than the other. So they, 
much to Cappy 's dismay, ordered a joint infliction. 

Calton, by the way, on the other side of the Aire, was the home of 
General Lambert, Commissary General of the northern army during the 
Civil Wars, and to whose military genius the successes of Cromwell and 
the strange turn of events at that tempestuous period is in large measure 
owing. Lambert died a political exile in Guernsey some three years after 
the Restoration. The old Hall which he occupied was'accidentally burnt 
down in the lifetime of his son, and eventually replaced by the present 
white house built about 80 years ago on its site. 

The whole township of Calton was at one time parcelled out amongst 
the three prosperous abbeys of Fountains and Bolton, in Yorkshire, and 
Dereham, in Norfolk. Fountains held the water corn-mill at Scosthrop, 
valued in 1540 at 40s. On the dissolution of religious houses, the 
manor of Calton and a portion of the lands were acquired by John 
Lambert, who lived at Calton, and was a J.P. of the West Riding, and 
grandfather of the great General. There appears to have been a chapel 
here, as I find mention of a William de Calton, clericus, in the following- 



315 

deed relating to a feoffment of land, &c, in the adjoining townships. 
This ancient decree, which was witnessed at Kirkby-Malham in the year 
1380, is interesting also for the several local names it bears : 

WilluB de Calton, cler., Johes Couper, Robtus Carter, capellani, dedimus Johani 
Malhome, &c., omnia tras, &c., que hemus ex feoff amen to p'dicti Johis in villis de 
Haghenleeth [Hanlith], Kirkby, Otterburne, Flastby, Preston, Smethon, Notton, 
Darrthington, Wads worth, and Thorpe. Testib. Willo de Ril stone, Henrico de 
Pudsey, Nicho de Scardburgh, Willo de Daine, Willo Scorchbuf. Dat apd Kirkby 
die Jovis p'ximu post f m sci Trinitas, S Ric. II. 

There are several places in this vicinity which still bear the name of 
this mediaeval chapel, as Chapel Fell and Chapel Laithe. The latter is 
stated by the inhabitants of the district to have been built of the stones 
of an ancient chapel, of which all recollection has perished. There was 
also a public-house here in 1379, as appears by the returns of the Poll 
Tax. 

From Kirkby we have now to cross the river and ascend the Moor 
Lane by Hanlith Hall, a picturesque old seat, long the home of the 
Serjeantson family. My companion, Mr. Gomersall, remembers that at 
the marriage in 1850 of Mr. Wharton Wilson, the present baronet of 
Eshton Hall, he and his bride took up their residence here for some little 
time. The event was celebrated by Mr. Wilson accepting the mastership 
of the Craven Harriers, and on his removing afterwards to the south of 
England he held a like position in connection with the Yale of the 
White Horse. 

In about 1} miles we arrive at a newly-erected gate across the lane, 
which we have to open and get over a stile on the left about 30 yards 
above the gate. At the top of the field here, and not far from the 
unenclosed moor, there is a circular earthen mound or barrow. It 
appears at some time or other to have been dug into, for there is an 
opening two or three feet across, now partially filled up, in the centre of 
the heap. The base of the outer circle is 40 yards round, the bank of 
earth being 10 feet from the outer base to the middle of the bank top, 
which is 50 feet in circumference at the top of the bank, and owing to 
the excavations in the middle gives it the appearance of a "ring- 
dwelling." Its position here would seem to indicate a late Celtic origin. 
The elevation is about 1000 feet above sea level, and it looks north full 
into the dark Gordale glen. 

Hence, a descent may be made by way of Hanlith Gill, at the north- 
west corner, where the wood is thinnest, and crossing the stream where 
the Yoredale shales overlying the grits, thrown down by the Fault 
forming Malham Cove and co-extending line of scars, are bared in fine 
section by the perpetual abrasion of the descending waters. Going along 
the fields towards Malham we soon enter Geld Flats Lane, and in the 



S16 

field on the left, about 80 yards above the Gordale Beck, is a splendid 
and almost unique example of an ice-transported boulder of Silurian 
conglomerate. It is composed of hundreds of rounded fragments of 
Silurian grits and limestone, cemented together with carbonate of lime, 
and forming a curious-looking " pudding-stone." It appears to have 
been partially destroyed or, perhaps, reduced in size by the disintegrating 
action of the weather. Its longest axis lies east and west, and its present 
(1891) measurements are : length 5 feet, height 3 feet 9 inches, 
thickness at base 2 feet, and at top 1 foot 6 in. An examination of the 
surrounding walls, as also of the fences on the road between Kirk by and 
Malham, shews that there have been similar blocks of conglomerate 
deposited in this neighbourhood, and which are all the silent witnesses 
of a time when the whole of Malham Moor, and the high land around 
was a vast winding-sheet of frozen snow, when a huge glacier descended 
this dale towards Bell Busk and Gargrave, and gradually retreating 
northwards, left great tongues of ice in the Gordale glen and the deep 
passes about Malham, depositing these bouldersand gravel on their tracks. 
To see this remarkable relic requires only a few minutes* walk from 
Malham. Go up Tinkle Street and on Geld Flats Lane (round by 
Lister's photo-studio) about 200 yards, and in the field on the right, 
about 50 yards from the wall, the stone will be found in position, where 
it has stood for thousands of years. It is a great curiosity, and it is to 
be hoped that it will be preserved. 



817 



CHAPTER XXX. 




Malham and the Moors. 

Physical and medical aspects of Malham — Family of Malham— Ancient homestead 
— InnB — Unexplored caves — Skirethorns bone cave — Plants — Additions to 
British lichens — Birds of Malham Moor — Bordley— An old grange of the 
Fountains monks — Bordley Hall and the Procters — Ancient chapel and burial 
ground — Confiscation of estates for murder — Ancient stone circle— Walk to 
Grassington — Pre-historic camp and tumuli. 

[ALHAM, in spite of its 640 feet of elevation, is both physically 
and medically* well circumstanced. It is situated in the 
shelter of that stupendous limestone barrier of beetling crags, 
which, extending from Ingleton through Austwick eastwards 
to Wharfedale, forms what is known to geologists as the Mid Craven 
Fault, and which at Malham culminates in two of the most magnificent 
scenic wonders in the north of England, the Cove and Gordale Scar. 
This natural amphitheatre of towering hills and rocks protects the village 
from every gale but the south, so that at all seasons it receives the full 
advantage of the sun. The air is mild yet bracing, and that it is 
exceptionally pure is evidenced by the survival of certain local maritime 
and Arctic plants, which have retained their habitats with surprising 
vigour through all the atmospheric vicissitudes and climatic changes of 
unnumbered ages. 

Malham gave name to a family of ancient renown, some of the early 
members of which doubtless had a residence here. They were officers in 
the Royal cause during the Civil Wars, and their estates here were 
afterwards alienated to the Listers, now represented by the noble house 
of Ribblesdale. The family of Malham has long been extinct. Whitaker 
says that William de Malham married a daughter of John Feghers, or 
Fezar, and this William I find in the Escheat Rolls, preserved at the 
Record Office, held lands in the time of Edward II. at " Malhom, Calton, 

* The reader must not understand this to imply a plethora of local medical 
practitioners. We refer to the life-giving properties of the air. The district will 
not maintain a single doctor ; the nearest being at Settle and at Gargrave, and in 
cases of urgency a mounted horseman must be despatched, which means a roughish 
journey out and home of twelve to fifteen miles ! 



318 

Ayrton, Eaton, Grargrave, Conystone, et Foghisser [Fogga.] " The 
extensive properties in East and West Malham were originally part of 
the Percy Fee, and passing through various owners were ultimately 
acquired by the monks of Bolton and Fountains, as explained in my 
Airedale work. An old corn-mill at Malham came into the possession 
of the monks of Fountains through Sir John le Aleman, Kt., in the time 
of John, or early in the reign of Henry III. 

There was a good old house at Malham with fine Tudor mullions, 
standing in the early part of this century near some old yew trees a little 
way up Finkle Street, but nothing remains of it now but portions of 
foundations, and a door-lintel, inscribed 1684, H.L., which is built into 
the wall at the junction of Finkle Street with Dead Man's Lane. The 
old Prior Hall and Deer Park enclosure are just above it. Possibly this 
house was built by the Listers, and is on the site of a still older one. 

For a retired country place like Malhata, five miles from the nearest 
railway-station at Bell Busk, and dependent largely on tourist traffic, 
the accommodation is both ample and excellent. There are two inns 
and a good temperance hotel, besides a number of smaller houses where 
clean and comfortable private lodgings can be obtained for any length of 
time. There has, no doubt, been an inn at Malham many centuries. 
That there was a public-house here at any rate as early as the reign of 
Richard II. looks likely by the tax of 12d., levied in 1379, upon Richard 
Wilkokson and his wife, who must have leased it probably with some 
land at Malham.* There was no inn then at Kirkby. The principal 
inn, the Buck, doubtless received its name when the shaggy-horued 
monarchs of the glen roamed the adjoining hills and corries. It may 
not be generally known that the admirably-executed sign of this inn, as 
well as those of the Sivan and Grouse, at Gargrave, were painted many 
years ago by Sir M. Wharton Wilson, Bart., of Eshton Hall. 

The district of Malham is now so well known, that I shall forbear 
bursting into rhapsodies on the merits of the Gove and great Scar at 
Gordale, as well as of the innumerable other sights and panoramic 
prospects of various entertainment to the visitor. 

This is singularly no neighbourhood for explorable caves, for beyond 
the well-known little Fairy Hole at the waterfall, dedicated to the Queen 
of the Malhamdale fairies, one Janet or Jennet, there is no accessible 
cavern in the immediate district. That the limestone is fretted with 
many and curious underground channels, and possibly some chambers of 

* In 1496, Henry Preston, a freeholder, held a toft, a croft, and an oxgang of land 
of the abbot, " in Malham, quondam Ricardi Willokson, filii Willielmi de Malham," by 
military service, suit of court, and the payment of 6d. Huby'g Rent., p. 21. Richard 
Wylcokson was the tenant in 1861. Reg. Rent. f. 187. One Richard Waylok then 
also resided here. Ibid. 187 b — Surtces Soc. Pub. Vol. 42, p. 367. 



319 

large extent, goes without saying, bat these have not yet been revealed 
to human gaze. It is even believed that behind Mai ham Cove there is 
an immense vault, and several elongated openings in the mountain which 
conceal the mysterious courses of the Aire, one of whose tributaries 
bubbles into daylight at the foot of the majestic Gove. There are also 
appearances of an extensive cavern to the west of Malham, beyond 
Gordale in the direction of Lee Gate, for in going np the road towards 
Lee Gate, as far as the road that turns over Calton Moor, and about 100 
yards up the field on the left, there is a low narrow opening in the 
limestone, and when stones are thrown into it the echo and noiBe of 



Skikethorhs Cave. 
their reboundings may be heard some time afterwards. There are also 
couple of low holes on the north side of Malham Tarn, and in a pasture 
called Long Close, above Skire thorns, there is an orifice, now choked 
with earth and clay, which may prove to be a bone-cave. A little to 
the south, near Height Farm, is the recently-opened cavern in a small 
ferny cliff of limestone, in which has been found bones and teeth of 
various animals and birds, as well as evidences of human occupation in 
the immediate neighbourhood. The cave, which is situate at an altitude 
of about 1200 feet, has not been fully excavated yet. 

This is a rich district for plants, a fact that is well known among 
naturalists all over the kingdom, and also abroad. Even the unprofessed 



820 

wanderer over the hills and scars will find the profusion of certain kinds 
here a feature that cannot but arrest attention. In flowering plants, 
mosses, and lichens, the district abounds in great variety, and also in 
some species which, singularly, have not been found elsewhere on these 
elevated and similarly-disposed rocky regions. To the list of lichens 
given in my work on Airedale, I have pleasure in adding the following 
recent local discoveries, which are new to the British Islands, and are 
described in manuscript by Dr. Wm. Nylander, of Paris.* 

Verrucaria Malhamenris, on damp, shady rock b near the ground at Malham 
and Oordale ; V. spurcella, on limestone walls, ditto ; V. ratal cpt old e», f. 
ferruginosa, and V. limitata, on limestone crags, Malham ; V. peloclita f, 
eontiniiella, on damp rocks, Malham ; Leci&ea (Biatora) rubidula, on limestone 
crags, Malham and Gordale. f 

The very rare lichen Leptogium fluviatile, it is interesting to know, 
still occurs " in the stream Malham." It was originally discovered by 
the celebrated Dr. Richardson, F.R.S., an ancester of the Richardson- 
Currer family of Eshton Hall, &c, in 1724, and it has since been 
frequently noted and recorded by botanists in the same spot. It is 
generally in fruit about the month of June. 

In birds, too, there is plenty of life and interest on these wild uplands. 
About Malham Tarn may generally be seen the shy waterhen, and flocks 
of teals and coots, and sometimes a few mallards will be observed. 
The beautiful little grebe and marsh-loving redshank are said to nest 
regularly in the vicinity of the tarn, and on one occasion, at least, the 
rare tufted-duck has likewise done so. The ring ouzel, wheatear, 
partridge, snipe, red grouse, golden plover, dunlin, lapwing, and curlew, 
also frequent the adjoining moors, and impart a singular yet acceptable 
feeling of companionship to the rambler in these impressive solitudes. 
Who is not familiar with the long-drawn, half -mournful, oft-repeated 
" pee-wit " of the lapwing as on steady wing the bird, or birds (it is said 
to be a foreboding of ill-luck when there are seven) follow close above the 
tourist's head while on tramp over the lonely fells ? Or with the 
peculiar cry of the curlew, too, as with long beak and outspread wings, 
the alarmed bird sails sharply off and afar up, preferring a safe distance 
to the wanderer's presence ? 

" Where the grey moor spreads wild and wide, 
Afar the curlew's wind-borne whistle floats ; 
Or where on level shore an ebbing tide 

Leaves rippled sand-flats, soft the plaintive notes 
Surprise the ear, while high on curving wing, 
Speed the shy birds to some secluded spring I" 

* A detailed description of the plants has been translated by Mr. Abraham 
Shackleton and Mr. Thos. Hebden, and appears in the Naturalist for Jan., 1892. 

+ Much speculation has arisen from time to time respecting the meaning of Gordale. I venture 
the opinion that it is from the Celtic gmw, rugged or rough, thus Gordale is the rugged or rough 
dale. It may, however, be derived from the Danish word geir % which is used in Denmark to 
denote a narrow slip of ground. The old Dane-named thoroughfare* Finkle Street, (D. otjicW, 
crooked) moreover, wjnds out of Malham to Gordale. 



321 

The curlew is exceedingly shy and unapproachable, so much so that 
there is a saying in the Hebrides that to kill seven of these birds is 
enough for a sportsman's lifetime. 

The chief " city " or capital of Malham Moors is Bordley, which is 
reached by a walk of about four miles from Malham' village by Gordale 
Bridge and Lee Gate House. In these days of railroads and rapid 
communication, a more out-of-the-way spot for the site of a community 
of human dwellings could hardly be imagined. Surrounded by a billowy 
" sea " of wild, bleak fells, rising to the north to over 2000 feet in 
elevation, and on the road to nowhere in particular, it is one of those 
places which only the adventurous tourist in these parts is likely to 
discover, and probably more by chance than design, but now and again 
in a lifetime. It is, however, a very old and productive settlement^ 
having been tenanted in Saxon times, and at the Conquest held by one 
Suartcol, who had the manor, comprising a couple of profitable carucates, 
and who also held the manor of Hetton.* When the monks and 
herdsmen attached to Fountains Abbey had their flocks on Fountains 
Fell and the surrounding moors, they often frequented this remote 
hamlet, making it their occasional home, and where they had a large grange 
and chapel. For journeys were regularly made by them to and from 
the distant abbey, by way of Kilnsey, (where the annual sheep-shearings 
took place) and across the high moors on which Bordley stands, and 
where also their spacious Bercary or Shepherds' Lodge formerly stood. 
Although the village is high and exposed, and, contrary to its shade- 
suggesting Domesday name, Borelaie, is unprotected by woods and 
hedgerows, at an altitude of over 1200 feet above the sea, yet the place 
is well farmed, and its rich meadow-lands, Mr. Gomersall tells us, can 
fatten a beast between November and May without the aid of cake and 
corn, and some of whose limestone pastures can send fat wethers of 
25 lb. per quarter to market in the Autumn on similar conditions. It 
used to be a more important place than it is now, and had a good many 
more houses, especially during the time when, about a century ago, the 
Autumn cattle fair was held on Boss Moor (1100 feet), a little way off 
to the south. There was then an old-established public-house, called the 
Waste inn, at the head of the lane leading from Malham and Settle to 
Kilnsey and Grassington, and close to Bordley, but there are no traces 
of it now. 

The Procters were the principal family located at Bordley in ancient 
times, and some of their descendants now live at Rylstone. They lived 
at Bordley Hall, above the beck side, which is now let, but still their 

* Bordley, hitherto an independent, though the smallest, township in the 
Union, has recently been disfranchised, and linked again with the old manor of 
Hetton. It retains its guardian, however, until March, 189S. 

W 



property. The Fells and 'Pennants were also settled here at ail early 
period, and all those families are perpetuated is the district by such 
names of places as Procter's High Mark, Tennant Gilt, Fella' Land, &c. 
In the Feet of Fines for the year 1596, I find certain parties to a 
transfer of property were The*. Fell and Richd. Sheffeld (plaintiffs), and 
John Tenant and Anthony Fell (deforciants), regarding " two messuages 
with lands in Bordeley, Kilnesaye, and Arnecliffe, and the moiety of a 
watermill in Arnecliffe." Other early transactions of a similar nature 
between these families also occur. 



Bobdlby Hall. 

The Procters were a family of great consequence in monastic days, 
and were connected with the wealthy monastery at Fountains. They 
were at first tenants of the monks, and sometime after the dissolution of 
the Abbey acquired a large portion of their estates. In 1596-7, Stephen 
Procter, of Warsell, near Ripon, an officer in the court of Elizabeth and 
James I., and who was knighted at the Tower of London in 1603-4, 
purchased from the Greshams the whole manor and lordship of 
Fountains, and certain other premises, for the sum of £4500. Some 
years afterwards, in 1611, Sir Stephen erected, at a cost of £8000, 
Fountains Hall, which was built out of the ruins of the Abbot's house. 
The Procters settled at Bordley probably towards the end of the 15th 
century, and have resided there almost uninterruptedly since. 



823 

The old Hall at Bordley appears to have been re-built, according to 
a date at the back of the house, in 1749. It was formerly much larger, 
and had seven entrances, but there are now only two. There was a 
private chapel attached to the Hall, where the family were wont to 
welcome their monkish guests, and where doubtless many a prayer of 
thanksgiving has been heard, for safely-ended journeys across these 
savage fells. Attached to the chapel was a grave-yard, now known as 
Chapel Garth, from which several tombstones have been removed, and 
since used as flagstones for the barn floor. 

A very interesting will of an early member of the Bordley family, 
one Geoffrey Procter, who died in 1524, is printed in the 5th volume of 
the Surtee8 Society's Publications. It is a quaint document, singularly 
elucidatory of the life and habits of the higher class of Graven yeomanry 
of the 15th and 16th centuries, but is unfortunately too long for 
quotation here. 

A grandson of this Geoffrey Procter, also named Geoffrey, lived at 
Malham, and purchased the manor of West Malham from the Greshams, 
to whom the said manor had been granted by deed dated Oct. 1st, 82nd 
Henry VIII. In the following year, 1541, he sold to John Lambert, 
the founder of the family at Calton, the house and land at Calton, and 
by fine passed in 1544 be and his wife Wenefreda, sold to one William 
Preston, four messuages with lands in Malham and Hanlith. It seems, 
however, that this Geoffrey Procter was executed at York in 1551, for 
the murder of Hugh Diconson, whereby his estates were forfeited to the 
Crown.* By deed dated 16 May, 6th Edward VI., (1552,) the manor of 
West Malham, with 80 messuages, 80 cottages, 2 watermills, and 2 
windmills, with lands there and in Arncliffe, was again sold to one 
James Altham. 

To the north-east of Bordley, and near the long wall (at the second 
gate-way) that skirts the road past the Heights Cave to Skirethorns and 
Grassington, is a relic of the far-distant era, when warlike hordes of 
skin-clad Celts occupied these remote wastes during, and long after, the 
Roman invasion ; preferring, as they did, their own mode of life and 
form of worship to that of the conquering usurpers. This pre-historic 
relic consists of a round stone and earthern mound, about 150 feet in 
circumference, and 3 feet high, and was formerly surrounded by a circle of 
upright stones, only three of which are now left standing. On one side 
was a large flat stone resting upon two others, and known as the Druid's 
Altar. On the adjoining land an ancient iron spear-head was found 
some years ago, and fragments of rudely-fashioned pottery have also 
from time to time been turned up in the same neighbourhood. Similar 
stone-encircled mounds have been found on the Yorkshire Wolds. 

* See " Memorials of Fountains Abbey," Surteet Soc. Pub., vol. lxvii, p. 346, 



324 

Prom this point the tourist is barely four miles from Grassington by 
a decent down-hill road. This is one of the prettiest and best known 
resorts in Wharfedale, and the charming and wondrously luxuriant Grass 
Woods (long may they remain !) there, are as great a feast to the eye of 
taste as they are a treasure-land of interest to the botanist ; in vegetable 
wealth, indeed, unrivalled by any similar area of woodland scenery in 
the shire of broad acres. At the last meeting of the Yorkshire ' 
Naturalists' Union at Grassington, on June 20th, 1891, — a beautiful and 
unclouded day, ever to be remembered, — above 180 species of flowering 
plants and ferns were noted in the course of the day's ramble, chiefly in 
these woods ! But this is by no means exhaustive of everything that 
grows in this fairy-land of shrubs and flowers. The number might, by 
a close observer, be very nearly doubled. 

In a field called the High Close, above Grassington village, there are 
some ancient stone and earthen ramparts, which cover a considerable 
area. They are in two parts, in the plan of a Roman camp, and in the 
angles are several undoubted tumuli. These appear to be early British, 
and when examined may yield remains of the Roman-Celtic period. An 
old paved road can be traced upwards from the Wharfe by Scar Street, 
and through the village to the camp. 

Last autumn when at Grassington, I was told that while lately laying 
down water-pipes near Hardy Grange some portions of this old pavement 
had been dug into two feet below the surface. 

At Dry Gill about 6 miles from Grassington, on the Pateley Bridge 
road, are the celebrated Stump Cross Caverns. They were accidentally 
discovered during a search for lead in January 1860, and have since 
been opened out and are now shewn to visitors on application at the 

adjoining Moor Cock inn. The caverns, which are entered down a flight 
of about 50 steps, consist of a number of galleries and chambers one 
above the other, and these rival, perhaps, in their stalactitious 
adornments any of the finest spar-caves in England. The explorable 
extent is about 1,000 yards. 

Craven Cross, the Stump Cross, so-called from an old way-side cross, 
stood on the road close by, and marked the boundary of Craven on the 
east, where it joined the old Forest of Nidderdale. The cross seems to 
have been demolished shortly after the Reformation. 

On the same road, a little beyond, is Greenhow Hill, (1441 feet) the 
highest village in Yorkshire. 



325 



CHAPTER XXXI. 




Round about Kilnsey. 

Mai ham to Kilnsey — Arncliffe Clowder — Dowkabottom Cave— Its exploration and 
interesting discoveries — A Celtic habitation — A baby's tomb— Roman coins- 
Sleets cavern — Kilnsey Hall — Wade family — Manor of Kilnsey after the 
Dissolution — Sheep- washings of the monks— Kilnsey Crag — Supposed ancient 
coast line -Glacial aspects — What does Kilnsey mean?— Dr. Whitaker's 
opinion— The Spurn Head Kilnsea— Comparative deductions— Discovery of 
coins — Coniston Church, the oldest in Craven — TennanVs Anns, Kilnsey — 
Sulphur Spring — Glacial mounds— Great Scar Limestone round Kettlewell — 
Lead mineB. 

|0W that we are on Malham Moors, we may as well turn our 

steps over the high fells in the direction of Kilnsey. From 

the gate at the lane-end at the Druid's Altar, near Bordley* 

where it opens on to the common, opposite a plantation, we 

follow the left wall northwards a good half-mile, to the lane which 

descends across the Howgill Beck to Kilnsey. 

On Arncliffe Clowder, near this route, there still grows and flourishes 
that pretty and now scarce floral gem, the little Mountain Avens (Dry as 
octopetala) ; in June and July its rosettes of pale, golden flowers starring 
the greensward in some profusion, just as one finds them (though not 
quite so large) on the mountains of Switzerland at the present day. 
This is, so far as is known, its only habitat in West Yorkshire, where it 
has taken firm root and annually bloomed, no doubt for innumerable 
centuries. 

Dowkabottom Cave might be visited this way, by crossing Kilnsey 
Moor from the above lane, \\ miles north, (that is coming by Smearbottom 
Lane and Lee Gate from Malham), but most people get to it from the 
dale at Kilnsey, whence it lies l£ miles, by an up-hill walk, to the north- 
west. You have to ascend the scar behind the inns (by permission), 
having the depression on the right, and when on the top keep west along 
the rising ground, when a stone " man " will be seen on an eminence 
ahead. The cave (1280 feet above sea-level) is situate in a hollow flat 
(now a rabbit-warren) at the corner of the field, about 150 yards S.E. 
of the cairn. A nearer and better way, perhaps, is to ascend the pastures 
from the Arncliffe road, about one mile beyond Kilnsey, and just before 



326 

reaching Arncliffe Cote. Go up the " Parks/ 1 and then the Knotts (now 
planted with trees) and the rabbit-warren, wherein lies the famous cave, 
is in the next pasture above. The spot, however, is bad to find, and 
unless the keeper is about it would, perhaps, be as well to take a guide 
up from Kilnsey. No dogs are allowed. 

The cavern, like the Victoria Gave, near Settle, has acquired a 
national fame from the quantity of pre-historic and other remains found 
in it, and which extend over an immense period. Part of these were 
first brought to light about thirty years ago by those careful 
and indefatigable cave-workers, Mr. Henry Denny, Mr. Joseph 
Jackson, of Settle, and Mr. James Fairer, of Ingleborough.* But prior 
to their investigations a bronze armlet had been accidentally discovered, 
as well as various fragments of iron, broken bones, charcoal, &c. 

The present entrance to the cave is on the level bottom, and easily 
overlooked. It is a declivitous aperture about 45 feet long and 20 feet 
broad, very singularly formed by the subsidence of the rock at the 
surface, and the accumulated debris piled up in the centre, separates the 
chasm into two parts. The western division is narrow and difficult of 
access, but the eastern portion, consisting of five or six passages of an 
average height of 10 to 12 feet, but in some places allowing only of the 
progression of a single person, has been penetrated a distance of about 
200 yards. In this part of the cave are several lofty chambers, 50 to 70 
feet in altitude, and from 100 to 150 feet in circumference. There are 
indications on the walls of the cavern that not very long ago water has 
filled it to a depth of ten to twelve feet. The latter portion is now at 
times very wet, necessitating walking in the stream at places knee-deep. 
Some parts of the cavern are beautifully encrusted with delicate spar, 
reflecting a variety of hues, which led Bishop Pococke to exclaim after 
visiting the cave, "This is Antiparos in miniature, and except that 
cavern 1 have never seen its equal." This is an excellent testimonial for 
Dowkabottom from so experienced a traveller, but alas ! much of this 
beauty has since ruthlessly disappeared. 

In 1881 the cavern was again explored, and excavations conducted 
by Mr. E. B. Poulton, M.A., F.U.S., of Oxford, and a party of 
undergraduates from the Colleges, who spent the long summer vacation 
of that year in the adjoining picturesque little village of Hawkswick. 
They were assisted by two Grassington miners, and were provided with 
all the necessary appliances. The work, extending over several weeks, 
was carried on by these gentlemen at their own cost. 

It was discovered that the original mouth of the cave lay some yards 
away to the west of the present entrance. The superficial floor was found 
to be composed of a stiff clay and fragments of tumbled rock, several 

* See the Proceeding* of the W.R. Oeol. and Polytech. Soe., 1859 and 1864-6-6. 



827 

feet in thickness. Underneath this was a bed of stalagmite, in 
connection with which some of the most interesting disc